Overview: Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects millions of people across the world. For example in the United States, it is estimated that Sickle cell disease is affecting about one hundred thousand people (Bloom, 2014). To begin with, red blood cells have hemoglobin, which is a protein that carries oxygen in the blood. Normally, red blood cell are flexible and round, which makes them able to travel within small blood vessels to deliver oxygen in different parts of the human body (Jones, 2008). However, sickle cell disease causes the body’s red blood cells to form into crescent-shaped such as a sickle, hence the name Sickle cell disease. After creating a crescent-shaped, red blood cell break quickly apart thus leading to anemia. Notably, sickle red blood cells will only live for a maximum of twenty days instead of the typical one hundred and twenty days (Bloom, 2014). Consequently, the damaged red blood cells clump together while sticking to the blood vessels’ walls resulting in the blockage of blood flow. The following paper wishes to briefly discuss Sickle cell disease as one of the common genetically related disease across the world. The paper will highlight the cause, symptoms, and genetics of sickle cell disease. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
Causes and Symptoms of Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle cell disease is caused by the abnormality in the gene for hemoglobin that leads to the production of sickle hemoglobin discussed above (Bloom, 2014). After oxygen has been released from this cell, it sticks together to form long rods that lead to the damage of the red blood cells as well as a change in their shape. Consequently, the crescent-shaped red blood cells cause the symptoms of this disease (Bloom, 2014). Critically to note is that child are born with sickle cell disease, which makes the disease not contagious. Notably, sickle cell disease occurs after children inherit two sickle hemoglobin genes, whereby one comes from each parent (Bloom, 2014). It is estimated that in the United States, about 2,000 babies are born with this disease (Jones, 2008). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]
On the other hand, some of the common symptoms of sickle cell disease include severe pain in different parts of the body as well as anemia (Bloom, 2014). A child or an individual with sickle cell disease may also have trouble in breathing and chest pain. Strokes, bone infarctions, and joint pains are also some of the common symptoms of sickle cell disease. In most cases, patients experience blockage of blood flow in both the liver and the spleen as well severe infections.
Although any child can get sickle cell disease, it is mostly found in those people of African origin, residents of Caribbean Islands, Saudi Arabia, India, South or Central America, and Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Turkey, and Italy (Jones, 2008).
Genetics of Sickle Cell Disease
As described above the mutation of Sickle hemoglobin, is inherited from parents of a person in an autosomal recessive pattern (Bloom, 2014). The autosomal recessive pattern is the transfer of hemoglobin S gene, which alters hemoglobin as well as the red blood cells, from the parents to the baby (Bloom, 2014). However, both parents must be carrying the gene mutation which affects females and males equally, whereby autosomal means that the process of mutation can take place in both X or Y-chromosomes (Jones, 2008). On the other hand, recessive means that this process must be present in both the father and the mother of the child. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]
Bloom, M. (2014). Understanding Sickle Cell Disease. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
Jones, P. (2008). Sickle cell disease. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers.