How did behaviorism become such a dominant theoretical basis for education and training in the United States?
Behaviorism theory became the basis for training and education in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s. In particular, this principle was developed by John Watson in the twentieth century (Thyer, 1999). Later, skinner extended the work of John Watson after a research in operant conditioning which proved that behavior could be changed by altering the source of that behavior itself. Moreover, his experiment proved that consequences as a results of a given activity could serve as a punishment or reinforcement. As a matter of fact, Skinner’s idea changed teaching in special and regular schools in the 1960s and still is an important theoretical basis for teachers in the USA today especially in management of classrooms.
What do you think is changing in the way people think about others and their learning?
People used to think about others on the basis that only tests can be used to determine whether they have learnt or not. However, this is changing and people are now appreciating other methods of testing whether other people have learned such as a observations. Moreover, the generally accepted idea that learning can only take place in classrooms has been outdated due introduction of online learning where learning is taking place through the internet.
Why do you think that there seems to be so many lecture courses in schools and in training? Is this good or bad?
Different People have different ambitions and interests and they go school to learn and acquire knowledge and skills that will help them achieve their dreams hence the many different lecture courses in schools (Leonard, 2002). I think this is a good idea since having many lecture courses ensures that education needs for everyone are met. For example, offering different science and business courses ensures that the needs for these courses are met.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
How might consideration of theories in the instructional design process affect such courses?
This will enable students to have a good understanding of these courses because the instructions will be more clear and specific, which will meet the learning needs for everyone (Smith, & Ragan, 2005). To illustrate, there will be an advanced analysis on the learning needs for individual people, which will enable the establishment of a system to meet those specific needs.
Do you think that a tendency to use a behavioral approach in learning and teaching might have something to do with an instructor’s desire to keep control over the classroom and the learning pace and activity? Why or why not?
I believe using behavioral approach in teaching enable an instructor to have control over the pace of learning and the whole classroom (Leonard, 2002). To illustrate, behavioral approach emphasizes on reinforcement principle, which is very crucial in classroom management for teachers.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here
How do behaviorists make the logical transition in their thinking from experiments on pigeons, rats, dogs, and apes to conclusions about human learning?
In particular, behaviorists believe in operant response where they argue that although people are different, they function they same way. For example, Skinner argued that a rat may use its left or right paw to press a knob and added that these responses existed in the world in a similar manner and had common repercussions (Thyer, 1999). Behaviorists argue that just like rats and pigeons, people can be trained to do incredible things at behavioral level.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]
The scientific or positivist philosophy of education argues that knowledge can be discovered and constructed scientifically. Positivists assume that people can discover the truth about the world and that everyone needs to work toward knowledge of the same, ultimate truth, regardless of the topic or field of study. Discuss the following:
In what ways does behaviorist theory support this philosophy?
Behavioral theory asserts that behavior can be scientifically researched without considering the interior mental condition. Without a doubt, this theory supports the positivist theory because it emphasizes on provision of reinforcement in a systematic way which shapes behavior from bad to good (Thyer, 1999). Behaviorism sees development as continuous process, which is similar to what positivist philosophy advocates for.
Leonard, D. C. (2002). Learning theories: A to Z. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design. Hoboken, N.J: J. Wiley & Sons.
Thyer, B. A. (1999). The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.