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Essay Writing Service Sample: Cold War
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 3, 2019

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War II ended with an allied victory in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union had already been at odds for years. Democratic Americans didn’t trust the communist Soviet regime and had refused to recognize their power for years in the early 20th century. The fear of communists creating all-powerful workers’ unions in capitalist America and clearly intending to take over parts of Eastern Europe also played a large role in alienating the USSR from the rest of the world and pitting them against the United States. The USSR felt it unfair the the United States refused to share nuclear secrets and they finally pulled what Winston Churchill referred to as the “iron curtain.” All of these events led to a 45 year war during which no shots were fired. It was the Soviets, however, who truly started and maintained the Cold War.

Though the actual beginning of the Cold War is still argued over, the causes have always been clear. Democratic America had greatly distrusted communist Russia for years, beginning with the red scare in the 1920s. President Roosevelt had maintained a shaky alliance with the Soviet Union throughout the greater part of World War II, declaring that all should be done to stay on good terms with Stalin and his government. However, early on in his presidency, Truman moved from Roosevelt’s strategy of cooperation to one of containment. He saw the dangers as the Soviets, under Stalin, repeatedly failed to meet agreements and continued to attempt takeovers of Turkey and Greece. During this time, Great Britain admitted to the United States that it could no longer support these governments and asked for assistance in keeping them out of Soviet hands.

In 1947, a meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers took place in Moscow. At this time, nothing was accomplished and many eastern European countries were at risk of being taken over by Stalin’s communist regime. George C. Marshall was appointed Secretary of State just months before this meeting and, upon returning home, he began putting together a staff to begin planning for economic assistance of Europe. Marshall, as well as Truman, believed that the Soviet Union should not be allowed to take over those countries that were falling in Eastern Europe. Though the western European countries approved of the plan, the representative for the Soviet Union rejected the plan outright for his country and all European Soviet countries. Thus, the division of the European continent became even greater.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Aside from the United States government’s inherent dislike of Stalin’s political beliefs and regime, the other major issue at the heart of the cold war was nuclear weapons. The United States had recently shown their hand quite clearly, releasing two atomic bombs in Japan in 1945. Though it was known that the Soviets had been working to develop nuclear weaponry, they had not yet proven their access or ability. The extent of their arsenal was as unknown to us as ours was to them. This fear created extreme rancor among the major powers in the world as well as scaring citizens. The Soviets refused any transparency regarding their nuclear program and the United States also refused to share their secrets.

History is written by the victors. However, in this case, there are many opinions on who started the Cold War. In my opinion, it was the fault of both countries. The United States had grown tremendously during the first two world wars. Neither Roosevelt nor Truman was willing to give that up to the Soviets. They feared that the Soviet Union would continue to grow, usurping America as the primary world superpower. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The Soviets desperately wanted control in Europe and were not willing to back down. By the time Gorbachev was leading Russia in the 1980s, knowledge about the Russian military and its capabilities was at an all-time premium. While pledging truth and honesty, Gorbachev fed the Soviet people and the rest of the world lies through state-created and -approved media filled with pro-communist/anti-capitalist propaganda. Both countries were afraid of what they did not know and this created a volatile atmosphere that could have ended in the fall of much more than the Soviet Union. Communism scared capitalist Americans because in practice it all too often becomes totalitarianism. In the case of the USSR, this is exactly what happened. By locking down the country and almost entirely refusing to be transparent to the rest of the world in any way, the Soviet Union is mostly to blame for the length and seriousness of the Cold War. Open communication and a reasonable level of transparency is essential in a global economy. By creating the iron curtain and removing themselves almost completely from the rest of the world at a time when fear was at an all-time high, the Soviets’ attitudes and actions were the catalyst for the Cold War. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Write My Essay Sample: National Cuisines
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 30, 2019

 

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Indian cuisine, Mexican cuisine, Chinese cuisine, Japanese cuisines and Thai cuisines are just but a few popular national dishes associated with the respective countries.  Every one of the 196 countries of the world has a dish (dishes) associated with it that is a collection or regional cuisines (Jolliffe, 2014).

But, is there such a thing as a national cuisine or are the dietary habits of a nation the culmination of a country’s social, economic factors? Can an entire country pick a national cuisine based on magical uniform tastes and preferences of its demographics? Are national cuisines just a recent sentimental attempt to preserve culture in feeding habits in a world of changing demographics? Is it possible to name at least three top dishes in every country that would make up a national cuisine? (Timothy, 2016) Is it possible for an entire country to dramatically shift its dietary habits as a result of a shift in the supply of food products? This essay tackles the façade behind a national cuisine to explain that the diet of any single nation is purely just a result of socio-economic factors over preference.

A nation’s dietary habits are a result of food availability, climatic conditions, trade commodities, production superiority, traditions, culture and cooking practices (Jolliffe, 2014). A nation with the advantage of a large water area is likely to have its feeding habits leaning towards sea foods which would be the contrast of an agriculturally productive country where dietary habits would heavily lean on farm produce.  In this case, the dietary habits are the result of geographical positioning and availability as opposed to dietary preferences.

This essay shall take a case study of Japan and Japanese cuisine to explore the dramatic change in what was previously embraced as a national cuisine and consequently imported outside Japan as an embedment of Japanese culture. It shall look at the shift of Japan’s national cuisine from sushi and miso soup to ramen and curry. Ramen and curry are a dietary shift inspired by favorable trading terms that have led to the mass importation of food and food products.

References

Jolliffe, L. (2014). Spices and tourism: Destinations, attractions and cuisines.

In Timothy, D. J. (2016). Heritage Cuisines: Traditions, identities, and tourism.

 

Write My Essay Sample: Policing
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 30, 2019

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There is adequate evidence that indicates the existence of social and economic inequalities between dominant and minority ethnic Canadian groups. Many years of deferred treatment between the two is the most plausible explanation for the existence of these disparities. Historically, the Canadian society has enforced norms and ideologies that have differentiated treatment of its citizens with preferable treatment for the dominant ethnic groups (Ben-Porat, 2007). These standards and customs influence current thinking about race and ethnicity. The differential perception of police officers from minority Canadian communities hinders their work effectiveness.

The Canadian police are multicultural. Service officers have been drawn from across all ethnic groups in a bid to create racial balance in the force. Racial balance has been seen as one of the easiest ways to achieve fairness in the treatment of citizens by the police (Melchers, 2003).  Studies point to minority Canadian ethnic groups already making up a fair percentage of the entire Canadian police force (Melchers, 2003). The number indicates a significant achievement for a democracy that has grappled with the issue of ethnic inequalities for long. However, the process has created a new challenge for both the society and the police force. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The problem relates to the treatment and perception of police from dominant and minority ethnic groups by the citizens and fellow police officers. Stenning (2003) confirms that there are gaping differences in the treatment of police from dominant and minority groups in Canada. Police from minority ethnic groups have raised concern over differential treatment that takes on an ethnic direction. The deferred treatment affects how other officers, as well as how members of the society relates with them. The treatment further affects their job placement and social lives (Stenning, 2003).

The demographic composition of police in various Canadian provinces is not a fair representation of the diversity of the Canadian communities (Griffiths, 2007). Representation of police officers from minority aboriginal communities in the main cities that are located away from their communities is particularly wanting. According to Jain, Singh, and Agocs (2000), several commissions and inquiries have cited these disparities in the representation as a factor that affects the overall effectiveness of the police force in the main urban areas in Canada. The rising cases of police-community conflicts have been linked to such disparities in representation. In a society where ethnic differences are at the center of the strategies used in the distribution of wealth and power, representation of the police force becomes an important consideration for minority communities.

The perception of such communities towards the police it two folds. On the one hand, the representation has a positive connotation and members of the minority community see it as a form of security and pride. On the contrary, they may perceive it negatively as a way of imposing undue control over them, as Bahdi et al. (2010) note. In the first context, police officers from minority communities are hailed and respected by their community members. In the second context, however, they are seen as traitors and subjected to isolation and discrimination.

Bahdi et al. (2010) further write that with the ongoing reforms to integrate police work to the daily lives of citizens in Canada, the perception of police by both peers and the community is a factor of great importance. It influences how police go about their primary role of enforcing the law, as well as the effort they put in reducing the tensions that exist between the dominant and minority groups in a country.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

 The Labeling Theory

The major theoretical perspective that can be used to elaborate how perceptions of the police by various groups affect their overall effectiveness is the labeling theory. As Piquero and Brame (2008) state, the labeling theory explains how the classification of people can hinder their opportunities and create negative feelings towards certain groups of individuals. The labeling theory explains the possible reasons for the power conflicts that are witnessed between classes and how discrimination can put one group in a position of advantage over another group.

Through symbolic interactionism, symbols and the meanings assigned to them are interpreted  (Piquero & Brame, 2008). Differences in how members of a given culture interpret these symbols affects how they interact with each other. The symbols/labels assigned to the police determine how they are perceived by different members of the community. The actions of police affect how they are viewed by members of the society and their peers (Brunson & Miller, 2006). An important aspect of the labeling theory is the deviance. According to Brunson and Miller (2006), deviance is a product of the community’s act of assigning a label to a person. It is the opposite of compliance.

There is primary and secondary deviance. Brunson and Miller (2006) observe that primary deviance is the initial act of deviance while secondary deviance is any subsequent act of deviance. Primary deviance refers to any act that makes the authority figure, such as the court system, to label an individual to be deviant in the first place. Secondary deviance includes all subsequent acts of deviance that compound on the original action. Secondary deviance is associated with labeling (Brunson & Miller, 2006). When a person accepts the initial label of being deviant, they are more likely to involve themselves in further acts of deviance and vice versa. Labeling is thus a critical factor that leads people to become delinquents (Brunson & Miller, 2006). When an individual who has a primary label surrounds themselves with other persons who can offer moral support, there are high chances that they might develop new forms of deviance.

Labeling theory also goes ahead to explain the nature of interactions between those who are labeled to be deviant and those who are not. Schaefer (2008) states that this is the main reason for segregations between populations in many societies. The deferred treatment of members of dominant and minority groups by the police, which in turn lead to negative labeling, can be explained using the labeling theory. Aggressiveness and use of force by the police against minority groups leads to them being given negative labels and perceptions (Schaefer, 2008). These attitudes influence the subsequent behavior of police officers towards these groups.

The self-prophesying perspective of the labeling theory explains how police officers who are given negative labels by members of the community are more likely to be aggressive and discriminative against these communities. According to Szeto (2014), when people are given negative labels, they internalize them and conform to them even when the labels are not true. A police officer who is labeled negatively is likely to comply with the label and portray the behaviors associated with the label. If members of a minority community consider a police officer to be aggressive and further disrespect the officer, the police officers will eventually become aggressive against the community (Szeto, 2014). The self-prophesying perspective explains the internalization of behaviors by police officers that often leads to members of given communities assigning them negative labels.

Police Culture and Their Labeling By the Community

Nickels and Verma (2008) define police culture as a type of organizational culture characteristic to the police force. It consists of unwritten codes and rules that dictate how a police officer will function. It builds a sense of solidarity and willingness to perform as well as conform to police standards. Police culture partially explains the tendency of both male and female officers to be overly aggressive, use force in all situations, and more preference for more masculine as opposed to desk oriented tasks.

Police culture is viewed negatively across most platforms. It is a strong force that permeates and prevails in most police agencies in different countries. Police culture is associated with characteristics such as cynicism, the loyalty above all else doctrine, authoritarianism, alienation, and close-mindedness, which are lowly regarded by most community members (Bikos, 2016). Police culture gives the police a robot perception in the eyes of the public.

According to Bikos (2016), over the last one decade, however, a more positive perception of police culture has developed. The positive perception has been increasingly associated with teamwork, community support, sacrifice, and comradeship. It enables members of the police force to survive in the demanding culture in which they operate. Police culture encourages and empowers police officers to offer help to each other in time of need. Officers facing dangerous situations can rely on comrades due to the shared cultural values.

There exists a relationship between police culture and police labeling. Since there is a conflict between societal expectations of the police and the provisions of police culture, the society ascribes negative labels to the police. Szeto (2014) states that most of the behaviors that characterize police culture are the direct opposite of what the society views as ethical or proper conduct. In maintaining law and order, the police may, for example, resort to the use of excessive force. Such a move may be interpreted to be discriminative by some members of the affected culture. The use of tricks, coercion, and mockery to get confessions from suspects in order to ensure that cases are successful and cases are fast is also viewed negatively by members of the society (Szeto, 2014). Such acts lead to negative labeling of the police by members of the community.

Police officers acquire police culture during training in most cases, though there also are some natural predispositions that influence it. During training, there are activities such as drills, storytelling by instructors, and extensive periods of strenuous exercises that lead to the acquisition of traits associated with police culture (Szeto, 2014). These events transform a person’s personality and change how they view the world. Interactions even with members of their own community change. The police culture defines what it is like to be a police officer (Szeto, 2014). It makes police officers consider themselves to be insiders while the rest of the people to be outsiders. Police officers as insiders treat the strangers (outsiders) with suspicion (Stezo, 2014). Police officers are thus more likely to adhere to the mandate and professionalism of the police force than to societal expectations. The result creates a divide between these two groups, leading to negative labeling. According to Schaefer (2008), continuous labeling leads to the internalization of the stated labels and concretizes the negative perceptions of community members towards police officers.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Police Culture, Labeling Theory and the Differential Perception of Police from Minority Communities in Canada

There is the differential perception of police from minority communities in Canada. These differences in perception also seem to take on a gender dimension in which case male and female police officers from minority communities are viewed differently. According to Ben-Porat (2007), the recruitment of minorities into the police force is intended to benefit interactions between the police force and the minority communities who are considered to be linguistically and culturally alienated. Police recruiters assume that police from minority communities will extend preferable and fair treatment to people from their communities, consequently bridging the perceived cultural gap in the treatment of individuals. The recruitment of people from the minority communities into the police forces has increased drastically over the past two decades.  On this note, the hiring of police from minority aboriginal Canadian communities has grown from 10% to about 30% in the last one decade (Szeto, 2014).

Police officers from minority communities are viewed as perfect solutions to the problems facing members of their communities. They have a better understanding of their communities and are thus better placed to solve problems such as drug abuse and crime (Szeto, 2014). These officers are expected to use more lenient ways of resolving these issues. However, most police from minority communities fail in both addressing the internal issues of their communities and its relationship with the police service due to the influence of police culture (Szeto, 2014).  The inclination towards professionalism associated with police culture limits the ability of these police officers to interact more positively with members of their communities. They end up treating their community members just like police officers from dominant groups would, and thus, beating the logic of their recruitment. According to Jain et al. (2000), this is the reason police from aboriginal Canadian communities are confined by their employers within their cities and on similar ranks.

Skogan and Frydl (2004) write that there are no credible research findings that show police officers from minority aboriginal Canadian communities interacting differently with citizens on the basis of ethnicity. These officers treat Canadian citizens the same regardless of race. As such, it conforms to the findings of a study conducted by Sun and Payne (2004) that showed that black and white police with similar treatment towards both black and white citizens.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Failure to give members of their communities preferable treatment often leads to police officers from aboriginal Canadian communities being labeled traitors (Griffiths, 2007). They are viewed with suspicion and considered to be agents of oppression. Also, the negative label placed on the entire police as a result of cumulative injustices contributes to the negativity of these communities towards police in general. Regardless of the treatment, they give the officers a negative perception in the eyes of minority communities (Griffiths, 2007). The traitor label affects how members of the community, including family members, interact with police officers who are their own. Hostility towards police of aboriginal communities by members of their native communities is not uncommon. O’Neill and Holdaway (2007) observe that such hostility compromises the window dressing ability of selective recruitment from aboriginal Canadian communities.

From the discussion, it is evident that deferred treatment of police from minority Canadian communities has an adverse bearing on the effectiveness of their work. They are perceived to be traitors by members of their communities due to failure to give them preferable treatment. On the other hand, the officers are viewed as tools to resolve historical problems by their employers. They are thus posted to their communities and confined to lower ranks where they have constant interactions with members of their communities. These two perceptions and the resultant environment makes it difficult for these officers to fulfill their mandate effectively.

References

Bahdi, R., Bent, R., Cohen, I., Henry, F., Holmes, R., Jackman, B., … Whitaker, R. (2010). Racial profiling. Vancouver, BC: British Columbia Civil Liberties Association.

 

Ben-Porat, G. (2007). Policing multicultural states: Lessons from the Canadian model. In Immigration, minorities and multiculturalism in democracies conference. Montreal, QC: Ethnicity and Democratic Governance.

 

Bikos, L. J. (2016). “I took the blue pill”: The effect of the hegemonic masculine police culture on Canadian policewomen’s identities (Master’s thesis). The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.

 

Brunson, R. K., & Miller, J. (2006). Gender, race, and urban policing: The experience of African American youths. Gender & Society, 20(4), 531-552.

 

Griffiths, C. T. (2007). Canadian police work (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: Thomson Nelson.

 

Jain, H. C., Singh, P., & Agocs, C. (2000). Recruitment, selection and promotion of visible-minority and aboriginal police officers in selected Canadian police services. Canadian Public Administration, 43(1), 46-74.

 

Melchers, R. (2003). Do Toronto police engage in racial profiling? Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 45(3), 347-366.

Nickels, E. L., & Verma, A. (2008). Dimensions of police culture: A study in Canada, India, and Japan. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 31(2), 186-209.

 

O’Neill, M., & Holdaway, S. (2007). Examining ‘window dressing’: The views of black police associations on recruitment and training. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(3), 483-500.

 

Piquero, A. R., & Brame, R. W. (2008). Assessing the race-crime and ethnicity-crime relationship in a sample of serious adolescent delinquents. Crime & Delinquency, 54(3), 390-422.

 

Schaefer, R. T. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of race, ethnicity, and society (Vol. 1). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

 

Skogan, W. G., & Frydl, K. (Eds.). (2004). Fairness and effectiveness in policing. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

 

Stenning, P. C. (2003). Policing the cultural kaleidoscope: Recent Canadian experience. Police & Society, (7), 13-47.

 

Sun, I. Y., & Payne, B. K. (2004). Racial Differences in Resolving Conflicts: A Comparison between Black and White Police Officers. Crime & Delinquency, 50(4), 516-541.

 

Szeto, J. (2014). Policing diversity with diversity: Exploring organizational rhetoric, myth, and minority police officers’ perceptions and experiences (Master’s thesis). Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario.

Write My Essay Sample: Trying Out One’s New Sword
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 29, 2019

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The arguments presented in the analysis of Mary Midgley’s ‘Trying Out One’s New Sword’ are not comprehensive in identifying some of the errors in the work. The critique points out that Midgley is successful in arguing against moral isolationism because she presents solid facts about the differences that exist in understanding different cultures (Midgley, 1981). The critique, however, does not explore the fundamental basis of all cultures, inherently agreeing with the argument presented by Midgley instead of exploring the basis of understanding the traditions of other cultures.

The support for Midgley’s position is constructed on the basis of her own argument, and there are no outside references used in the critique to justify any objections. The critique does not present an objection to the argument against moral isolationism, instead backing up the theories already presented by Midgley. Therefore, there is no insightful analysis of the evidence that has been presented by the author, instead using her own argument to justify the critique. Additional outside references such as other arguments for and against moral isolationism would have helped to make the argument much stronger.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The critique correctly points out that Midgley is not successful in refuting the theory of normative ethical relativism. There is evidence presented to show this fact, and it is linked to the common theories explaining behavior and cultural differences (Midgley, 1981).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] However, again, there are no outside sources to make this argument stronger, and this proves a significant challenge in making a convincing case of the errors in Midgley’s argument. Making use of other arguments for and against normative ethical relativism would help to clarify some of the errors and oversights presented in Midgley’s argument. It would make it much easier to present a coherent critique that is based on facts and observable evidence.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

References

Midgley, M. (1981). Trying Out One’s New Sword, from Heart and Mind. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Essay Writing Sample: Is Objectivity Possible in Non-Fiction Films?
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 28, 2019

 

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Objectivity is difficult to achieve in any form of communication; however, since non-fiction films are based on facts, objectivity is theoretically possible. This paper will argue that even if objectivity in non-fiction films is theoretically possibly, it is never truly achieved. Objectivity is never achieved because any film that makes it beyond a cellphone video recorder and simple computer editing is made with the intention of either making profit or communicating a message that the maker deems significant. If the premise professional non-fiction films are created for a specific purpose, then subjectivity or bias is an unavoidable aspect of these films.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

It is theoretically possible for non-fiction films to be objective because they have the purpose of communication objective information; however, societal forces drive non-fiction film makers to produce films that have a purpose beyond simply communication objective information. In modern society, anyone with a smartphone can make a non-fiction film. Non-fiction films made with smartphones or armature filming software will be less influenced by societal forces that direct the purpose of these films. This is because the non-professional films may only be for personal use, they are often not intended to make profit, and may only be viewed by a small audience. The class of non-fiction films discussed here will be limited to films that have been professionally produced, or at least to ones that appear on the website “IMDb” or the “International Movie Database,” which is an internationally recognized database for professional films (Amazon.com, 2017). Any non-fiction film that is produced with the intention of appearing on IMDB has the purpose of being viewed by a large audience, making a profit, or communicating some significant message. If a film is professionally produced with one of the purposes mentioned in the previous sentence, then it cannot be truly objective. Objectivity is defined by Merriam Webster’s dictionary as the un-biased and un-opinionated representation of a set of facts. If a non-fiction film is made with the purpose of creating profit for the makers, then the presentation of facts will be biased. For a non-fiction film to make profit, it has either have significant education value, or have significant entertainment value for large audiences. Non-fiction films with significant education value will be the most objective films, however bias still cannot be entirely eliminated due to the nature of film as a form of communication. If a non-fiction film is made with the purpose of communicating a message that the maker deems significant, then the presentation of facts will most certainly be opinionated. If a film is made with the goal of communicating a certain perspective or message for society, then this innately contradicts the definition of objectivity because the film is communicating an opinion about a collection of facts. Therefore, professional non-fiction films are driven by societal forces to either make profit or communicate a message and thus cannot objectively present factual information. The following section will provide examples of three different non-fiction films or film series that will demonstrate this conclusion. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here]

Many films under the genera ‘documentary’ on the International Movie Database openly admit that the information presented is fictional and documentaries that are mostly factual still contain hidden bias. The most obvious examples of non-fiction films that contain heavy bias are those which are classified as horror documentaries. Horror documentaries cover topics like supernatural experiences, extraterrestrial sightings, or corrupt alien politicians that control society; these kinds of topics are ones that most academics group under the heading ‘conspiracy theories.’ Non-fiction films that discuss controversial topics like the supernatural, the extraterrestrial, or extreme corruption are relevant to a large group of people; however, the style of filming associated with horror documentaries is conducive to entertainment. The facts that are presented in the film may be somewhat objective, but horror documentary films are intended to create an emotional response in viewers. Horror documentaries will use ‘real footage’ dark lighting, low and brooding music, and ‘witness accounts’ that intend to make the viewer feel opinionated about the facts presented; therefore, horror documentaries cannot be objective. Even documentaries not classified as ‘horror documentaries’ will often be clearly biased and create an emotional response in viewers.

The documentary “The Nightmare” is a non-fiction film that explores the topic of sleep paralysis. Although the film claims to be a documentary that presents facts on sleep paralysis, no scientifically verified information is presented and expert opinions of academics in the field are never discussed (Ascher, 2015). Instead, “The Nightmare” suggests to the viewer that sleep paralysis is caused by demons and that it can be stopped by praying or chanting the holy name of Jesus Christ (Ascher, 2015). The proposition in “The Nightmare” that sleep paralysis is caused by demons is contradicted by scientifically verified research into the phenomenon. Psychologist argue that sleep paralysis is a result of an brain phenomenon where one feels ‘awake’ but is still in a dream like state in which they experience images that feel real. There is no scientific research that supports the notion that sleep paralysis is caused by demons. Therefore, “The Nightmare” is a classified as a non-fiction film, but is clearly biased and not objective.

Nature and history documentaries are mostly factually objective, however bias still exists because these non-fiction films have a purpose. Consider the popular non-fiction film series “Planet Earth.” The series “Planet Earth” presents the viewer with objective, scientific information about the various biomes, ecosystems, and organisms found on planet earth (Attenborough, 2006). The basic information about different biomes and ecosystems that the film presents is objective, however the interpretation and presentation of this information is not. This is again because of the purpose of professional non-fiction films is to make profit or communicate a message. The film “Planet Earth” was very profitable; it was profitable because it displays stunning high-resolution images of the natural world and tells miniature stories in each episode about the lives of the people and organisms in the particular biome discussed (Attenborough, 2006). Although the presented interpretation of facts in the film are interpretations generally accepted by the scientific community, they cannot be called truly objective facts because scientific disagreement still exists. For example, “Planet Earth” holds the view that the theory of human induced global climate change is true (Attenborough, 2006). Even though most the scientific community agrees that human induced global climate change is a fact, there are still those who dispute it. If a theory or piece of information is not fully agreed upon by the global scientific community then it cannot be considered objective information.

History documentaries are most often created with the intent of providing an accurate account of past events, however the film makers purpose will still influence the objectivity of these films. If a non-fiction film maker creates a historic film with the purpose of providing educational value and accurate account of events, the film will inadvertently include a biased interpretation of those events. This is because accounts of historical events come from a variety of sources, objectivity in these sources is extremely difficult to achieve. Accounts of historical events come from witness accounts, memoirs, film, photographs, biographies, etc. Although a comparison of different sources of information about historical events can help eliminate bias, it is extremely difficult for anyone to record events without including personal bias. This is a recognized academic issue for analysis of historical events. It is impossible for a person to record events without including personal bias because humans are always influenced by personal perception of the world around them. Our memories cannot be trusted, eye witness accounts in courts of law have in modern society been labelled as unreliable because human perception will modify sequences of events, this is proven in the field of psychology.

From this brief discussion of characteristics of different classes of non-fiction films, scientific or nature films are concluded to be the most objective. However, scientific or nature films often still include bias. For example, the non-fiction film “Blackfish” presents a scientific argument against the act of keeping large marine whales in captivity (Cowperthwaite, 2013). The film uses scientific data to argue that captivity has significant negative implications for the mental health of whales (Cowperthwaite, 2013). It is claimed in the film that captivity drives whales to commit violent acts against humans and therefore captivity of large intelligent mammals like whales should not be tolerated (Cowperthwaite, 2013). The non-fiction film “Blackfish” objectively presents facts about the psychological needs of whales in captivity. This film also describes the sequence of events that lead to the death of a trainer at Sea World, California (Cowperthwaite, 2013). However, the documentary clearly takes the position that captivity of large marine animals is wrong and should be banned, this is a subjective view. The non-fiction film “Blackfish” does not present objective scientific information that supports the humane captivity of large marine animals. This is because the films purpose is to convince the audience that captivity of large marine animals is wrong and inhumane, therefore the film is not objective.

Literature on the objective nature of non-fiction films supports the conclusion of this paper. A book titled “Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies” by David Bordwell and Noel Carroll discusses a theory by Bill Nichols on objectivity in non-fiction film. Nichols argues that non-fiction films cannot be objective because the objective view is a third-person view (Bordwell & Carroll, 1996). Per Nichols argument, non-fiction films cannot present information in the third-person view and so are not objective (Bordwell & Carroll, 1996). Furthermore, Nichols argues that the objective view is one that allows each audience member to come to their own conclusions (Bordwell & Carroll, 1996). Non-fiction films do not allow viewers to come to their own conclusions because they do not present a complete picture of the topic or issues presented in the films. Also, it is difficult for viewers to come to their own conclusions because the information is specifically crafted by the film maker to leave specific impressions on the viewer. Information in non-fiction films are crafted by including or excluding specific sets of facts and using a combination of music and imagery to give the viewer a pre-conceived impression. Nichols final condition for objectivity claims that the objective view is a disinterested view (Bordwell & Carroll, 1996). This paper argues that non-fiction films cannot be objective because the maker has a purpose, the maker is interested in the topic and crafts the film to reflect their interest. In a paper by a producer of documentary film, Jill Godmilow, she interviews the well-known documentary film maker Ann-Louise Shapiro about aspects of documentary film. Shapiro openly admits that “documentary film…straddles the categories of fact and fiction, art and document, entertainment and knowledge” (Shapiro, 1). Shapiro argues that documentary film makers should not claim to produce a comprehensive, objective, description of events in their documentaries (Shapiro, 1998). Instead, Shapiro claims that documentary film makers are only able to provide a subjective account of events that seeks to engage the audience in some way (Shapiro, 1998). A paper titled “Reading Reel Non-fiction: Documentary Films for Young Adults” the author provides a quote from a “Time” magazine film critic Richard Schickel. In the paper, the quote by Schickel claims that a documentary is only an organisation of nonfictional film that is designed to support the pre-conceived beliefs of the filmmaker (Phillips & Teasley, 2010). Schickel take this concept even further and states that it is juvenile to assume that those who make documentaries seek to present objective truth (Phillips & Teasley, 2010).

Through examples and a discussion of the sources, this paper has argued that objectivity is not possible in documentaries or non-fiction films. Indeed, the ability for film to create subjective responses in viewers is one of the strengths of this form of communication. Film is inherently entertaining; the moving images, high resolution pictures, and ability for film to present topics in first person perspectives is what makes them so appealing to mass audiences. Even if objectivity cannot be achieved in non-fiction films, they still have significant value for society. Non-fiction films can educate viewers on complex topics in a relatively short amount of time in a way that leaves a lasting impression. So, even if non-fiction films cannot be objective, they still must be appreciated for their educational value to society.  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Works Cited

Amazon.com. (2017). IMDb: International Movie Database. Retrieved from IMDb: International Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/

Ascher, R. (Director). (2015). The Nightmare [Motion Picture].

Attenborough, D. (Director). (2006). Planet Earth [Motion Picture].

Bordwell, D., & Carroll, N. (1996). Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies . Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Cowperthwaite, G. (Director). (2013). Blackfish [Motion Picture].

Phillips, N. C., & Teasley, A. B. (2010). Reading Reel Nonfiction: Documentary Films for Young Adults. The ALAN Review, 51-59.

Shapiro, A.-L. (1998). How Real is the Reality in Documentary Film? Jill Godmilow, in conversationg with Ann-Louise Shapiro. (J. Godmilow, Interviewer)

 

 

Write My Essay Sample: World Historiography
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 26, 2019

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  1. Europe during the Medieval (Dark Ages)

Dark Ages is a term used in historical philosophy and periodization which describes the Middle Ages in ancient history (approximately from AD 476 to AD 800). This term is used to show the demographical, economic, political and cultural deterioration that was seen after the fall of the Roman Empire. There has been arguments between ‘light versus darkness’ discussion for the term since its inception as different scholars continue to debate on whether Europe was actually dark as it has been said to be. This time was referred as dark ages due to the fact that before that Europe was in light (when it was presumed to be united under the Roman Empire). According to Bell (1971), this period was also called the Migration period in Europe

This period (AD 476-800) was marred with economic and political recessions after the Roman Empire fell apart. The term Dark though imagery however indicates that there was no political stability or any economic unity within the tribes of Europe as they settled where they felt was comfortable with them. Europe during this time was dark because it was marred with warfare and decline in urban centers, according to how various studies show it.

During this time, the Barbarian people in Europe were trying to move from one place to another in search of places to settle. These tribes include: Bulgars, Huns, Goths, Vandals, Subic, Alana, Franks and the Anglo Saxons. These have made it easy for the historians to study this period and come up with how things were running at the time after the disintegration of the Roman Empire (Bell, 1971).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Another reason as to why Europe was dark is because there was lack of a center of authority as each barbarian tribe settled on its own although the period was marred with vast and verge warfare and conquests. The lack of historical records that prove these doubts confirm that Europe did not have any form of civilization that would have made it possible to clear such doubts as we have today. Lack of civilization in this case proves a point that there was no form of ‘light’ during this time since, after the disintegration of the Roman Empire, small kingdoms arose but in their quest to unite the world was not possible and this makes historians think that this period was met with political uncertainties.

On the other hand, the European economy during this time was not predictable since after the fall of the Roman currency, trade was affected, prompting the use of barter trade as the sole and main method to trade. This paint a picture of Europe with no economic plan proving a point that Europe was dark during the ‘dark ages’. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

  1. West Africa with West Europe

West Africa and West Europe has had a lot of contact since the enlightenment period. This contact started during the transatlantic trade where slave trade was imminent. On the other hand, France which is in West Europe acquired most of its colonies in West Africa, and this increased this contact between most of the West African states and West Europe. However, the question still remaining is how they currently compare. This question can be answered on examining the social economic and political aspect of both West Africa and West Europe (Fage, 1969).

Socially, there is much to compare and contrast between these two sides. Collectively, West Europe is more advanced than West Africa in most aspects. Educationally, West Europe has seen several strides ahead of the West African States. In West Africa illiteracy level is still over 30% something that makes them to be still more behind than these European countries were literacy levels are over 95%.

In health sector, West Africa is also much left behind by the West European countries in so many ways. There are no enough health centers and the doctor to the population ratio is so high making the child mortality and life expectancy to be low than in Europe. On the other hand, poverty levels are also higher in West Africa than it is in Europe an indication that there is much difference between these two, socially. However, in religion, West Africa is well advanced compared to West Europe where religion is not common and this makes Africa to raise supreme in the two in this social sector (Fage, 1969).

Economically, there is much difference between the two sides where again West Africa trails West Europe on this matter. Despite West Africa being the economic heavy weight in Africa due to Petroleum, it is far much ahead of the two sides. Economic progression in West Europe has been steered by the Agrarian Revolution which enhanced industrialization where the industries have grown as a result of the revolution.

Politically, west Africa as had much difficulties of late where political stability has been experienced in countries such as Libya, Tunisia, Ivory Coast, Mali and Burkina Faso among other states. On the other hand, West Europe is met with political stability which is the back bone to the progress that they have made. The best thing in this aspect is for these states to ensure that political stability is enhanced to make sure that these states are able to compete well with the West European states.

  1. Oba of Benin

The poem about Oba of Benin is an excellent poem that shows how the archaic political systems were in the past. Africa was a continent that had several strong kingdoms before the onset of colonization. Oba of Benin is a poem that shows the strengths that the King of Benin had and what it implied to the subjects while he was in power (Sidahome, 1964). These political systems have become archaic although in some parts of the world it is still in use and common. For instance, this system is still in use in some Africans countries such as Swaziland, Morocco and Lesotho where hereditary kings rule these countries (Obrien, 1991).

In these political systems, the Kings or the emperors ruled certain group, in most cases people of the same ethnic background. The old Benin Kingdom has been in use even up to date where Oba the King was supreme and is political power was hereditary. This political system was applied in Ghana (Ashante Kingdom), Old Ghana, Mali (Old Mali kingdom), Uganda (Buganda Kingdom) and in Zimbabwe (Mwene Mutapa Kingdom of the Shona (Oliver, 1992)

These kingdoms, despite their influential history and strength, are no longer existent today due to the influence of the Western civilization which brought in things such as constitutional governments and democratic governments. However, these archaic systems of government are still in use today in so many parts of the world (Obien, 1991). Some of these countries have used these systems in tandem with the new world politics. These countries are for instance, England, Denmark, Belgium and Spain where Kings are still in power but they allow the citizens to vote for their preferred president or Prime minister. In the Arab world, the same is experienced where there are King Rulers in such countries as UAE, the Jordan and Saudi Arabia.

“Oba Erediauwa the Great! In between the legs of Iyoba, You come!” is an indication of the use of culture in ruling. This is evident in such countries as Benin and Swaziland where culture is still supreme. For instance, the infamous reed dance conducted by King Mswati of Swaziland is an indication of how culture can be used in this century in ruling. These are, however, archaic political systems that are only used in very few parts of the world especially in Africa.

  1. The Epic of Sundiata vs. the Life of Charlemagne.

The Epic of Sundiata to me is a more convincing tale than the Life of Charlemagne since it reflects greatness in it. This chronicle gives clear epic of the Mali Empire which was one of the greatest Sudanese Empires that existed during those times. This empire dates back to AD 400 and it was started by the Soninke people. These people expanded their domain from where Mali is and Niger up to where Sahara desert starts. The Epic of Sundiata is a chronicle that explains why the Old Ghana Kingdom fell as result of defeat by the Soninke people (Oliver, 1992). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

It  is an epic story of Sundiata Keita on how he single handedly built the Empire of Mali in AD 1200. The epic begin with a prophecy made by a seer known as Maghan Kon Fatta who was by then the ruler of Mali kingdom which was by this time a small empire. After several years Sundiata, a very strong man, emerges and helps Mali to soar high as he leads his people into conquering new lands through his strength.

This Malinke historical information is rich in providing the best historical moments. However, there is a debate on whether the Sundiata Keita was a Jihadist or not. On this aspect, it is even more clear that Islam had began to gain roots in West Africa, but the chronicles do not state on whether Sundiata was under the Islam jihadist mission of expansion of their territory. However, the political turmoil and religious changes could have been the reason as to why the Mali Empire was able to expand in such a vast speed.

The introduction of Islam in this region, west of Sudan, proofs that Sundiata was not a Jihadist. According to Lapidus (1989), he probably gained his fighting techniques and skills from within (Lapidus, 1989). Again they had gained support from the north who sold them war tools such as swords, daggers and even fire arms much later. The epic of Sundiata is a real portrayal of greatness among the two tales.

The other reason as to why Sundiata rose supreme is because he was a wealthy merchant due to the Trans-Saharan trade. This economical strength made him to be greater and successful in war and he was able to conquer more and vast lands in West Africa. Sundiata is a real and true portrayal of greatness and provides Africa with history of greatness as Alexander the great did for Greece in 300 BC. This tale is an ideal tale that shows how African civilization was before the coming of the Europeans in Africa.

References

Bell, B. (1971). The dark ages in ancient history. I. The first dark age in Egypt. American             Journal of Archaeology, 75(1), 1-26.

Fage, J. D. (1969). A history of West Africa: An introductory survey. Gregg Revivals.

Lapidus, I. M., (1989) A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

.O’brien, J. (1991). Golden ages, dark ages: imagining the past in anthropology and history.        Univ of California Press.

Oliver, R. (1992) The African Experience. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.

Sidahome, J. E. (1964). Stories of the Benin Empire .Lancaster: Oxford University Press.

Essay Writing Sample: Progress in Race
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 23, 2019

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Progress in Race

Racial progress is one of the facets of American life that continues to evolve slowly. America has come a long way in terms of racial equality but there are still many issues that involve race. When situations arise that reveal a persistent level of inequality, some choose to explain the incidents as further proof that the nation has a “race problem.” In order to understand how much progress has been made and to refute arguments that racial harmony is far from being achieved, it is important to view race relations in the context of where we’ve been and where we are today. Doing so will show that the issues that separated minorities from the white population have been improved and remind those who forget or never learned the history just how bad things were in the era when slavery was a legal institution in America.

Pre-Civil War America

In America, before the Emancipation Proclamation and before the Civil War that was waged to do away with slavery, divisions between the majority population and minorities were pronounced many areas of life. Of course, the most important example of division was slavery being legal and widely practiced in the southern portion of the country. Other divisions existed as well. For example, minorities (specifically black American citizens) were disenfranchised – meaning, blacks were not given full equality in voting, owning property, or holding public office. These restrictions were also applied to other minorities, though 19th century America did not have as significant of proportion of Hispanics as are present today (Grimsted, 1998).

The ways in which these practices of disenfranchisement played out in various parts of the country depended on the laws of a given state. Minorities in some northern states were able to own businesses and participate in the political system to an extent, while in other states, even free blacks were either legally or effectively barred from full participation in society (Grimsted, 1998).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

 

Emancipation and Jim Crow

After the 13th Amendment was passed, the legal abolishment of slavery, a new set of laws emerged to keep newly freed slaves and other minorities from full citizenship. Measures such as poll taxes, literacy tests, and other legal constraints stopped minorities from casting a ballot or running for public office. In circumstances where such restrictions were not legally sanctioned, racial discrimination was able to be used as a tool to exclude minorities because laws were not in place to require equal rights. Still, when such laws were in place, seeking redress in court was often futile as practices such as jury nullification spared discriminators from paying a price for racism (Perman, 2004).

Civil Rights Era

The Civil Rights Era, the period in American history when laws were passed and more effectively enforced to prohibit discrimination, was the beginning of a more inclusive American society. Since the Voting Rights Act and Civil Rights Acts were passed, federal courts were more frequently used to maintain the rights of minorities. With these new standards came a changing national mindset regarding race and ethnicity.

As generations passed, racial integration flourished, with notable exceptions, that allowed black, white, Latino, and Asian Americans to work together and attend school together. This evolution further reduced the atmosphere of racial bigotry and ushered in the present era of relative racial harmony (Bardolph, 1970).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Present Day Race Relations

Some suspected (and hoped) that the election of the nation’s first black president, in 2008, would bring forth a “post-racial” era in American society. It is arguable that today, races are more regularly integrated and sentiments among the youngest citizens are more tolerant than ever. Still, in cases regarding criminal justice, college enrollment and graduation, and political involvement, there is remarkable progress but still opportunity to foster greater diversity and equal opportunity (Higginbotham, 2015). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

References

Bardolph, R. (1970). The civil rights record: Black Americans and the law, 1849-1970. Crowell.

Grimsted, D. (1998). American mobbing, 1828-1861: toward civil war. Oxford University Press.

Higginbotham, F. M. (2015). Ghosts of Jim Crow: Ending racism in post-racial America. NYU Press.

Perman, M. (2004). Emancipation and Reconstruction. Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic.

 

Write My Essay Sample: Disaster Recovery
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 22, 2019

 

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Executive summary

Irrespective of the cause of the disaster in question, the company is going to take preventive, detective, and corrective measures to ensure the continuity of its operations. The recovery plan starts with the selection of a recovery team that will be given different responsibilities in case of a disaster. Before coming up with corrective measures, preventive measures including installation of surveillance cameras and hiring more guards to secure the premises will be used to deal with issues before they become serious. If the functional areas of the company are entirely derailed, the company will move its manufacturing process to a new plant that suits its needs. Hence continuity will be assured.

Disaster Recovery for Business Continuity

Over the course of the year, our company has been going through some unforeseen issues which have resulted in a decline in revenues. The company has had to take the initiative to recover from the disasters and has tried as much to ensure that the same events do not recur in the future. As the team leader in the disaster recovery process, the team will have to rely on and strictly abide by directives given to help protect the company. As a result, this report will highlight the recovery plan made for the organization. Additionally, it will also point out the proper procedures and policies implemented that are unique to disaster recovery team personnel.

The DR plan will be expected to act whenever a disaster strikes and disrupts facilities used to process data. Therefore, the pre-planned actions highlighted within this document will be expected to make the recovery process easier and the usual operations of the organization will be resumed effectively (Cerullo & Cerullo, 2004). First, a team will be selected based on merit, and all the team members will be made responsible for different activities, for instance, risk assessment, hardware and software inventory, and the requirement analysis. Since the first step to planning is risk assessment, a team of two individuals will be given the mandate to identify and quantify risk and assess its effect on relevant business processes. In this case, risk assessment determines that security is the most threatening followed by the manufacturing process and ultimately the storage of critical data. In addition to assessing the risks, other individuals will be vested with the responsibility of identifying the core activities in the organization. That is, all the departments in the company will be assessed, and the most crucial and vulnerable departments will be identified. For these units, regular backup files will be created, and valuable contacts will be kept in a safe place to ensure that the central business can never be crippled (Wallace & Webber, 2011).

The best recovery strategy is one that is not used; as a result, preventive measures are vital to disaster recovery (Wallace & Webber, 2011). Depending on the risk in question, different strategies could be implemented to detect and act appropriately on the issues mentioned and ensure that it does not cripple operations. Some of the preventive measures that will be taken include the hiring of more guards and installing surveillance cameras around the facility to improve security. Moreover, dog patrols will especially be used at night to enhance this security. To avoid the derailing of manufacturing processes, initiatives taken will include the installation of a backup generator that would kick in case there is an issue with electricity. Manufacturing equipment will also be protected from power-related issues by the installation of power surge protectors and UPS, which means that normal operations could be resumed almost immediately.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

After assessing the most likely risks to occur and its possible effects, it is necessary to identify key personnel that will be responsible for the business resumption in the case of a disaster and equipment to be used. In this case, a managing director will be appointed by the board, as well as crucial members from key departments who will take over during the disaster. The next step in the recovery place will involve the selection of an alternate relocation area or office (Nollau, 2009). Conditions in the potential location identified should mimic those in the previous location by assessing whether it is accessible, whether it has the equipment and facilities required and the access to basic needs in the location. However, these relocations plans are also determined by other factors. For example, determining the length of the interruption, that is whether temporary or permanent, and the limit as to how long the alternate office could be held. The number of individuals to be relocated to the new or alternative office also needs to be determined, which in turn determines the plan for the office itself.

When a severe disaster strikes and operations have to be transferred to the new locations, the disaster recovery team needs to be vested with responsibility. The team of 11 individuals will have to be aware of what is required of them to ensure business continuity. Therefore, different people will be given different roles in the functional areas of the organization. To be precise, some will be responsible for computer backup, facilities, administrative functions, and the restoration of activities. I will be responsible for the coordination of the activities during the recovery as well as monitor the progress. This shows that all the individuals in the team will be crucial to its success and nothing will be accomplished without their input.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

References

Cerullo, V., & Cerullo, M. J. (2004). Business continuity planning: A comprehensive approach. Information Systems Management, 21(3), 70-78.

Nollau, B. (2009). Disaster recovery and business continuity. Journal of GXP Compliance, 13(3), 51.

Wallace, M., & Webber, L. (2011). The disaster recovery handbook: A step-by-step plan to ensure business continuity and protect vital operations, facilities, and assets (2nd ed.). New York, NY: American Management Association.

Appendix

System/ functional area Threat Prevention strategy Response Recovery
Security External security threats Hiring more guards, installation of surveillance systems Sending guards to neutralize the situation Install/reinstall security measures destroyed
Manufacturing Loss of power

Power surge

Spoilage of equipment

Installation of sensors, failure alerts, and inspection Using backup generators, switching manufacturing to the new location Fix the primary system soonest
Data maintenance Loss of data

Corruption of data

Installing security systems, data Backup Switching to the backup system Repairing the main server and reinstalling security measures

 

Essay Writing Service Sample:  Increase in Eating Disorders
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 20, 2019

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Eating disorders are a common affair in the modern world. They are intricate, real and often devastating medical conditions that have tremendous effects on the health, productivity and relationships of the affected individuals. In many instances, eating disorders are not a lifestyle choice, phase or a mere fad. The conditions can manifest as serious occurrences and can affect the physical and emotional health of a person. It is always crucial for people affected by eating disorders to seek professional assistance. The earlier such help is sought the more likely that physical and emotional health of the individual can be restored. For instance anorexia nervosa is a very serious eating disorder that affects a many people. The condition is characterized by self-starvation accompanied by weight loss and can be life threatening.

It is realized that eating disorders have become very common especially in the past 50 years due to a number of reasons. Cases of eating disorders are usually more prevalent among women than in men. In the United States for instance, 20 million women and 10 million men have experienced cases of eating disorders at some point in their lives (Espejo, 2012). The clinically significant disorders in this respect include bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and binge eating. It should be noted that many other cases are not reported and this underscores the gravity of the challenge. Many people struggle with feelings of body dissatisfaction which affect their eating behaviors and attitudes. Research indicates that body dissatisfaction is the most common reported cause of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa (Espejo, 2012). The challenge is more prevalent among women due to genetic reasons. From an early age of 6, many girls already begin to register concerns regarding their body weight. It is reported that 50 to 60 percent of elementary school girls between 6-12 years are concerned about getting fat and strive to regulate their body weight (Espejo, 2012). Most of these girls will endure the same feeling throughout their lives. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Eating disorders are more common among women because more women than men usually diet in order to control their weight. Since many women are very concerned about their body shape and weight, they often experience many eating disorders which gradually become serious (Espejo, 2012). Many women aspire to be slim and will therefore limit the amount of fatty foods they consume or exercise frequently. The desire and preoccupation to control weight and shape ultimately translates into a risky eating disorder. According to medical research, women are more likely to consider their overeating behavior more abnormal than men. While binge eating is usually seen across the genders, women feel much of the challenge due to socialization which emphasizes thinness as a quality for women. Therefore women who do not necessarily overeat can be obsessed with the feeling that they are overeating and gaining weight. Such a feeling predisposes them to developing bulimia nervosa. Additionally, more women than men are likely to seek medical treatment for their conditions. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The challenge of eating disorders has been growing at a faster rate since 1950. Part of this increase is due to the growing awareness regarding food and human health. The growth and development in food technology has created many options for consumers (DeSole, 2010). As a result, people today have many options to choose from regarding their diets. The challenge also differs considerably across different social classes. In the US, anorexia nervosa is seen to be more prevalent among non-Hispanic whites than in the other races. Anorexia nervosa is essentially a mental health condition that can be life threatening is not treated early enough. Increase in public awareness on this matter can help to change how the disorders are usually viewed by the public. Eating disorders have also increased due to the challenges associated with obesity and the desire by many people to remain healthy through responsible eating.

It is reported that eating disorders arise from a combination of emotional, biological interpersonal, psychological and social factors. On the face value, the disorders are generally a preoccupation with weight and food matters while in actual sense these are very complex medical conditions (DeSole, 2010). The affected people only strive to use food as a means to control and manage their emotions and feelings which is usually just part of the solution. Many other people opt to diet and binge as a way of coping with pain and emotions and to provide personal gratification in managing one’s life. In the end, the behaviors spiral out of control and affect the emotional and physical health of an individual. The affected people also experience reduced self-esteem, self-control and competence.

The media has played a big role in promoting eating disorders by exposing consumers to reality issues which many people then strive to achieve. In the same way, the media provides the best avenue to create attention and awareness on the extent of eating disorders. People should learn to appreciate their bodies and develop a positive body image. Similarly, they should have a proper relationship with food and seek help from professionals.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Eating disorders have therefore increased in the past 50 years on the basis of many reasons. It must be understood that these disorders are medical conditions that should be addressed professionally. The affected people should always be willing to seek help than suffer in silence since delayed treatment can be dangerous. While women are more affected by these conditions than men, it is recognized that eating disorders affect many people and the challenge is growing rapidly.  Anorexia nervosa is a common disorder that affects many people in the world today and should therefore be considered in greater detail. As a mental health condition this disease can cause irreversible damage to an individual.

References

DeSole, L. (2010). Special issue: Eating disorders and mindfulness. Eating Disorders, 19(1), 1-5.

Espejo, R. (Ed.). (2012). Eating disorders. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Write My Essay Sample: Gender Treatment
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 20, 2019

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Why Genders Are Treated Differently

Virginia Woolf’s “Shakespeare’s Sister” is a short work of fiction which examines the different life that a fictional Judith Shakespeare would have compared to her brother, William. Margaret Mead’s “Sex and Temperament” is an anthropological essay that seeks to examine the basis for the creation of sex or gender-based roles in society. Finally, Germaine Greer’s “Masculinity” seeks to understand how socialization affects the growth and development that leads to the different treatment of men and women. Each article examines the differences between genders and tries to find the reason that they are separated and treated differently from one another. By looking at the three texts, it is clear that education, a need to standardize behaviors, and socialization are three reasons why genders are separated and treated differently.

Virginia Woolf’s work “Shakespeare’s Sister” argues that the primary reason that the genders are separated is due to women being denied the same education as men. One of the first sentences that the author writes is “Women are poorer than men because- this or that” (Woolf 692). This quote does not mean poor as in money, but that their position in society is worse than men. However, instead of being able to give a reason for this happening, Woolf seems to have given up on a single reason because it is just clear to her that men want women to be lower in society than them. This sentiment of there being no true reason behind males being treated better than women is also present in Mead’s work. She writes that societies all over the world make divisions based on sex, age, or other factors, with women sometimes being the beneficiary and sometimes being harmed (Mead 712). In the case of western society, it seems as though historical developments and socialization resulted in the system Mead rails against and in which the fictional Judith Shakespeare suffers.  The text continues and Woolf says that this separation between men and women seems odd when looking at the way that women are shown in literature compared with how they are treated in society. She says that in fiction, women are given very high praise and love but in society they are not treated well at all (Woolf 694). This leads Woolf to look past the system of society that keeps women from being important and towards the day-to-day challenges that women face. In her imaginative story of Judith Shakespeare, Woolf says that Judith was just as smart and talented as William, but “she was not sent to school. She had no chance of learning grammar and logic, let alone of reading Horace and Virgil” (Woolf 697). This quote shows that Woolf thinks that the root of the separation between the genders is based on society’s belief that women should not study academic works. This idea, combined with the violence against women that is mentioned in the work, shows Woolf’s belief that Judith and any other woman have the same potential as men, but society prevents women from taking part to keep men in control.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Mead’s text “Sex and Temperament” argues that genders are treated differently and separated to create a way of standardizing behavior in the society. She writes “Women are often defined by the needs and wants of men. Men, who were conceived as proceeding along a special masculine road, shaping women to their fads and whims in womanliness” (Mead 711). The upper class women have their behaviors created by men who have power over the women in their lives by controlling jobs, money, and access to education. This shares the ideas that were made by Woolf in that women are not given the same opportunities as men in terms of education. Wooolf’s Judith Shakespeare “had no chance of learning grammar and logic” because upper class men decided that women had no use for such abilities, even if it put women at a large disadvantage and creates a social division (Woolf 697). In terms of the western society, Mead claims that gender separation happens to “standardize the personality of men and women as clearly contrasting, complementary, and antithetical, and to make every institution in society congruent with this standardization” (Mead 714). Basically, Mead believes that western society’s gender differences happened as a way of making differences clear between men and women and that men benefitted from that starting position and continue to hold power over women by creating society as they want. The purpose of this unfair balance of power is to create a system where the men get to stay in power by telling women that their social role involves marriage and children instead of books and conference rooms.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Germaine Greer looks into the socialization of males and females and finds that gender differences are based in primal instincts that have been put into modern society. The author writes that men are nurtured to be big, brutish, and demanding from the time they are babies. The author writes “That process begins when the carer who thinks a child a boy readily offers it food when it cries; the same carer, thinking a child a girl, will allow it to cry longer and will soothe rather than feed it” (Greer 730). According to this quote, men are socialized to be able to use their demanding nature to get what they want in life while women are socialized to have patience. This early training to be loud and aggressive to get what they want is then supported by their mothers who dote on the male children, letting them complete what Greer thinks is their first sexual conquest, the domination of their mother (Greer 731).

The concept that women are forced to obey men even in their cries as children is unique, but shares similarities with the work of Mead. Mead believed that “Women are often defined by the needs and wants of men” (711). If society has demanded that a woman’s place is to care for men, even when they are boys, then women must always put the development of the male ahead of the female. Greer points out that women have to prove their worth to their fathers but boys do not have to do so with their mother (731). A boy will be educated and taught to be successful, but a girl would need to prove that she is worthy, a primary complaint in Woolf’s work. Greer continues “Generally, however, though women make boys out of babies it is men who make men out of boys” (Greer 732). Men socialize others by creating a social ladder that is based on who is strongest, best looking, and most successful. At the same time, men rarely let women get more than a few steps on the ladder before they have their climbing stopped altogether. As Woolf stated, women are often denied education in favor of the male children because society automatically places men above women. This harmful belief creates an immediate separation between genders that is created by the need for standardization that was discussed in Mead’s work. Yet Greer’s idea of the differences between men and women is based on society’s willingness to put men first, a willingness that is driven by socialization that has centuries of reinforcement. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Virginia Woolf’s “Shakespeare’s Sister”, Margaret Mead’s “Sex and Temperament”, and Germaine Greer’s “Masculinity” contend that education, a need to standardize behaviors, and socialization are three reasons why genders are separated and treated differently. The three works take different stances on the root cause of separation, but they all tie into each other in several ways. The ideas expressed in each work are logical, but they demonstrate the circular logic of a male dominated society. All three of the works show that the ladder of society that keeps women from being equal to men must be rebuilt with logic rather than continuing on the primal, exclusive path that has been put in place.

Works Cited

Greer, Germaine. “Masculinity”. A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers. 9th   ed. Ed.Lee A. Jacobus. Boston, MA, United States: Macmillan Higher Education,       2013.725-738. Print

Jacobus, Lee A. A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers. 9th ed. Boston, MA,               United States: Macmillan Higher Education, 2013. Print.

Mead, Margaret. “Sex and Temperament”. A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College       Writers. 9th ed. Ed. Lee A. Jacobus. Boston, MA, United States: Macmillan Higher      Education, 2013.707-723. Print

Woolf, Virginia. “Shakespeare’s Sister”. A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College           Writers. 9th ed. Ed. Lee A. Jacobus. Boston, MA, United States: Macmillan Higher      Education, 2013.689-706 Print.

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