The Google Books project began in 2004. At its inception, it was known as Google Book Search and Google Print. The Google Book project entailed the scanning of books and magazines and the storage of these books in the Google database. From the database, users would be able to access the books whenever they felt the need. The books stored in the databases were to be provided by the authors and publishers. This framework was made possible through the establishment of the Google Books Partner Program. The Google Books project further contained the Google Library program. Under this program, Google would collaborate with affiliate libraries to allow access to their databases to ease access to books for the user.
Scanning would be conducted on only public domain learning materials. This was to protect the interests of the private authors. In addition, Google would only print three snippets of a book that has repeatedly been searched. This move was meant to curtail free access to the book. Alternatively, Google print is a segment of the Google Books project that addresses the partnership with magazine publishers to digitize their article and book contents. The Google Books Library feature scans books that are found in the library partners’ databases and relays them to the digital inventory for access by the final users. The participating universities include the Michigan University, Oxford University, Stanford, Harvard and New York Public University (Band, 2006). Under this framework, Google will strive to ensure that it does not scan a similar book in the different libraries as this would be a breach of the limited view policy which is engaged by Google Books. The Google Books project extends several benefits to the online user. Essentially, the project comprises a myriad advantage in the age of globalization.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]
Aims of the Google Books Project
I fully support the Google Books initiative. I support its aims since they are inclined towards the reinforcement of the reading culture. At the same time, digitalization of the books is in line with the pervasive globalization goals. To begin with, the Google Books initiative was intended to democratize knowledge. Essentially, it intended to ease the access with which individuals in different geographical regions and varied circumstances could access books and magazines. In an era where information is of utmost importance, the Google Book initiative is responsive to the demand for information. The next advantage that the initiative has on the readership is that it extends the reader the ability to determine the relevance of the books to their knowledge demands (Liptak, 2016). It was further intended to enhance the sales of books through the easy access that the clients would have to the books. Essentially, when clients were introduced to complementary topics, they would be able to purchase more books which would economically benefit the authors. Through the initiative, an increased number of authors would be able to reach a wide audience. The platform acts as a marketing platform for authors who may not be able to reach the target audience due to prevailing market hindrances. Google Books project further aimed at availing books which were out of print. The Google Book Project has a range of books which date back to 1500 AD (Band, 2006). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]
Since its creation, Google Books has been the victim of several litigation cases. The Authors Guild and the American Publishers sued the Google corporation in September 2005. The authors demanded compensation and injunctive relief against the Google Books project (Selyuhk, 2015). On the other hand, the publishers demanded an injunctive relief against the corporation. The lawsuits prevailed that Google Books project would give Google too much power. It is indeed true that Google was not seeking prior authorization before scanning and storing the texts in their databases. However, this assertion lacked merit as it was largely known that Google was only extending pieces of the text to the users and not the entire documents. On the litigation case, the court prevailed that Google Books was operating within the Fair use regulatory framework (Selyuhk, 2015). This framework allows for the employ of creative works of art for transformative purposes. Likewise, the borrower of the creative material should not benefit financially from the use of the material. Google Books Project was not intended to benefit the Google corporation financially. Furthermore, there was no linkage to the loss of revenue by the authors to the Google Books projects. Essentially, Google’s actions had not impeded the profits being made by the individual authors given that it only displayed the minimus. The minimus is sanctioned by the Fair Use Agreement.
Google Book’s intermediate copying also came under scrutiny from a range of stakeholders. Intermediate copying entails the transformation of paper materials into machine-readable objects. Nonetheless, the Fair use agreement counters this assertion. Google uses its scan option to develop a search index which eases the information storage and retrieval process (Liptak, 2016). These scans are further limited and only show snippets and not the entire document. Essentially, Google Books prevailed that it was aligning itself to the regulatory frameworks that promoted the intermediate copying if it was intended to a socially and responsive non-infringing end use
The Google Books projects have also been accused of engaging written materials without the specific and prior authorization of the owner of the written work. Google Books does not solicit the permissions of the authors before scanning their works and availing them to the final user. Nonetheless, against the assertions of the Author’s Guild, Google Books developed the opt-in and opt-out framework. In this framework, authors and publishers who are uncomfortable with Google’s initiatives are allowed the opportunity to opt out of the system (Band, 2006). Alternatively, Google was also accused of having the potential to reconvert the scanned texts and employ them to further themselves economically. Under these assertions, remunerated insistence was a culmination of the allusion to Google’s financial backing. The capitalization of the market would impede the profits garnered by the publisher and instead benefit Google. This is because Google has the financial prowess to pay for their indexing. In selling advertisements during the availing of the books, Google will be able to earn from the initiative. This constituted a breach of the copyright law. Nonetheless, Google has repeatedly indicated that it is the intent of furthering knowledge and not the financial benefits. Essentially, if the permission of the authors were sought before the indexing, only a few number of authors would agree to the venture. This would impede Google Book’s transformative priorities (Band, 2006). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
In conclusion, the Google Books project is an initiative that intended to digitalize knowledge. It is an extension of the 21st-century technological advancement and globalization. Despite the current opposition by groups such as Author’s Guild to the initiative, the project has brought several benefits to the general user. Furthermore, it is a legal framework which does not overlook the regulatory frameworks in place such as the Fair Use Agreement.
Band, J. (2006). The Google Library Project: Both Sides of the Story. MI: M Publishing.
Liptak, A. (2016, April 18). The challenge to the Google Books is Declined by the Supreme Court.
Selyuhk, A. (2015, October 16). Google’s Book-Scanning Project Is Legal, U.S. Appeals Court Says.