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Essay Writing Sample: Progress in Race

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Progress in Race

Racial progress is one of the facets of American life that continues to evolve slowly. America has come a long way in terms of racial equality but there are still many issues that involve race. When situations arise that reveal a persistent level of inequality, some choose to explain the incidents as further proof that the nation has a “race problem.” In order to understand how much progress has been made and to refute arguments that racial harmony is far from being achieved, it is important to view race relations in the context of where we’ve been and where we are today. Doing so will show that the issues that separated minorities from the white population have been improved and remind those who forget or never learned the history just how bad things were in the era when slavery was a legal institution in America.

Pre-Civil War America

In America, before the Emancipation Proclamation and before the Civil War that was waged to do away with slavery, divisions between the majority population and minorities were pronounced many areas of life. Of course, the most important example of division was slavery being legal and widely practiced in the southern portion of the country. Other divisions existed as well. For example, minorities (specifically black American citizens) were disenfranchised – meaning, blacks were not given full equality in voting, owning property, or holding public office. These restrictions were also applied to other minorities, though 19th century America did not have as significant of proportion of Hispanics as are present today (Grimsted, 1998).

The ways in which these practices of disenfranchisement played out in various parts of the country depended on the laws of a given state. Minorities in some northern states were able to own businesses and participate in the political system to an extent, while in other states, even free blacks were either legally or effectively barred from full participation in society (Grimsted, 1998).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

 

Emancipation and Jim Crow

After the 13th Amendment was passed, the legal abolishment of slavery, a new set of laws emerged to keep newly freed slaves and other minorities from full citizenship. Measures such as poll taxes, literacy tests, and other legal constraints stopped minorities from casting a ballot or running for public office. In circumstances where such restrictions were not legally sanctioned, racial discrimination was able to be used as a tool to exclude minorities because laws were not in place to require equal rights. Still, when such laws were in place, seeking redress in court was often futile as practices such as jury nullification spared discriminators from paying a price for racism (Perman, 2004).

Civil Rights Era

The Civil Rights Era, the period in American history when laws were passed and more effectively enforced to prohibit discrimination, was the beginning of a more inclusive American society. Since the Voting Rights Act and Civil Rights Acts were passed, federal courts were more frequently used to maintain the rights of minorities. With these new standards came a changing national mindset regarding race and ethnicity.

As generations passed, racial integration flourished, with notable exceptions, that allowed black, white, Latino, and Asian Americans to work together and attend school together. This evolution further reduced the atmosphere of racial bigotry and ushered in the present era of relative racial harmony (Bardolph, 1970).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Present Day Race Relations

Some suspected (and hoped) that the election of the nation’s first black president, in 2008, would bring forth a “post-racial” era in American society. It is arguable that today, races are more regularly integrated and sentiments among the youngest citizens are more tolerant than ever. Still, in cases regarding criminal justice, college enrollment and graduation, and political involvement, there is remarkable progress but still opportunity to foster greater diversity and equal opportunity (Higginbotham, 2015). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

References

Bardolph, R. (1970). The civil rights record: Black Americans and the law, 1849-1970. Crowell.

Grimsted, D. (1998). American mobbing, 1828-1861: toward civil war. Oxford University Press.

Higginbotham, F. M. (2015). Ghosts of Jim Crow: Ending racism in post-racial America. NYU Press.

Perman, M. (2004). Emancipation and Reconstruction. Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic.

 

Write My Essay Sample: Disaster Recovery

 

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Executive summary

Irrespective of the cause of the disaster in question, the company is going to take preventive, detective, and corrective measures to ensure the continuity of its operations. The recovery plan starts with the selection of a recovery team that will be given different responsibilities in case of a disaster. Before coming up with corrective measures, preventive measures including installation of surveillance cameras and hiring more guards to secure the premises will be used to deal with issues before they become serious. If the functional areas of the company are entirely derailed, the company will move its manufacturing process to a new plant that suits its needs. Hence continuity will be assured.

Disaster Recovery for Business Continuity

Over the course of the year, our company has been going through some unforeseen issues which have resulted in a decline in revenues. The company has had to take the initiative to recover from the disasters and has tried as much to ensure that the same events do not recur in the future. As the team leader in the disaster recovery process, the team will have to rely on and strictly abide by directives given to help protect the company. As a result, this report will highlight the recovery plan made for the organization. Additionally, it will also point out the proper procedures and policies implemented that are unique to disaster recovery team personnel.

The DR plan will be expected to act whenever a disaster strikes and disrupts facilities used to process data. Therefore, the pre-planned actions highlighted within this document will be expected to make the recovery process easier and the usual operations of the organization will be resumed effectively (Cerullo & Cerullo, 2004). First, a team will be selected based on merit, and all the team members will be made responsible for different activities, for instance, risk assessment, hardware and software inventory, and the requirement analysis. Since the first step to planning is risk assessment, a team of two individuals will be given the mandate to identify and quantify risk and assess its effect on relevant business processes. In this case, risk assessment determines that security is the most threatening followed by the manufacturing process and ultimately the storage of critical data. In addition to assessing the risks, other individuals will be vested with the responsibility of identifying the core activities in the organization. That is, all the departments in the company will be assessed, and the most crucial and vulnerable departments will be identified. For these units, regular backup files will be created, and valuable contacts will be kept in a safe place to ensure that the central business can never be crippled (Wallace & Webber, 2011).

The best recovery strategy is one that is not used; as a result, preventive measures are vital to disaster recovery (Wallace & Webber, 2011). Depending on the risk in question, different strategies could be implemented to detect and act appropriately on the issues mentioned and ensure that it does not cripple operations. Some of the preventive measures that will be taken include the hiring of more guards and installing surveillance cameras around the facility to improve security. Moreover, dog patrols will especially be used at night to enhance this security. To avoid the derailing of manufacturing processes, initiatives taken will include the installation of a backup generator that would kick in case there is an issue with electricity. Manufacturing equipment will also be protected from power-related issues by the installation of power surge protectors and UPS, which means that normal operations could be resumed almost immediately.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

After assessing the most likely risks to occur and its possible effects, it is necessary to identify key personnel that will be responsible for the business resumption in the case of a disaster and equipment to be used. In this case, a managing director will be appointed by the board, as well as crucial members from key departments who will take over during the disaster. The next step in the recovery place will involve the selection of an alternate relocation area or office (Nollau, 2009). Conditions in the potential location identified should mimic those in the previous location by assessing whether it is accessible, whether it has the equipment and facilities required and the access to basic needs in the location. However, these relocations plans are also determined by other factors. For example, determining the length of the interruption, that is whether temporary or permanent, and the limit as to how long the alternate office could be held. The number of individuals to be relocated to the new or alternative office also needs to be determined, which in turn determines the plan for the office itself.

When a severe disaster strikes and operations have to be transferred to the new locations, the disaster recovery team needs to be vested with responsibility. The team of 11 individuals will have to be aware of what is required of them to ensure business continuity. Therefore, different people will be given different roles in the functional areas of the organization. To be precise, some will be responsible for computer backup, facilities, administrative functions, and the restoration of activities. I will be responsible for the coordination of the activities during the recovery as well as monitor the progress. This shows that all the individuals in the team will be crucial to its success and nothing will be accomplished without their input.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

References

Cerullo, V., & Cerullo, M. J. (2004). Business continuity planning: A comprehensive approach. Information Systems Management, 21(3), 70-78.

Nollau, B. (2009). Disaster recovery and business continuity. Journal of GXP Compliance, 13(3), 51.

Wallace, M., & Webber, L. (2011). The disaster recovery handbook: A step-by-step plan to ensure business continuity and protect vital operations, facilities, and assets (2nd ed.). New York, NY: American Management Association.

Appendix

System/ functional area Threat Prevention strategy Response Recovery
Security External security threats Hiring more guards, installation of surveillance systems Sending guards to neutralize the situation Install/reinstall security measures destroyed
Manufacturing Loss of power

Power surge

Spoilage of equipment

Installation of sensors, failure alerts, and inspection Using backup generators, switching manufacturing to the new location Fix the primary system soonest
Data maintenance Loss of data

Corruption of data

Installing security systems, data Backup Switching to the backup system Repairing the main server and reinstalling security measures

 

Essay Writing Service Sample:  Increase in Eating Disorders

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Eating disorders are a common affair in the modern world. They are intricate, real and often devastating medical conditions that have tremendous effects on the health, productivity and relationships of the affected individuals. In many instances, eating disorders are not a lifestyle choice, phase or a mere fad. The conditions can manifest as serious occurrences and can affect the physical and emotional health of a person. It is always crucial for people affected by eating disorders to seek professional assistance. The earlier such help is sought the more likely that physical and emotional health of the individual can be restored. For instance anorexia nervosa is a very serious eating disorder that affects a many people. The condition is characterized by self-starvation accompanied by weight loss and can be life threatening.

It is realized that eating disorders have become very common especially in the past 50 years due to a number of reasons. Cases of eating disorders are usually more prevalent among women than in men. In the United States for instance, 20 million women and 10 million men have experienced cases of eating disorders at some point in their lives (Espejo, 2012). The clinically significant disorders in this respect include bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and binge eating. It should be noted that many other cases are not reported and this underscores the gravity of the challenge. Many people struggle with feelings of body dissatisfaction which affect their eating behaviors and attitudes. Research indicates that body dissatisfaction is the most common reported cause of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa (Espejo, 2012). The challenge is more prevalent among women due to genetic reasons. From an early age of 6, many girls already begin to register concerns regarding their body weight. It is reported that 50 to 60 percent of elementary school girls between 6-12 years are concerned about getting fat and strive to regulate their body weight (Espejo, 2012). Most of these girls will endure the same feeling throughout their lives. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Eating disorders are more common among women because more women than men usually diet in order to control their weight. Since many women are very concerned about their body shape and weight, they often experience many eating disorders which gradually become serious (Espejo, 2012). Many women aspire to be slim and will therefore limit the amount of fatty foods they consume or exercise frequently. The desire and preoccupation to control weight and shape ultimately translates into a risky eating disorder. According to medical research, women are more likely to consider their overeating behavior more abnormal than men. While binge eating is usually seen across the genders, women feel much of the challenge due to socialization which emphasizes thinness as a quality for women. Therefore women who do not necessarily overeat can be obsessed with the feeling that they are overeating and gaining weight. Such a feeling predisposes them to developing bulimia nervosa. Additionally, more women than men are likely to seek medical treatment for their conditions. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The challenge of eating disorders has been growing at a faster rate since 1950. Part of this increase is due to the growing awareness regarding food and human health. The growth and development in food technology has created many options for consumers (DeSole, 2010). As a result, people today have many options to choose from regarding their diets. The challenge also differs considerably across different social classes. In the US, anorexia nervosa is seen to be more prevalent among non-Hispanic whites than in the other races. Anorexia nervosa is essentially a mental health condition that can be life threatening is not treated early enough. Increase in public awareness on this matter can help to change how the disorders are usually viewed by the public. Eating disorders have also increased due to the challenges associated with obesity and the desire by many people to remain healthy through responsible eating.

It is reported that eating disorders arise from a combination of emotional, biological interpersonal, psychological and social factors. On the face value, the disorders are generally a preoccupation with weight and food matters while in actual sense these are very complex medical conditions (DeSole, 2010). The affected people only strive to use food as a means to control and manage their emotions and feelings which is usually just part of the solution. Many other people opt to diet and binge as a way of coping with pain and emotions and to provide personal gratification in managing one’s life. In the end, the behaviors spiral out of control and affect the emotional and physical health of an individual. The affected people also experience reduced self-esteem, self-control and competence.

The media has played a big role in promoting eating disorders by exposing consumers to reality issues which many people then strive to achieve. In the same way, the media provides the best avenue to create attention and awareness on the extent of eating disorders. People should learn to appreciate their bodies and develop a positive body image. Similarly, they should have a proper relationship with food and seek help from professionals.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Eating disorders have therefore increased in the past 50 years on the basis of many reasons. It must be understood that these disorders are medical conditions that should be addressed professionally. The affected people should always be willing to seek help than suffer in silence since delayed treatment can be dangerous. While women are more affected by these conditions than men, it is recognized that eating disorders affect many people and the challenge is growing rapidly.  Anorexia nervosa is a common disorder that affects many people in the world today and should therefore be considered in greater detail. As a mental health condition this disease can cause irreversible damage to an individual.

References

DeSole, L. (2010). Special issue: Eating disorders and mindfulness. Eating Disorders, 19(1), 1-5.

Espejo, R. (Ed.). (2012). Eating disorders. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Write My Essay Sample: Gender Treatment

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Why Genders Are Treated Differently

Virginia Woolf’s “Shakespeare’s Sister” is a short work of fiction which examines the different life that a fictional Judith Shakespeare would have compared to her brother, William. Margaret Mead’s “Sex and Temperament” is an anthropological essay that seeks to examine the basis for the creation of sex or gender-based roles in society. Finally, Germaine Greer’s “Masculinity” seeks to understand how socialization affects the growth and development that leads to the different treatment of men and women. Each article examines the differences between genders and tries to find the reason that they are separated and treated differently from one another. By looking at the three texts, it is clear that education, a need to standardize behaviors, and socialization are three reasons why genders are separated and treated differently.

Virginia Woolf’s work “Shakespeare’s Sister” argues that the primary reason that the genders are separated is due to women being denied the same education as men. One of the first sentences that the author writes is “Women are poorer than men because- this or that” (Woolf 692). This quote does not mean poor as in money, but that their position in society is worse than men. However, instead of being able to give a reason for this happening, Woolf seems to have given up on a single reason because it is just clear to her that men want women to be lower in society than them. This sentiment of there being no true reason behind males being treated better than women is also present in Mead’s work. She writes that societies all over the world make divisions based on sex, age, or other factors, with women sometimes being the beneficiary and sometimes being harmed (Mead 712). In the case of western society, it seems as though historical developments and socialization resulted in the system Mead rails against and in which the fictional Judith Shakespeare suffers.  The text continues and Woolf says that this separation between men and women seems odd when looking at the way that women are shown in literature compared with how they are treated in society. She says that in fiction, women are given very high praise and love but in society they are not treated well at all (Woolf 694). This leads Woolf to look past the system of society that keeps women from being important and towards the day-to-day challenges that women face. In her imaginative story of Judith Shakespeare, Woolf says that Judith was just as smart and talented as William, but “she was not sent to school. She had no chance of learning grammar and logic, let alone of reading Horace and Virgil” (Woolf 697). This quote shows that Woolf thinks that the root of the separation between the genders is based on society’s belief that women should not study academic works. This idea, combined with the violence against women that is mentioned in the work, shows Woolf’s belief that Judith and any other woman have the same potential as men, but society prevents women from taking part to keep men in control.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Mead’s text “Sex and Temperament” argues that genders are treated differently and separated to create a way of standardizing behavior in the society. She writes “Women are often defined by the needs and wants of men. Men, who were conceived as proceeding along a special masculine road, shaping women to their fads and whims in womanliness” (Mead 711). The upper class women have their behaviors created by men who have power over the women in their lives by controlling jobs, money, and access to education. This shares the ideas that were made by Woolf in that women are not given the same opportunities as men in terms of education. Wooolf’s Judith Shakespeare “had no chance of learning grammar and logic” because upper class men decided that women had no use for such abilities, even if it put women at a large disadvantage and creates a social division (Woolf 697). In terms of the western society, Mead claims that gender separation happens to “standardize the personality of men and women as clearly contrasting, complementary, and antithetical, and to make every institution in society congruent with this standardization” (Mead 714). Basically, Mead believes that western society’s gender differences happened as a way of making differences clear between men and women and that men benefitted from that starting position and continue to hold power over women by creating society as they want. The purpose of this unfair balance of power is to create a system where the men get to stay in power by telling women that their social role involves marriage and children instead of books and conference rooms.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Germaine Greer looks into the socialization of males and females and finds that gender differences are based in primal instincts that have been put into modern society. The author writes that men are nurtured to be big, brutish, and demanding from the time they are babies. The author writes “That process begins when the carer who thinks a child a boy readily offers it food when it cries; the same carer, thinking a child a girl, will allow it to cry longer and will soothe rather than feed it” (Greer 730). According to this quote, men are socialized to be able to use their demanding nature to get what they want in life while women are socialized to have patience. This early training to be loud and aggressive to get what they want is then supported by their mothers who dote on the male children, letting them complete what Greer thinks is their first sexual conquest, the domination of their mother (Greer 731).

The concept that women are forced to obey men even in their cries as children is unique, but shares similarities with the work of Mead. Mead believed that “Women are often defined by the needs and wants of men” (711). If society has demanded that a woman’s place is to care for men, even when they are boys, then women must always put the development of the male ahead of the female. Greer points out that women have to prove their worth to their fathers but boys do not have to do so with their mother (731). A boy will be educated and taught to be successful, but a girl would need to prove that she is worthy, a primary complaint in Woolf’s work. Greer continues “Generally, however, though women make boys out of babies it is men who make men out of boys” (Greer 732). Men socialize others by creating a social ladder that is based on who is strongest, best looking, and most successful. At the same time, men rarely let women get more than a few steps on the ladder before they have their climbing stopped altogether. As Woolf stated, women are often denied education in favor of the male children because society automatically places men above women. This harmful belief creates an immediate separation between genders that is created by the need for standardization that was discussed in Mead’s work. Yet Greer’s idea of the differences between men and women is based on society’s willingness to put men first, a willingness that is driven by socialization that has centuries of reinforcement. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Virginia Woolf’s “Shakespeare’s Sister”, Margaret Mead’s “Sex and Temperament”, and Germaine Greer’s “Masculinity” contend that education, a need to standardize behaviors, and socialization are three reasons why genders are separated and treated differently. The three works take different stances on the root cause of separation, but they all tie into each other in several ways. The ideas expressed in each work are logical, but they demonstrate the circular logic of a male dominated society. All three of the works show that the ladder of society that keeps women from being equal to men must be rebuilt with logic rather than continuing on the primal, exclusive path that has been put in place.

Works Cited

Greer, Germaine. “Masculinity”. A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers. 9th   ed. Ed.Lee A. Jacobus. Boston, MA, United States: Macmillan Higher Education,       2013.725-738. Print

Jacobus, Lee A. A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers. 9th ed. Boston, MA,               United States: Macmillan Higher Education, 2013. Print.

Mead, Margaret. “Sex and Temperament”. A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College       Writers. 9th ed. Ed. Lee A. Jacobus. Boston, MA, United States: Macmillan Higher      Education, 2013.707-723. Print

Woolf, Virginia. “Shakespeare’s Sister”. A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College           Writers. 9th ed. Ed. Lee A. Jacobus. Boston, MA, United States: Macmillan Higher      Education, 2013.689-706 Print.

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Essay Writing Sample: Future Initiatives

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Hamilton’s Initiative 2047

If I become the mayor of Hamilton in 2047, my first initiative would be pushing for the approval of Hamilton Early Literacy Sponsorship Program (HELSP). This initiative will focus on sponsoring and promoting Early Learning Hamilton (ELH). This will offer benefits such as providing children with books in a meaningful way, helping children to learn and become successful in school, improving literacy rates in the community, supporting families and caregivers. These benefits will apply to all people regardless of their cultural diversity, ethical and linguistic backgrounds, and developing literacy in children.  The program will fund the purchase books and other learning materials for children. It will also set up libraries in every estate of Hamilton so that parents find it simpler to pick and drop their children at the institutions. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

This initiative is my priority because it will give me the chance to take care of the less fortunate people in the society who cannot afford to purchase books for their children through issuing of books freely as the mayor. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]The program will also result in the creation of job opportunities such as librarian positions. This means that the program will also aid in addressing the high rates of unemployment that was caused by the Economic Recession in the 1980s and 1990s. The Depression forced some people to leave Hamilton in search of work in other places (Cooper, 2007).  In addition, I will have addressed the issue of poverty that resulted from the emergence of the steel industry, which led to poverty due to loss of jobs, since children from low-income families will get access to books. Additionally, constructing libraries around the city will reduce parents’ expenditure on traveling far distances with their children to purchase books. That will have addressed the problem of Urban Sprawl that resulted from Environmental problems and discouraged public transit, forcing Hamiltonians to commute from outside the city to go to work. I believe this single program will be very beneficial to Hamilton as it will address several issues both in the long and short term.  [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

References

Cooper, T. (2007). Hamilton, the Ambitious City once more. The Hamilton Spectator. 2007.

Write My Essay Sample: Social Revolution

 

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Examining the 2011 Social Revolution in Egypt and Tunisia

 

Over the past two decades, the internet and digital social media, not only in Egypt and Tunisia but also across the globe, have developed a debate on political communication as well as political participation. Technology, more especially social media, played a vital role during the Tunisian and Egyptian revolution and acted as a medium for protest mobilization. It provided a base for intergroup cooperation that raised the perception and response to the protests. Approximately 60% of wealthy people in Tunisia had access to information and communications technology which articulated the demands of the modern protestors and facilitated many of the movements in the region. Overall, 30% of the poor people in Tunisia had access to collective media network for opinionated mobilization and the pattern of protest engagement. Both wealthy and poor in Tunisia were automatically updated about their political actions through their News Feed and engage actively in opinionated discussion from the comfort of their residence at any time of the day. Approximately 70% of most elite people with degree holders in Tunisia participated in protests through the use of technological tools. The internet is perceived to have been a helpful source for political mobilization and revolution in Tunisia. Most of the middle-class people in Tunisia exchanged information and joined the revolution efficiently using the social platforms. The continued support for dictatorial rule by the middle classes and state employees was seen as related to high levels of regional conflict. However, Tunisian case remains a typical one since protests succeeded under the authoritarian regime.

Literature Review

Revolution participation in Egypt was similar to that of Tunisia in many perspectives. Participants in both revolutions comprised mainly of the people with average and above education and income levels. The poor members of the society participated the least in the in both revolutions, this could be an indicator on the least effect felt by the poor prior to these revolutions. In both countries majority of the participants came from members of the society that were engaged in urban white-collar jobs. Their levels of education were higher and so were their incomes (Beissinger et al. 2012).

There still existed slight differences in participations between the two countries. Tunisian participants were mainly the youth as opposed to the middle-aged groups of Egypt. Participants in Egypt were solely from the middle class while those in Tunisia extended far above the middle class and included the unemployed, students and workers. Total population participation also varied among the two countries with Egypt having 55% of their population participating in the revolution while Tunisia had 25 % (Beissinger et al. 2012). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Media is an important tool used by social movements to create awareness among people against the oppressive policies of the necessary leadership. It also incites people against the status quo of a given regime. According to Kakwani (2011) and Son (2014), digital technologies have allowed for less costly and faster dissemination of information among people. The political literature has therefore focused on the responsibility of elites where attention is given to citizen groups. Mobilization under authoritarianism contributes to regime liberation along with democratic transformation.  Under the authoritarianism government civil society plays a vital role in mobilizing a collective action around real and emotional grievances. Ordinary citizens share their grievances through political movement and an online social network that pushes people into protest action.  Regime support had long been considered one of the major obstacles to democratization from conservative and risk-averse middle classes. The Resource Mobilization Theory engage in a collective action to the political choice approaches which developed the skills required for promoting self-interest. This phenomenon can be explained by a broad assumption.

Modern revolutions are considered as standard ways of assuming power by different regimes. Sabine & Thorson (2010) suggest that the evolution of technology into the social-cultural setting of modern society has become something to look into given the fact that mobilization of people using social media has challenged change of status quo. Despite the fact that social media is one of the world’s biggest International News Agency, it has made many people to be aware of the true nature of happenings around the globe, and it’s a tool of political propaganda, sensitization as well as a medium of dissent. In the realist view, however, power often comes through violence. Aristotle, for instance, argued that the most stable political system was neither oligarchy, democracy, nor a monarchy but a combination of the three. In other words, modern industrial democracies seem to be politically stable, and properties, as well as power, are widely distributed among individuals of a given society. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Politics and distribution of authority according to social scientists are assumed to play a vital role in leading individuals and groups to demand political reforms. Political violence can be influenced by the level of state effectiveness and economic welfare. The success of the revolutions comes right after the onset of planned revolutions, and modern revolutions are vast and diverse. Huntington (2011) contends that mobilization and economic development can be achieved through the presence of trust and confidence. In social sciences, political activists rely heavily on social media to maintain as well as reinforce various engagements across issues and organizational boundaries. It is evident that the internet is conducive to the extent of increasing the speed and the scope of circulating information about corporate events regardless of whether protesters seeks information related to the revolution.

In the case of Egypt, inequality studies have been made in three perspectives; the inequality in land distribution in the period ranging from the 1950s and 1960s, the landforms inequality of the period 1970s and 1980s and lately the inequality in the urbanization witnessed over the years.  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The data shown below from World Bank (2016) is a historical representation of the inequality in Egypt.

Based on the latest inequality; the urbanization inequality, many questions have been raised by international agencies including the World Bank. Summarizing their reports, there is much to do with rural inequality in Egypt. This is attributed to the historical aspect of the Nile valley.  The rural poor have not only suffered through land distribution discrimination but also the central government policies that seek to transfer wealth from the rural areas to the cities. The fact that Egypt’s largest land is under the desert, this implies the only productive land is limited. The poor majority have been marginalized to the desert areas while most of the productive land kept in the hands of the few rich who then use the poor in the labor production.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Because of the existing drift between the rich and the poor, there is much existing literature regarding the unequal technological advancements and the unequal participation in the recent mobilization.  The few rich have access to highly mechanized methods of farming and well-sophisticated methods of use of the agricultural farming.  Also most of the rich reside within the towns hence exposed to highly mechanize industrial processes. Their foods are handled by sophisticated machines. On the other hand, most of the rich own modern locomotives such as   expensive cars while the poor are left to use the public transport. Also, with the air transport, it has been stationed in major towns that the rich have access to yet the prices are expensive to be afforded by the poor.

Besides the land and the income inequality, Egypt faces increasing problem of inequality that arises from opportunities. The dynamics in the Job entrance have resulted to so many limits for the youth who have heritage from the lower socio-economic status. The youth who do not have proper connections, yet they got a minimal education are totally discriminated against. It is evident that the employment rate for men with white collar jobs parents in the public sector has increased from 0.34, as per the statistics of the year 1998 to the 0.4 statistical data of the year 2006.  On the other hand, the male with the parents from the agriculturalist parents, job placement in public sector declined from 0.11 to 0.10 in the same period of statics in the later (World Bank 2016). With women, despite the fact that they receive the high discrimination in job placement in the public sector, is clear that the female with the Agricultural parents receive the highest level of discrimination in Egypt. From the statistics, it is clear that in Egypt, jobs are allocated to children parents who are from advantaged sides of the society regarding job connections but those from the less advantaged get more discrimination.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help

Furthermore, the rates discrimination also vary among the families depending on the education level of the parents. Even from the advantaged side of the family, the children are faced with the varied degree of consideration or favoritism. The parents who have 12 years schooling experience and above have their children favored in job placement with the high rate of 0.64 while the parents who have education experience of 9-11 years receive favoritism rate as high as 0.42 (World Bank 2016). This is a significant deviation meaning that the discrimination is on scales of education level. The increase in the children with parents above 12 years schooling year’s increases to 0.67 while that of the parents whose children have the years of experience falling to 0.37 which means the di

References

Beissinger, M. R. (2012). Who Participated in the Arab Spring? A Comparison of Egyptian and Tunisian Revolutions (Doctoral dissertation, Department of Politics, Princeton University).

Huntington, (2011). Who Participated in the Arab Spring? A Comparison of Egyptian and Tunisian Revolutions (Doctoral dissertation, Department of Politics, Princeton University).

Sabine & Thorson, (2010). The reasons social media contributed to the 2011 Egyptian revolution. International journal of business research and management (IJBRM), 2(3), 139-162.

Kakwani (2011) and Son (2014). Clicks, cabs, and coffee houses: Social media and oppositional movements in Egypt, 2004–2011. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 231-248.

World Bank (2016).

 

Essay Writing Service Sample: Labor and Labor Theory Sample by My Essay Writer

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Labor and Labor Theory

Introduction

Human beings have always evolved to make their lives better, and this has been associated with technology. One of the aspects of development that many people tend to overlook is labor. People and machines provide Labor, and they tend to determine the success of the production process. In the past, people lived in isolation and specialization was uncommon. However, with civilization, people moved from practicing labor at the social perspective to a detailed one. This change has greatly increased productivity while at the same time influencing negatively in craftsmanship. Scholars such as Marx, Baggage, and Rice show the different effects that division of labor has on production and the engaged employees.

Contrast between Social Division of Labor and Detail Division of Labor

The social division of labor is a derivative based on the human character while considering work. In comparison to animals, human beings are experts at forming division of labor according to the variety of standards associated with different species (Braverman, 1998). The animals, on the other hand, can only divide labor according to their single species. To explain this in a better perspective, humans can fish, weave, and hunt depending on the nature of their needs while animals can only engage in one of these activities based on the nature of their species. It would also be vital to consider that humans can only achieve all these activities in the society, and that shows why it is considered the Social Division of Labor, as described in Marx’s terminology (Braverman, 1998).

Detail Division of Labor refers to the division of labor in detail so that each individual only does a section of the entire work (Braverman, 1998). The point of detail division of labor is to break the production into different steps so that different people are responsible for the involved activities. This type of division of labor divides the society into various occupations while making them vital for the overall process.

In contrast, a capitalist society depends on anarchy and chaos to enforce the social division of labor while the detail division of labor is brought about by planning and control (Braverman, 1998). This shows that a society can easily have both types of division of labor while having different forces determine the ideal one based on the involved production. In addition, the commodities derived with social division of labor can be exchanged as finished goods while those derived through detail division of labor are owned under the same capital. For instance, in the social division of labor, one can produce baskets and then trade the same for money or even other commodities depending on the estimated value (Braverman, 1998). With detail division of labor, each person is involved in production of a commodity, so that the final produce becomes a combination of efforts by different persons. It would also be vital to note that social division of labor divides the society while detail division of labor subdivides humans.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Social Consequences of the Capitalist Organization of Production

The use of Capitalistic Organization of Production affects people at the societal level in different ways. The modern world divides production based on labor, which can either be considered the social or detailed division of labor (Braverman, 1998). The primary consequence of capitalistic organization of production is based on the individual level rather than society. As stated by Marx, detail division of labor, which is common with capitalist organization limits people to a specific stage of production, and that affects their social potentials. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Capitalist organizations place more emphasis on time and profit making, which determines the choices in production. For instance, people can make greater production when producing more commodities on a single stage before embarking on the next stages. Alternatively, if one were to go through all stages in the production of a commodity when a huge volume is involved, then more time would be wasted. This means that capitalism has made society familiarize with detail division of labor as opposed to the social division of labor. In essence, quantities are the determining factor in production as that guarantees higher profits.

Based on a social perspective, the use of detail division of labor limits the potential of the involved persons to specific roles. Even though this has been found to be more effective in production, one should also consider the effects it would have on the involved persons. There is a possibility that the involved workers would have been able to handle different stages but this model limits them to specific duties, and that compares them to machines. In essence, capitalism eliminates craft from the workers as it only considers the results, which are profits (Braverman, 1998). This is because the workers might be conversant with the different stages of production, but with division of labor, they will fail to use their craft in the different stages. Therefore, capitalist organization of production has resulted in the reduction of craft in society by breaking down the production process.

The Babbage Principle and its application to the Labor Process results in Degradation of Work

The Babbage principle states that the production process should be broken down to make the process much simpler for the involved persons. In this case, the broken steps would be assigned to workers, depending on their specialty to maximize production. He proposed that production process is broken based on the nature of difficulty. For instance, the most difficult stages would be broken down and assigned to workers to optimize the production process.

The application of Babbage’s principle to the labor process involves involving the workers only in the stages for which they are specialized. While considering the societal progress, this becomes an obstacle, as it would affect the workers that would initially be in a position to handle different stages of production. In addition, his principle further makes it possible for managers to calculate the wage differences when involving detail division of labor and societal division of labor. Based on several studies conducted by Babbage, it was discovered that the detail division of labor model was cheaper for most manufacturers while speeding up the production process.

It would also be important to note that Babbage’s principle enables employers to calculate the productivity rates of workers on a gender basis. For instance, male workers are likely to be chosen for different production steps provided they prove to be faster than female workers. The fact that it gives the employers the ability to monetize the entire production process shows that it could influence gender discrimination.  In essence, the capitalist model destroys all round skills by creating only the occupations that correspond to its needs, and that shows how it degrades work (57). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

Analysis of Rice’s work to illustrate the effects described by Braverman

Rice’s play is based on the life of a bookkeeper who faces marital problems due to his inability to get a promotion for twenty-five years. He has been active in the role and demonstrated his ability to carry out all duties as the store bookkeeper (Elmer, 2004). The play demonstrates different cases of division of labor and its influences on people’s relationships. For instance, Zero’s wife stays at home performing household duties such as cleaning, washing, and cooking for her husband. Zero, on the other hand, plays the role of providing all needs for the house from his job as a bookkeeper. This means that at the household, a societal division of labor determines how operations are run. This is the case because the wife performs many duties while the husband also provides a range of duties rather than just financial needs.

While considering the bookstore, detail division of labor is evident as all persons are tasked with duties that contribute towards the final product. Zero has been at his position for twenty-five years because he is excellent at the position and the store manager sees no need for his promotion. This shows why Braverman stated that the manufacturers and producers usually consider the detailed division of labor as profitable as it saves time while increasing productivity (Braverman, 1998). This further proves the fact stated by Braverman that division of labor kills craftsmanship. Zero’s wife obviously saw a lot of potential in him and always expected that he would be promoted to a senior position with better pay. While such is the expectation that people are made to believe with capitalism, the producers also tend to make people stay longer in their positions as it is profitable.

This further shows how detailed division of labor affects people’s interaction in society. Zero becomes unhappy in his position and expresses his anger towards Daisy, who has nothing to do with his current predicament. Even though the division of labor is seen as development, it has negative effects on societal interactions.

Conclusion

As one can see, there is more to the division of labor than what people often assume. Capitalism has made people only view at the financial gains brought about by this development, but it is vital that people also understand the challenges. In this case, Rice provides an example of a real life scenario that is affected by division of labor. In addition, Braverman also provides details of the division of labor and the motivational factors behind the same.

References

Braverman, H. (1998). Labor and monopoly capital: The degradation of work in the twentieth century. New York: NY Monthly Review Press.

Elmer, R. (2004). The Adding Machine. UNZ, 457-478. Retrieved from UNZ: http://www.unz.org/Pub/BurnettWhit-1942-00459

 

 

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Abstract

Utilizing a qualitative framework for analysis, this study will focus on examining the different proposed solutions for resolving the environmental damage associated with levees and stormwater runoffs. This is due to the unnatural method in which water is pumped into rivers during storms which can radically alter the chemical composition, temperature and delicate nutrient balance in the water within a short period. Levees also act as an effective barrier towards preventing the water from returning properly into the soil. As a result, stormwater runoffs and levees can contribute towards the gradual deterioration of biospheres within particular areas which requires intervention due to the long term damage this could cause. However, there are several potential solutions to choose from, each with their pros and cons to consider. As such, this paper will investigate these methods, examine their individual effectiveness and determine which one has the highest level of viability.

Evaluation of Role of Levees and Floodplain Management

Introduction

Expansive urban and industrial development often places considerable stress on local ecological systems resulting in an altered biotic environment that makes it unsuitable for particular types of flora and fauna to exist within it. Rivers and streams that straddle levees located near cities and industrial development areas are considered to be particularly vulnerable given their closer proximity to pollutants and other agents of change (Booth, Roy, Smith, & Capps, 2016).  One of the most common contributing factors when it comes to such actions are the stormwater runoffs that flow from a city or industrial development project and into rivers with levees (Halstead, Kliman, Berheide, Chaucer, & Cock-Esteb, 2014). Due to the lack of any natural methods of dealing with the sheer amount of water from storms, many cities and industrial sites often have storm drains that lead to pumping stations which quickly shunts water away from their location and into local tributaries and streams. Unfortunately, these methods often contribute towards the gradual deterioration of the ecosystem in the river. While there are some proposed methods for dealing with this, there needs to be a greater focus on a method that explicitly takes into account stormwater runoffs and not just the effect of levees on rivers.  As a result of the differing proposed methods, the conflicting perspectives behind why they should be implemented, and the likelihood of budget shortfalls within cities that would prevent all of them from being implemented, it is necessary to determine which method is likely the most viable. To determine this, the paper would need to examine the basis behind each proposed approach and determine their individual effectiveness when compared to each other.

Objectives/Aims

The proposed solution to the problem surrounding stormwater runoffs causing urban stream syndrome should be able to:

a.) Resolve the issue surrounding altered channel morphology

b.) Be able to help sustain the biotic richness of the river/stream

c.) Preserve the capacity for current runoff systems to continue to operate to prevent flooding within a city or industrial district.

By matching these objectives, the proposed solution would be able to succeed in its indicated goal.

Understanding the Issue

The problem with stormwater runoffs and levees is that they can cause severe alterations in the biochemical composition of rivers resulting in an adversely affected biosphere. Various levees located near cities can contribute to the problem by virtue of a lack of sufficient foresight in their construction which can lead to long-term environmental instability. Unfortunately, due to the unnatural method in which water is added into these ecosystems via stormwater runoff drains, this can drastically alter the chemical composition, temperature and delicate nutrient balance in the water (Vietz, Walsh, & Fletcher, 2016). The problem lies in the increased water speed that levees create, the resulting deterioration of beneficial vegetation within the stream, and the sheer amount of water that is forced into the streams/rivers via storm drains. Rivers and streams simply cannot cope with the runoff of an entire city being added within a short period. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

There are, of course, proposed solutions to such a problem ranging from dispersed stormwater treatment, habitat enhancement within the stream itself, to adding in robust vegetation in selected areas to boost the ability of the body of water to repair itself and protect more vulnerable flora and fauna (Askarizadeh, Rippy, Fletcher, Feldman, Jian, Bowler, & Grant, 2015). Each proposed method has its pros and cons given their respective viabilities and the inherent cost of implementation.

Due to the different proposed methods, this paper will seek to critique the most popular proposed methods of resolving the issue. Through this analysis, this paper will be able to showcase the superiority or inferiority of particular solutions, present arguments for or against their implementation and determine which method is likely the most viable based on the information that will be shown.

Literature Review

Understanding the Impact of Land Use on Biodiversity

Biodiversity is inherently influenced by its surrounding landscape with alterations often leading to instances of decreased ecological functionality. While protecting biodiversity may not be at the forefront of a designer’s mind when it comes to designing levees to protect areas that are prone to flooding or implementing a system to deal with a city’s stormwater runoff, it should be, due to the long-term ecological damage that this lack of foresight could cause to the surrounding area.

Present day stormwater runoff designs are often utilized in conjunction with levee construction to quickly shift water away from a city’s streets and onto areas that can handle the flow. One of the best examples of this can be seen in Japan where an extensive system of levees and stormwater runoff control measures are located. Local rivers and tributaries are often the sites chosen for this endeavor given their capacity to contain the spillage and transfer it to another location. However, as it has been noted in the introductory section of this paper, the sudden introduction of thousands of gallons of water within a short period into the ecosystem of a river, substantially alters its chemical composition and temperature. The result is the inability of a river’s original ecosystem to cope, consequently resulting in its gradual deterioration (Sartor et al.,, 1987).

Unfortunately, the long-term consequences of these actions on a river’s morphology manifest adversely and can be seen in the case of various rivers and streams located near Chinese cities with levees and storm water runoffs. The altered river ecosystem resulted in many plant and animal species dying off. Additionally it has led to the rise of undesirable green algae and the accumulation of different pollutants within the river due to hindrance in its natural ability to remove it. During summer months, when the algae tends to accumulate and decay in vast quantities, many residents complain of an undesirable stench permeating the area.

In the long term, the lack of floodplains and the way in which the levees were constructed results in silt and various detritus slowly accumulating along the bottom of the river. This results in its gradual elevation until it reaches a point where the material, which contributes towards the pollution and stench originating from the river, has to be manually removed to prevent potential flooding (Gaffield et al., 2003). All these examples show the consequences of altered river morphology. It is essential that we take into account the role of  levees in mitigating adverse impact due to altered river morphology and stormwater runoff construction needs.

Strategies to Resolve the Issue

Proposed below are various strategies to resolve the issues surrounding the ecological impact due to  altered river morphology. Each has its own unique merits and demerits on what can be done to address the issue.

a.) Artificial Waterways to Preserve River Biodiversity

One proposed method is to create artificial waterways alongside current river systems to help preserve the native biosphere in that location (Sedaghatdoost & Ebrahimian, 2015). For example, river Ems in North Western Germany where the native ecosystem thrives in enclosed canals with a built-in artificial waterways. The process works via a series of levees and canals that would be constructed parallel to the current system that is in place within the river (Scott et al., 2014).

In some cases, during storms, a gate would slide into place that would help insulate the ecosystem within that particular area from the sudden deluge of stormwater. By putting these canals along select areas in the river, it is hoped that this would ensure that the native ecosystem would be able to survive and thrive within the local area. However, while this process helps to protect some of the native species, there are some caveats to this approach that should be taken into consideration.

The first issue is that, this process will result into  buildup of silt and other substances along the riverbed. Evidence of this can be seen in the numerous reports stating the deteriorating water quality along the river Ems. As it can be seen in the photo below, the river is uniformly brown which is indicative of a high amount of sediment and particulates in the water (Fig. 1). This is due to the lack of floodplains to dissipate the strength of the river’s flow, the presence of pollutants from stormwater runoffs from cities located near the river, and the accumulation of materials along its bottom (Walsh et al., 2016). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Aside from this, the canals would only help to insulate certain sections of the river and does not resolve the potential problem of native ecosystems being overwhelmed by these pollutants, if they were to make their way into the canals.

Figure 1: River Ems, North Western Germany: Main River (right) and Canal (left)

b.) Planting Trees and Other Types of Fauna

Planting trees is one of the proposed solutions to help mitigate ecosystem destruction in areas with storm drains and extensive levees. Particularly the trees with long roots do create natural barriers for small fish and fauna. This approach is based on the perceived effectiveness of the system in Germany, Brazil, and other countries who planted trees along rivers to help prevent flooding in various parts.

While this system has proved to be effective in at least partially preventing the erosion caused by increased water flow from stormwater overflows, it came with its own set of problems. The problem with tree roots is that they can damage the structural integrity off levees by providing pathways for water to destabilize the soil. In the long term, this can impact the ability of the levee to perform its function resulting in a breach which could potentially flood an unprotected area (Christensen et al., 2006).

Aside from this, the proposed solution does not resolve the temperature and chemical changes that occur when stormwater runoffs are introduced in the river. While the tree roots help to create a protective barrier, various fish and fauna can still be affected by the chemical imbalance.

c.) Removal of Levees to create new Floodplains

Due to the long-term ecological damage brought about by stormwater drains and levees, removal of levees and  creating new floodplains within certain areas seems to be a plausible approach. While somewhat effective in preventing floods, levees can also adversely affect the local environment. After they are constructed, levees can reduce the recharge rates of local aquifers and even prevent the seasonal over flooding of banks that are essential in providing much-needed nutrients to the soil (Christensen et al., 2006).

This can lead to the destruction of riparian and coastal ecosystems within certain locations which can lead to permanent ecological damage. However, these actions are considered as justified due to the perceived need for expansion into new areas for housing and city development.

Unfortunately, as seen in the case of the Ems River in Germany, lack of floodplains prevents the proper exchange of energy and nutrients between the river and the surrounding land which leads to a deterioration of the river as a whole. Combined with stormwater runoffs and the increased movement speed of the water due to the levees, this interferes with normal plant distribution via seeds in the river, prevents river vegetation from properly establishing itself, and leads to an excessive buildup of sedimentation with the river which increases the risk of flood (Petrucci et al., 2012).

The impact of this on fauna within the river can be seen in reduced fish populations due to the lack of sufficient oxygen in the water. The lack of vegetation combined with cloudy water due to excessive particulates reduces atmospheric diffusion of oxygen resulting in depleted dissolved oxygen level that may not be conducive  for fish to thrive. All of these factors show why levees can do more harm than good if they are constructed with insufficient foresight regarding their potential ecological impact (Petrucci et al., 2012). To resolve this issue, the proposal of removing levees seeks to return certain areas back into their previous state of affairs by transforming them back into floodplains and wetlands.

Through the restoration of these areas in certain locations along the river would help in reducing the excessive flow rate generated by levees that would serve as an important  sediment and pollution control mechanisms. For example, numerous floodplains in the Nile River which helps to enrich the land while at the same time lower the speed of the river as a whole due to the presence of levees in certain areas. While this approach may seem to be the most effective, it is also likely to receive the greatest amount of resistance. Many real estate developers and residents are unlikely willing to relocate due to the need to restore a previously destroyed floodplain.

d.) Implementing Artificial Methods of Flooding Floodplains

Another potential alternative solution that can be pursued is to create a levee design that feeds into a temporary floodplain via a special gate located within the levees. As mentioned earlier, floodplains help to alleviate the strength of a river’s flow while at the same time act as a means of filtering out excess sediment and pollutants within the river (Wadzuk et al.,  2010). A temporary floodgate design would create a schedule where the floodgates would be open during a particular timeframe to help alleviate the stress placed on the river and then closed once it has been determined that a sufficient amount of water has been removed.

This design addresses the issue of sediment buildup and resolves many of the issues surrounding levee designs interfering with local ecological systems. For example, in Egypt where an extensive system of levees and floodgates have been used for years to prevent flooding while at the same time allowing enough water into the floodplains to ensure that they remain nutrient rich (Lapointe et al.,  2012). During periods where there is significant stormwater runoff during inclement weather, the floodgates can be opened to help alleviate the excess amount of water that appears during this particular period.

While this design may seem to resolve many of the issues that have been presented in this paper so far, there are some problems that should be taken into consideration. The first is whether newly reconstructed floodplains would be able to handle the excess capacity from stormwater runoffs. These floodplains initially designed to process average water intakes when a river overflowed and was not exposed to the sheer amount of water that is often the result of storm drains unleashing thousands of gallons of water within a short period.

There is a high probability of the floodplains being overwhelmed resulting in the water spreading into populated areas within a short amount of time. Aside from this, such a system would need to allocate large amounts of land for a floodplain to be effective; however, this may not be an option when it comes to levees and stormwater runoffs that are located near cities since there is a limited amount of space available within the surrounding area (Break this into two separate sentences) (Redaelli et al.,  2011).

Furthermore, it is still uncertain whether such a solution would help in resolving the ecological problems brought about by stormwater runoffs and levees. As discussed, it does address the build up of mud and sediment and contributes to alleviating the pressure on the river, but how would such a solution help the local fauna? Simply draining the river into a floodplain has the potential effect of causing various types of water-based fauna to eventually find themselves on dry land which would result in another form of ecological damage. Such a solutions need a thorough examination before advocating its use in any kind of long-term river ecosystem management.

e.) Underground Concrete Tunnels and Canals for Stormwater

One of the potential alternatives to the issue is to avoid having the waste water go directly into areas in the river which have been identified as having critical ecological habitat. The underground discharge channel with a pumping station that can transfer the water to a location farther down the river with a sparse ecosystem. For example, in Kasukabe, Saitama (Japan) where a large underground complex of tunnels and pumping stations helped displace thousands of gallons of water into the Edo River once a storm affects the city.

The advantage of this method is that, through the construction of an appropriate system of tunnels and canals within the city, it can completely avoid critical areas in the river. While this system is likely to be the most effective option among the proposed methods, it is also the most expensive to implement given the sheer amount of money needed to construct an underground system of canals, tunnels and pumping stations (Kaczala et al., 2011). Due to the funding that such a venture would entail, it is unlikely that various cities and towns would agree to fund the venture despite its potential ecological boons.

Summary and Examination

We have discussed the most popular proposals for proper environmental management of rivers. Each proposed solution has its own pros and cons such as the viability of the concept, the inherent limitations based upon the location of the river and the stormwater runoffs as well as the financial hindrances behind their implementation. However, what is lacking in this section is an examination of how such processes work when implemented in an actual project and the long-term implications behind their usage.

As seen in the case of the Ems River in Germany and the Nile River in Egypt, environmental river management strategies can result in widely different outcomes which can have an impact on the health of the river and the ecosystem that exists within it. As such, the analysis section of this study will compare the use of these methods on different rivers and determine which method has the greater likelihood of success based on its fiscal viability and actual performance when implemented.

It is anticipated that the results would  reveal weaknesses in the proposed methods that were not shown in the literature review and determine which method or combination of methods is likely to generate the desired outcome of environmental preservation while not compromising the function of levees and stormwater runoff systems.

Analysis

Introduction

This section delves into the present day examples of preserving the ecology of a river by mitigating the effects of stormwater runoffs. It expands on the methods that were mentioned in the literature review by showcasing the effectiveness of these systems within various states in the U.S. as well as in other countries around the world. It examines the correlation between levee construction, its impact on river ecology, issues regarding river hydraulics, and the effectiveness of particular strategies.

The goal of this section is to show how the proposed methods that were elaborated on in the literature review section have their own caveats that reduce their effectiveness on a case by case basis. For example, while underground tunnel systems can mitigate stormwater runoffs by having the water flow to a local river basin and, as a result, are an effective means of safeguarding the ecology of a river, they are cost prohibitive in some cases and take far too long to construct.

This example is aligned with the main argument of this report that there is no such thing as a “one size fits all” solution in resolving the impact of stormwater runoffs on the ecology of a river. Some methods may not be feasible and, as such, blended strategies may be necessary by modifying that is presently known about levee construction, stormwater runoff dispersal, and floodplain management.

It is anticipated that by the end of this section, readers will realize the complexity of the issue where engineers need to balance ecological preservation while dealing with the communities situated along rivers that contribute towards their gradual destruction.

Examining the Use of Artificial Waterways to Address River Biodiversity

The main problem with human expansion into areas bordering streams and rivers is that it results in a process called eutrophication which is defined as the deterioration of bodies of water which manifests as a gradual decline in their life spans. Actions such as the construction of artificial levees to stem the flow of water, the placement of rudimentary rock dams to alter river morphology as well as the deforestation of certain areas to make way for housing development all contribute towards eutrophication (Dotto, Kleidorfer, Deletic, Rauch, & McCarthy, 2014).

This process is especially prevalent in various areas in California wherein the results of eutrophication has caused an unnatural “explosion” of algae in rivers which has significantly decreased the quality of local water systems. Contributing to this issue are the various problems related to stormwater runoffs that have been mentioned so far in this report (ex: altered river biochemistry and rapid changes in temperature). One of the proposed methods of resolving this issue comes in the form of creating artificial waterways near river littoral zones to act as a means of insulating flora and fauna from sudden alterations.

As seen in the case of the river Ems in Germany, the process works by constructing an artificial levee along the littoral zone several meters away from the riverbank where stormwater drains are located. This artificial levee acts as a riparian corridor which is a strip of land whose physical characteristics are inherently influenced by the bodies of running water that they are located near to. It looks like an elongated island that is filled with trees and other shrubberies which function as an insulator within the river (Dotto et al., 2014).

Stormwater runoffs enter into a particular waterway and are prevented from interacting with the body of water on the other side of the artificial levee. In various instances in Germany and the Netherlands, this has proven to be a somewhat effective system of artificial insulation to help preserve river biodiversity. However, it has not been proven to be 100 percent effective as seen in the case of the river Ems due to the inherent limitations in artificial levee and riparian zone creation.

While particular areas within a river can be insulated from direct stormwater runoffs, the waterways do intersect downstream which can negatively impact the biodiversity in those areas. Aside from this, the utilization of this strategy is inherently limited by local geography and even the water conditions in certain areas. For example, the Klamath River in California was once considered the third highest producer of Pacific Salmon in the U.S.; however, due to a combination of stormwater runoffs from the local hydroelectric dams, prolonged seasonal droughts and waste water from extensive agricultural operations, this body of water is now increasingly becoming unsuitable for Klamath River Salmon which is leading to their extinction (Sedaghatdoost & Ebrahimian, 2015).

The problem with implementing an artificial waterway to stem the impact of stormwater runoffs from the hydroelectric dams and agricultural operations in the area is the general shape of the Klamath River in particular places which straddles various mountain ranges creating a naturally twisting corridor (Sedaghatdoost & Ebrahimian, 2015). As a result, artificial levees and riparian zones cannot be constructed. The extended seasonal droughts that California has been experiencing over the past few years also prevents the creation of artificial waterways along the Klamath River due to the lower water levels.

Contributing to this problem is the process of eutrophication along the bank of the river which has gradually deteriorated the quality of the riverbank. Unfortunately, these combined problems have created a river that has increased levels of algae, high nitrate content from the agricultural farms and sudden shifts in chemical composition and temperature when the four hydroelectric dams in the area release their excess water flow during storms.

What this example shows is that the creation of artificial waterways to solve the problem of river biodiversity is only applicable in cases when the river is located in areas that are sufficiently broad and have an accommodating geography. Areas like the Ems River in Germany and the Nile River in Egypt fulfill this criterion but in the case of the Klamath River, this is not applicable.

Planting Trees and Other Types of Fauna

Using deep-rooted trees as a means of mitigating stormwater runoffs to protect the ecosystem within bodies of water has become an increasingly popular solution due its cost effectiveness and apparently positive results. Sites like the Chickley River in Massachusets and the Ottauquechee and Black rivers in Vermont have all received extensive planting projects with thousands of trees being placed on their riverbanks and levees (Giacomoni, Gomez, & Berglund, 2014). Deep-rooted trees have been shown to mitigate stormwater runoffs due to their roots acting as a form of natural breakwater within the river to help reduce the water flow and act as a natural means of absorbing pollutants. Not only that but the roots also serve as a natural habitat for the local fauna and even encourage the growth and development of various flora.

The roots also assist in absorbing excess carbon dioxide from the water resulting in better water quality which helps the ecosystem to thrive. However, the problem with their extensive use in areas with human-made levees is that studies proving or disproving the potential deterioration of levees due tree roots are still inconclusive. Studies examining the damage seen in levees during violent storms as well as those utilizing LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery have mixed results with one showing damage to levees and the other showing no damage at all (Jiake, Ya, Jiayang, Huaien, & Yajiao, 2016).

The problem with these studies is that they are based on recent projects involving tree plantings along rivers. In these cases, the tree roots have yet to develop an extensive enough network to compromise the stability of manmade levees. Though various environmental groups have argued that tree roots help to stabilize levees rather than cause damage. There are simply not enough studies at the present to create a valid conclusion on this issue and, as such, it would be necessary to conduct long-term examinations of areas where extensive tree plantings have occurred to determine if the levees in those places have been structurally compromised by tree roots (Dallman & Spongberg, 2012).

Another issue to discuss is that while tree roots act as practical barriers within rivers to help stabilize the speed of the water during extensive stormwater runoff periods, they do not serve as a means of preventing the sudden changes in temperature or the chemical composition of the river. While it can be argued that the tree roots help to mitigate the development of extensive sediment and other detritus along the banks of the river, they lack the same capacity to insulate flora and fauna from the direct impact of stormwater runoffs when compared to artificial waterways. However, planting trees is a far more adaptable and cost effective solution compared to creating an artificial waterway.

The only problem with their extensive implementation, as mentioned extensively in this section, is that their long-term effects on levee structural stability are still unknown and, as such, it would be unwise to advocate for their extensive use unless it has been proven there is no danger to residents, especially those in areas with levees protecting low-lying areas.

Implementing Artificial Methods of Flooding Drained Floodplains

Artificial flooding is not a new concept since it has been used in examples such as the Fitzroy River in Australia and the Coldwater River in Mississippi. The concept is based on alleviating water pressure by creating a floodgate in a levee to help relieve the excess water flow in a river when stormwater runoffs occur. The implementation of this plan has two beneficial outputs; the first is the rehabilitation of closed-off floodplains that were sealed way during levee construction as well as the limitation of the impact of stormwater runoffs on aquatic ecosystems in the river (Steinman, Isely, & Thompson, 2015). By shifting the thousands of gallons of rainwater into a floodplain, this helps to enrich the land and reduces the amount of sediment and other detritus from accumulating along the bottom of the river.

Examples of this process in action can be seen in the Nile River in Egypt as well as the Coldwater Water River in Mississipi. In both cases, the use of a floodgate system proved to be sufficiently effective in reducing the impact of stormwater on the river. This was evidenced by decreased particulates in both rivers in tests done after the excess water has abated, the stabilization of water quality, and improved conditions for aquatic flora and fauna to exist. However, before such a tactic is implemented, there are some caveats to this approach that should be taken into consideration.

The first is the availability of space in which this can be viably implemented. In the case of the Coldwater River in the U.S., nearly 2.5 kilometers were allocated for the rehabilitation of a floodplain via the construction of a floodgate for the river water. In the case of the Nile River, many gates are utilized, and the amount of land that they cover is more extensive (three kilometers or more) (Howitt, Mondon, Mitchell, Kidd, & Eshelman, 2014). This is due to the necessity of sufficient water distribution and the presence of local aquifers in the ground that can handle the excess water. If these conditions are not met, the result is a sustained flood rather than gradual water absorption. It is due to this limitation that various areas within the U.S. cannot implement such a strategy since the areas where the floodplains used to be have been urbanized and now contain new populations.

While it can be argued that new sectors can be utilized as floodplains, they need to have the factors that were brought up earlier (ex: the presence of aquifers). Without those elements in place, the artificial floodplain is unlikely to function appropriately and may even cause more harm than good. Aside from this, there is also the issue of levee hydraulics and the capacity of levee designs to accommodate the introduction of a floodgate to revive a floodplain. Levees are meant to protect against the proposed recreation of floodplains and, as such, present day designs may not be advisable for a simple modification to accommodate a floodgate. Project managers utilizing this method would need to consider how to implement a system that incorporates proper hydraulics to limit the flow of water while at the same time preserving the integrity of the surrounding levees.

Removal of Levees to Create new Floodplains

Removing levees to resolve the problems surrounding stormwater runoffs may seem to be a counter-intuitive solution; however, it does have a justifiable methodology behind it. Levees are not perfect performers when it comes to the jobs they are meant for. While this may seem to be an absurd assertion, various studies and even experts in the field of levee construction will tell you that levees are simply not sufficiently designed to prevent every conceivable type of flood. If you are after the creation of a construct that could potentially protect an area from what can be defined as a “maximum worst-case flooding scenario” then the best solution would be to create a dam. However, given their size, the inherent cost of their construction and the limited areas in which they can be effective, dams are not a feasible in every case. For example, it would be impossible to build a dam all along the Mississippi River given its sheer size.

The problem though with the creation of levees is that they often help to cause flooding rather than prevent it. Evidence of this can be seen in the case of the Mississippi watershed and the various warnings from experts that precipitation and snowmelt pattern changes brought about through anthropogenic climate change is contributing towards creating a high-risk scenario of levees being breached due to higher than average flood waters (Elliott & Trowsdale, 2007). Contributing to this problem is the placement of stormwater runoff drains from cities in the state that utilizes the Mississippi River as their primary offloading site. This contributes to the sudden rise of potential floodwaters during storms and puts numerous populated areas located all along the Mississippi River at risk.

Aside from this, the combination of closed off floodplains by levees and stormwater runoffs has caused substantial damage to the ecology within the river. This comes in the form of increased algae production, sediment buildup, and greater river strength which prevents certain aquatic flora from being able to sufficiently develop (Hamel, Daly, & Fletcher, 2013). If these problems seem familiar, it is because they have been mentioned numerous times throughout this report in conjunction with the presence of levees and the unnatural alterations done to a river’s morphology and hydraulics due to urban developments along areas that used to act as floodplains.

Further analysis of this issue shows that the problem stems from the urbanization of floodplains located along the Mississippi which prevents the river from having adequate areas to offload its excess contents. As a result, water naturally accumulates which creates an increased risk of catastrophic flooding. The obvious solution to this dilemma would be to open up certain areas by removing levees to reinstate the floodplains. Unfortunately, given the presence of communities in these locations, this is simply not an option in a lot of the affected areas in Mississippi (Elliott & Trowsdale, 2007).

This solution may be applicable in other places in the U.S. such as in California and Arizona where there are fewer communities located along floodplains. Based on what has been presented so far, this solution is highly dependent on communities being located away from areas where floodplains are. In fact, the best solution to issues like this that creates the potential risk of catastrophic flooding and adversely impacted river ecology is to simply stop building communities along floodplains (Maniquiz-Redillas, & Kim, 2016). If this policy were to be implemented, this would go a long way towards lowering the impact of stormwater runoffs into rivers as well as addressing the environmental issues associated with closed off floodplains.

Underground Concrete Tunnels and Canals for Stormwater

As mentioned earlier in this paper, underground flood tunnels are one of the most efficient methods of dealing with stormwater runoffs since they are capable of storing and diverting the water in areas that are further downstream. As a result, this helps to minimize their overall ecological impact and contributes to preserving river morphology, hydraulics, and health. Unfortunately, the main issue that most areas would encounter when attempting to implement such a system is the inherent cost and time associated with their construction (Ren & Smith, 2012).

For example, the underground flood tunnels in Saitama, Japan that was mentioned earlier on in this paper cost the country $3 billion dollars to construct. In the U.S., a similar system was implemented in San Antonio, Texas which cost the state $150 million dollars (Ren & Smith, 2012). What this shows is that while the system is effective in dealing with stormwater runoffs and helps to protect the environment, its construction is not cost-effective, at least when it comes to areas with limited budgets. There is also the period required to implement such a system since the underground flood tunnels constructed in San Antonio took 13 years to build (Ren & Smith, 2012). In some places, the sheer amount of time needed to implement such a solution to resolving the impact of stormwater runoffs in a river is simply too long.

By the time the system has been constructed and put into use, the morphology and health of the river could have been irreparably damaged. However, this type of solution also comes with its own caveats if it is not implemented properly. If the outflow system used for the underground tunnels is not designed properly, then it may cause the downstream bank erosion and lead to the gradual destruction of the local environment. Not only that, if the flow is not regulated, it could cause a significant impact on the balance of sedimentation of the river which could further disrupt a river’s ecology. The system in San Antonio, Texas has mitigated these potential issues by situating the exit tunnels close to river basins which help to reduce the overall environmental impact of the flow of water. Unfortunately, this method of implementation is successful only in a case by case basis as seen in the detrimental effects of the New York underground flood mitigation system which exists directly into the Hudson River which has caused a permanent adverse effect on the surrounding ecology.

Summary

Overall, what this section has shown is that there is no such thing as a “one size fits all” strategy when it comes to preserving the ecology and morphology of a river due to stormwater runoffs. Ranging from issues with geographic features to the fixed costs associated with certain processes, the methods that have been mentioned in this report showcase a myriad of pros and cons with their use.

While some show significant potential, such as the use of deep-rooted trees, the lack of present day understanding regarding the long-term impact of such a strategy on the structural integrity of levees ensures that there will always be some degree of hesitance if not outright resistance behind its use. Based on the varied effectiveness of the strategies that have been presented so far, this report advocates for the creation of blended implementation methods that combines the strengths of the different strategies involved while potentially mitigating their weaknesses. What these potential strategies can be will be elaborated on in the discussion chapter of this report.

Discussion

Introduction:  Blended Strategies to Mitigate the Ecological Impact of Stormwater Runoffs

This section is aligned with the main argument of this report that there is no such thing as a “one size fits all” solution in resolving the impact of stormwater runoffs on the ecology of a river. Some methods may not be feasible and, as such, blended strategies are necessary to address the problem of stormwater runoffs by modifying what is presently known about levee construction, stormwater runoff dispersal, and floodplain management. It is anticipated that by the end of this section, readers will realize the complexity of the issue and the need to implement new strategies rather than rely on current methods that have variable levels of effectiveness.

Water Intersection and Floodplain Management

In the analysis portion of this report, it was revealed that the use of artificial waterways to address the issue of adversely affected river biodiversity is only partially effective since instead of changing the morphology of the river in one section, the negative impacts are directly carried downstream. It was shown that the problem is the intersection of different water sources (e.g. from the river and stormwater drains), and the resulting changes in temperature, chemical balance and the altered speed of the river itself. While one proposed solution to this dilemma is created longer artificial waterways, it is not viable given the associated construction costs and the fact that the stormwater runoff will eventually be dumped in the river. Utilizing the premise of this report that blended strategies are necessary to resolve the issue, albeit, in an economically sound manner, one potential route that can be taken is for the stormwater to be diverted to a floodplain prior to it being introduced into the river.  This idea is based on the methodology utilized in the city of Scottsdale and their stormwater and floodplain management system that implements a series of drains placed into the floodplain itself to help drain water from storms into rivers for dispersal.

Figure 2: Floodplain Dispersal Method

This type of process works by having the stormwater released into the floodplain instead of directly into the river. The justification for this method is that the broad floodplain would help to decrease the speed of the water as it enters the stream, stabilize the temperature to a more acceptable level and reduce the potential for substances from the runoff affecting the chemical balance of the river water. Drains located in various areas both on top of the floodplain and below it would help to slowly disperse the water into different areas along the meander scars of the river (or the undercut bank) resulting in a transition that is more ecologically “acceptable” rather than dumping the water straight in.

What occurs is that the floodplain acts as a filter and location for the stormwater runoff, this helps to mitigate many of the potential problems associated with dumping the water directly into the river. Aside from this, the floodplain also contributes to lowering the total amount of water that does make it into the river since it helps to refill the aquifers that are located beneath it. There are, of course, limitations to this particular system such as the size of the floodplain, its capacity to hold water and the increased amount of sediment that would enter into the river over time. The gradual erosion of the soil could be a problem in the long term since replenishing the top soil is not feasible.

One way of resolving this potential issue is by breaking up the distribution of water along separate sections of the floodplain. This helps to slowdown the flow of the water and enables the floodplain to recover. This strategy is not widely used since floodplains are often thought of as places where water from a river goes to rather than the opposite occurring. However, as seen in the case of Scottsdale, this method can work to preserve the ecology of a river by mitigating many of the associated factors that would adversely affect flora and fauna within it (Davis, Brown, & Dinnin, 2007). This is one of the cases where an artificial floodplain would work since what is needed is a method of filtration, temperature normalization, the removal of chemicals and a means of slowing down the water.

While the presence of aquifers would be beneficial, they are not strictly necessary for the implementation of this type of project. What is also needed in this case is a levee design that allows movement of the water from the floodplain into the river than the opposite occurring. Various elevated levees with water runoffs located in specific areas could be utilized to this end; however, there would need to be some means for the water runoff valves to be controlled to prevent water from the river entering into them if a major flood occurs.

Enhancing Artificial Floodplain Creation Through the Use of Flora

As mentioned in the literature review section and in the analysis section of this report, artificial flooding is not a new concept since it has been used in examples such as the Fitzroy River in Australia and the Coldwater River in Mississippi. The concept is based on alleviating water pressure by creating a floodgate in a levee to help relieve the excess water flow in a river when stormwater runoffs occur. However, the biggest problem with this solution is the necessity of sufficient water distribution and the presence of local aquifers in the ground that can handle the excess water. If these conditions are not met, the result is a sustained flood rather than gradual water absorption.

While the concept of an artificial floodplain to help mitigate the excess water produced by stormwater runoffs does have a considerable amount of feasibility, unless the water distribution issue is solved, it is not sufficiently viable. Do note that this solution is different from what was mentioned earlier involving stormwater runoffs and floodplains since, in the previous blended solution, the runoff does go into the river and, as such, a sustained flood does not occur. Going back to the premise of this paper that blended solutions are needed to resolve the issue rather than rely entirely on present day methods, one potential avenue of approach combines the creation of artificial floodplains with planting different types of trees and other types of similar flora.

This method is based on the flood control protocols implemented in Tacloban in the Philippines where various forests have been created in artificial floodplains to help contain river overflows during, particularly harsh storms. This method builds upon the previous practice of planting trees along river banks and instead focuses on a larger scale solution utilizing artificial flood plains. The idea is that the dense trees and other types of flora in that area can act as a means of absorbing the water till the flood waters subside, or some of the water is absorbed into the ground. This strategy builds upon the method utilized in the Philippines by adding in a levee that can allow some water from the river to flow into the floodplain thereby minimizing the overall effects of the stormwater runoff (Wagner & Zalewski, 2016).

Another solution would be to utilize the same methodology that was mentioned in the previous strategy wherein stormwater runoffs would flow directly from storm drains directly into the artificial flood plain so that at least some of the water can be absorbed by the the trees and surrounding flora before it seeps into the ground and is drained into the river. Either solution has the potential to at least partially resolve the problem of stormwater runoffs causing substantial ecological damage.

Underground Canals and Floodplains

Another potential solution is the combination of underground canals and floodplains wherein instead of the water going directly into the river; the water would go through the underground canal system within a city and be deposited in a floodplain or lake that is sufficient far way. There is ample precedent for this scheme as seen in the case of the Philippines and Laguna lake wherein a large artificial canal system is being built to transfer water from the city, into the canal and away from many nearby rivers or streams. For this report, the proposed blended solution focuses on floodplains that have not been inundated with urban or suburban development and are, for the post part, untouched.

These areas are ideal since they are likely to already have natural aquifers in the ground which can help to mitigate the water released from the canals. This solution is has a considerable level of potential since it addresses the chemical, temperature and particular pollution that is typically associated with stormwater runoffs by having it go through a still operational floodplain that is located far away. In fact, this solution could even be enhanced through the introduced of various trees and different types of flora that can help to absorb the excess stormwater. While on the surface this proposed solution has a lot of promise, there are some issues that should be taken into consideration. The first problem is the sheer cost and time needed to construction underground water canals.

As seen in the examples in the literature review and in the analysis section of the study, the development can take 15 years or more and could cost hundreds of millions of dollars. Creating an extended channel that is supposed to dump the water into a viable floodplain is also going to substantially increase the cost of the operation. However, given the potential that such a strategy has, it could be implemented in cities where there are already existing channels in place. Austin, Texas already has an extensive canal system in place for storms and all that would be needed would be to extend the canal to dump the water into a floodplain instead of directly into the river.

Analysis of Solutions

This report asserts that though the blended strategies that were developed show a lot of potential in resolving environmental issues caused by stormwater runoffs, they are applicable in only a limited number of cases. In the case of utilizing floodplains as a means of filtering water and slowing it down before it reaches the river, this strategy is highly dependent on the actual presence of a floodplain located nearby. In some cases, due to extensive urban development, floodplains are no longer available which makes this particular solution nearly impossible to implement. For example, due to extensive development in some areas along the banks of the Mississipi River, the floodplains that used to be located along the curve of the river are now towns and factories.

While artificial floodplains could potentially be created down the river to resolve the issue, this does not have a high level of viability given the potential lack of aquifers, the unsuitability of the land, the need to reconstruction stormwater runoff systems and an assortment of other issues that may occur. This shows an inherent weakness in this strategy that cannot be easily overcome. In the case of using trees to help mitigate the flow of water into the river by planting them in clusters along floodplains, this does have a high level of viability, but the problem with this strategy is that it can take years before it comes to fruition. Trees take time to sufficiently mature, and this is if the area that they have been planted in does not undergo drastic environmental changes that could negatively impact their growth rate (ex: sudden flooding).             Underground channels to help deal with the excess water does have a significant level of promise; however, as mentioned earlier, they are cost prohibitive, and there are some areas that are not suitable for their use. For example, in the case of New Orleans, the land underneath the city is compromised of relatively weak chalky ground that is not appropriate to hold up large structures. This is one of the reasons why zoning permits for high-rises in the city are limited to only certain areas since the ground is simply too weak to accommodate these large structures. The same can be said about constructing an extensive underground canal system since it is likely to weaken the underlying strata of the surrounding land to such an extent that it could lead to a major catastrophe.

What all of these alternative solutions show is that their implementation is highly dependent on the geography of the land that they are situated on. In some cases, the proposed solutions are not feasible given the inherent limitations of time, geography and potential exorbitant cost.

Summary

Overall, the designs that were developed focused on mitigating the chemical, temperature and sudden influx of water in this section of this study have shown the potential effectiveness of blended solutions when it comes to preserving the ecology of a river while at the same time tackling the issue of stormwater runoff management. This report would like to reiterate that there is no such thing as a “one size fits all” solution and that the proposed blended strategies are only some of what could potentially be implemented in the future.

There are a wide array of other possible solutions that can be implemented ranging from creating underground rivers or even diverting rivers from their normal flow patterns so that a particular area can be devoted for stormwater runoffs. What this report sought to show is that alternative solutions can be pursued that take into consideration the environmental impact of stormwater runoffs. This indicates that a multipurpose design is possible, plausible and can be implemented utilizing present construction techniques.

Based on what has been examined so far, this report assumes that the problem with present day designs is that engineers are focusing more on flood management rather than environmental preservation which has resulted in the current dilemma faced by various river ecosystems. Resolving such an issue by future studies would thus focus on determining how such an attitude has developed among engineers, whether project cost factors influence the implementation of environmentally sustainable designs and what are the current perspectives of engineers on river sustainability. By understanding their motivations, future papers would be able to determine what sort of strategies could be implemented to promote environmentally sustainable designs for stormwater runoffs.

Conclusion

In summary, what this report was able to show is that the differing proposed methods of resolving the issue of stormwater runoffs negatively impacting the ecology of a river lacking sufficient effectiveness is based on the fact that present day solutions are oriented towards flood prevention rather than purely environmental preservation. While there have examples presented in this paper where environmental protection practices have been implemented,  the conflicting perspectives behind why they should be used, and the likelihood of budget shortfalls within cities, prevent many of them from being feasibly implemented.

To determine how such a problem could be resolved, this report analyzed the basis behind each proposed approach and determined their individual effectiveness. What was revealed was that since expansive urban and industrial development often places considerable stress on local ecological systems resulting in an altered biotic environment, what is needed is to create a solution that prevents this alteration from taking place or implementing a means of preventing it from getting worse.

This conclusion differs from the approach that was advocated for in the section involving tree planting since that particular method resolves a problem that has already reached its peak rather than preventing it from reaching that point in the first place. The investigation of this report showed that many of today’s flood prevent practices that are used in conjunction wth stormwater runoffs makes rivers unsuitable for particular types of flora and fauna to exist within it.

Rivers and streams that straddle levees located near cities and industrial development areas are considered to be particularly vulnerable given their closer proximity to pollutants and other agents of change. The problem lies in the increased water speed that levees create, the resulting deterioration of beneficial vegetation within the stream, and the sheer amount of water that is forced into the streams/rivers via storm drains. Rivers and streams simply cannot cope with the runoff of an entire city being added within a short period.

The investigated solutions ranging from creating artificial floodplains, planting trees, creating artificial waterways, removing levees and even building extensive underground concrete tunnels were all shown to be effective in various ways. However, further examination of these methods showed that their design is inherently based on flood protection and not environmental preservation. This is why, despite the potential they have for helping to lessen the impact of stormwater runoffs, they are still “lacking” to speak. Further examination of current methodologies surrounding floodplain management and levee construction and maintenance all showcase the same issue of a lack of sufficient consideration regarding the ecology of the river.    While it is true that there have been methodologies that  advocated for preventing the river from being polluted or attempted to preserve the morphology of the river, none of the proposed designs actively sought to protect its ecology. Instead of being an intentional aspect of its design, it seemed to be more of an afterthought. It was based on this that this study developed the conclusion that what is needed is the creation of new design elements that explicitly take into consideration the ecological impact of stormwater runoffs into the river. The first step in doing so was the creation of various blended solutions using some of the strategies that were proposed in this paper. While each proposed design does come with its own issues, it is at least a step forward in floodplain management and levee design that focuses on ecology first, flood control second.

The plans that were developed focused on mitigating the chemical, temperature and sudden influx of water into a river or stream by having it gradually filter through a floodplain before being released into the river. While not necessarily a unique solution, since it was used in Scottsdale and other cities, it is a step in the right direction towards developing an environmentally oriented method of resolving the problem. In fact, the proposed solution in this report takes the Scottsdale methodology even further by suggesting the use of trees and other flora to accept the excess water as well as adding in a system into levees to help distribute the water in a slower manner into the river. The proposed blended solutions contribute to accomplish the objectives of this report by resolving the issue surrounding altered channel morphology, sustaining the biotic richness of the river/stream and preserving the capacity for current runoff systems to continue to operate to prevent flooding.

Overall, this report has contributed to the present-day literature on the issue of stormwater runoffs by identifying their impact on river ecologies, showing what methods are currently in place to help mitigate it, why such methods are insufficient and what can be done to resolve the problem in the future. Moving forward, it should be noted that the proposed solutions in the discussion section of this report are not “perfect” since they also have issues regarding their potential feasibility, the cost of their implementation and the fact that some areas cannot accommodate them.

In the end, the problem stems from overdevelopment with towns and cities being placed in areas that are prone to flooding and the removal of floodplains that were supposed to resolve such issues. If urban and sub-urban development practices can eschew development on floodplains and choose areas that are located farther away from the river, this would go a long way towards resolving the identified issues in this report. Unfortunately, this is unlikely to occur given the current development trends within the country and, as such, engineers would need to develop new ways of dealing with water transfer issues that could have been resolved just by moving to a different location or having a better city and suburb planning process in place.

Recommendation

It is the recommendation of this report that future studies examining the same issue should consider why biodiversity is not at the forefront of a designer’s mind when it comes to designing levees to protect areas that are prone to flooding or implementing an ecologically supportive system to deal with a city’s stormwater runoff. Implementing biodiversity into such designs should be a requirement due to the long-term ecological damage that this lack of foresight could cause to the surrounding area.

This study showed that present-day stormwater runoff designs are often utilized in conjunction with levee construction to quickly shift water away from a city’s streets and onto areas that can handle the flow. However, the design philosophy focuses on moving water rather than taking into consideration what the potential long-term effects be on the river. Is this a lack of foresight on the part of planners or is it due to the current process of education for water displacement engineers wherein the school fails to delve into the subject of ecological awareness? The problem is not something that is isolated to a particular country or system of education; rather, it is endemic in various countries as shown in this paper.

The problem could be an industry-wide lack of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) where the focus is on just getting the job done rather than consider the potential harm it could cause to the ecology of a river. The contribution of such an investigation is that it would help to clarify why particular design elements for transferring water have been developed and why new ecologically sound methodologies have been slow to receive widespread acceptance in the industry. Through such an analysis, there is the potential for implementing industry-wide changes to potential place ecologically sound practices at the forefront of an engineer’s mind.

 

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Wallace, A. (2016). Principles for urban stormwater management to protect stream ecosystems. Freshwater Science, 35(1), 398-411

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay Writing Sample: How Indiana lost control of its Welfare System

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Indiana’s social services system was privatized with the aim of saving taxpayers’ money. A contract was entered by IBM and the State of Indiana in which IBM was responsible for the management of approximately one-third of the states workload, with Mitch Daniels, the governor, promising that the $1.3billion deal would save the taxpayer $1 billion over the next decade (Michener et.al, 2016).

The privatized system meant to improve several areas of operation of the FSSA. The first area was that of human control; by handling about a third of Indiana’s welfare caseload, the replacing of individual case workers for each applicant with the facility of applying from the comfort of one’s home either online or via phone with the call center assistants. The second area was that of physical control. The new system aimed at minimizing or completely avoiding errors that occur in the course of handling real documents containing applicants’ welfare records by storing them electronically and making them available to caseworkers all over the state. The third area of control was that of finances, as the system was implemented with the intention of saving taxpayers approximately $1 billion over the next decade (Michener et.al, 2016).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The new privatized system brought about some changes that had an effect on the financial, structural and strategic levels of control of the welfare system. Financially, the system was so much focused on saving money that they developed a rushed method of handling services that ended up reducing the quality of services offered. Structural changes were brought about when IBM took over a third of FSSA’s case load, outsourcing the call center activities to Affiliated Computer Services (ACS) (Stake & Mabry, 2013). Changes also happened when IBM replaced individual case workers used by the traditional welfare system with an electronic system. Strategically, the welfare services approach changed from one of the personalized services, by having individual case workers for each household who would follow up on any issues in the access to welfare, to one of the impersonal services as records were stored electronically and accessed by various case workers across the state.

Regarding operations control, IBM and ACS failed to carry out preliminary and screening controls as they hired people from Sprint and TACO Bell to handle client calls (Stake & Mabry, 2013). The training provided was substandard, resulting in a bad work ethic with the sole purpose of the operators at call centers being to get clients off the phone, without actually providing any assistance. They had poor post action control as they had no systems in place for follow-up of applications, resulting in most clients being sent letters claiming they failed to cooperate when in fact they had fulfilled all requirements.

IBM and ACS’ approach to bureaucratic control had no control processes before the start of operations, none of business and none of feedback and assessment of services (Stake & Mabry, 2013). As a result, they hired underqualified employees who did not receive proper training; they underpaid these employees who made them demotivated and affected the quality of their work. Their unavailability for feedback to clients caused inconveniences as many were unable to access Medicare and food stamps because of wrong reasons.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The privatized social services system proved ineffective because it lacked the characteristics of effective control in an organization. IBM and ACS lacked timeliness, as it took them a long time not only to process applications but also to give feedback to clients on the status of these applications (Stake & Mabry, 2013). The lack of accuracy in their operations was shown when they sent letters claiming lack of cooperation to clients who had fulfilled all necessary requirements. The system lacked acceptability; none of the residents of Indiana accepted this system due to its impersonal and inefficient nature in the handling of urgent matters.  None of the employees accepted the system as they were underpaid and highly demotivated. The system also lacked necessary corrective action, despite the fact that most of these notices of lack of cooperation were sent erroneously; they had no systems in place to correct such action and give necessary services to applicants. Finally, the new system lacked the flexibility to applicants’ needs. The operators at call centers were not adequately equipped to handle the various needs of callers and for that reason, focused solely on getting them off the phone, regardless of whether their needs had been met. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

 

References

In Michener, J. L., In Koo, D., In Castrucci, B. C., & In Sprague, J. B. (2016). The practical playbook: Public health and primary care together.

Stake, R., & Mabry, L. (April 01, 2013). Ethics in program evaluation. Indiana Journal of Social Welfare, 7, 2, 99-109.

 

Write My Essay Sample: Descriptive Statistics

 

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Calculate and describe measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode), variance, and standard deviation of given data.

  Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Cardio 35 40 rest 60 0
Weight 35 20 rest 0 60

70                           60                                           0                              60                           60

Calculate the mean, median, mode, variance, and standard deviation of the measurements taken in Module 1 SLP. Show your work and be sure to express each value in units.

Mean-      70+60+0+60+60 = 50

N=5

Median- 70, 60, 0, 60, 60= 0, 60, 60, 60 70=60

Mode is 60 since it’s the number that repeats the most out of all the data.

Variance = 800

Standard deviation is 28.28

Variance- = =

Discuss which measure of central tendency you think most accurately describes the variable that you measured. Provide a thorough explanation.

Out of the median, mean and mode, one can say mean is the most accurately way to describe the variables that were measured. The reason that the medium would not work is because not all the numbers are closest to 60. On Wednesday no exercise was completed. Same happens with mode. “Another problem with the mode is that it will not provide us with a very good measure of central tendency when the most common mark is far away from the rest of the data in the data set” (Measures of Central Tendency).Even though the number 60 repeats itself many times, it is still too far from the 0 minutes completed on Wednesday. The mean result is 50. This is closest one to all the numbers from the data collected.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

 

Describe the spread/distribution of your data. Be sure to describe the variance of distribution and the concept of standard deviation as a measure of dispersion in your response.

            The data that was collected was over a period of 5 days. “An important attribute of the standard deviation as a measure of spread is that if the mean and standard deviation of a normal distribution are known, it is possible to compute the percentile rank associated with any given score” (Standard Deviation and Variance).The standard deviation was 28.28.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

Conduct a scholarly search on the internet to find reported health statistics on the variable that you are measuring.

Data that was collected over a one week period displays the amount of time that was spent working out. The work out time was performed from Monday through Friday. Adding up all the days times, it equals to a total of 250 minutes or 4 hours and 10 minutes. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, one should spend at least 150 minutes working out. The American Heart Association is also a good reference. “Staying active is one of the most important things a person can do to help curb obesity, lower your chances of heart disease and live healthy. The American Heart Association is working to help kids, families and communities live heart-healthy lives. Use this physical activity information to help you get active and stay active, for life” (American Heart Society). After looking at the data that the CDC provides on Americans that perform at least 150 minutes of exercise a week, one can determine that only half of the population engages in such. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]