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Essay Writing Sample: Abnormal Psychology: Social Phobias
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 22, 2018

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Abstract

This research paper highlights abnormal behavior, specifically social phobia, as a common yet less understood phenomenon. Generally, there are many types of abnormal behaviors, but this paper provides in-depth information on social phobias. It highlights some of the major symptoms of this complication and the main reasons as to why it is classified as an abnormal behavior. To improve the legitimacy of the arguments, the paper brings in the biopsychosocial understanding of the condition to show how the human genes and the environment can sometimes bring about various conditions that can be classified as abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, the paper provides empirical and theoretical evidence to supports its arguments on this particular psychological complication. It does so, by highlighting some of the primary causes of social phobia and the possible treatments for the given complications. Finally, it incorporates a recent research study conducted on individuals with such tendencies.

Girls standing apart from others in school — Image by © Heide Benser/Corbis

Abnormal Psychology: Phobias

Abnormal psychology primarily deals with the study of unusual patterns of behavior, tendencies, and emotions, which cannot easily be classified as a mental disorder. One of the most common forms of abnormal behavior is known as phobia. Simply put, this refers to a unique anxiety disorder that is physically exhibited by a constant irrational fear of objects or a particular situation. This type of abnormal behavior will often occur based on an almost instantaneous response to the above triggers, and it might persist for more than six months. In most cases, the individual is unable to contain the situation or set of events that usually leads to the actual phobia (Hersen & Ammerman, 2000). This behavior is usually classified as abnormal since the sufferer often has an unusual reaction as when compared to other individuals in the same situation. In other words, while some individuals might not suffer from any fear-related responses to a particular situation, the individual with this kind of phobia suffers from increased levels of stress in a similar setting. In an instance where the sufferer is unable to avoid the setting or situation, he/she often experiences significant amounts of stress, which can be uncomfortable. This paper explores social phobia based on empirical and theoretical evidence. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Phobias can be categorized into three main groups. This includes social phobias, specific phobias, and agoraphobias. Some of the common symptoms of such an abnormal social responses include fainting, panic attacks, stomachaches and increased blood pressure.  Common among these is social phobia. According to Heinberg (1995), social phobia can persist for several years if left untreated. Heinberg (1995) further argues that this type of abnormal behavior often occurs based on a series of assumptions that makes the individual to be afraid being in certain social settings. Once an individual perceives any social setting in this manner, his/her anxiety system is automatically triggered. In the physical sense, this is exhibited by increased production of adrenaline and stress hormones such as cortisol. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Social phobias are part of a series of cognitive and instinctual behaviors that are deemed to be hereditary. ` This phobia was supposed to be some form of survival mechanism to a perceived danger or threat. Heimberg (1995) asserts that when the fear of the social setting is more imagined than real, “this makes it a rather redundant response for survival.” A significant portion of individuals with social phobia will often complain that the fear in a social situation is often exacerbated when they feel as if they are at the center of attention. This is often caused by the unusual perception that everyone is watching them, which they find rather aversive. Worth noting is the fact that an individual with normal responses would in such a setting never demonstrate any form of fear response at all.

There are various causes of social phobia. The first notable cause is the physical and hormonal changes in the body. To be specific, the affected individual might often perceive blushing as making a fool of themselves, or they might perhaps perceive an increased heartbeat rate as a direct indication of an impending danger. More so, these individuals will often be preoccupied with unnecessary thoughts or their physical responses, such that they fail to recognize social cues from their counterparts. This often leads to increased sense of abnormal fear response since they interpret the lack of reaction from their counterparts or social peers as an impending danger.

Several psychological research methods have been used to show that individuals with social phobia will often have a fixation on a material that corresponds to their abnormal behavior. One such study demonstrated that individuals with social phobia will selectively process social stimulus that they perceive as a danger (Asmundson & Stein, 1994). The study involved twenty-four persons who had social phobia and twenty normal individuals who were engaged in computer tests to determine their visual responses to particular stimuli. It was established that when there was more activity in the spatial brain, the individuals with social phobia would respond more to social threats than to physical threats (Asmundson & Stein, 1994). This was immediately pointed out as an unusual response or pattern of behavior in indi viduals. On the contrary, this pattern was not seen in people with normal behavior patterns. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Although these figures are notable, they also play a major role in underscoring the importance of non-genetic factors when it comes to the variations in abnormal behaviors such as phobias. In fact, various other studies have shown that people-specific experiences serve as the primary factors when it comes to developing phobias to events such as being bitten by a dog. Based on such information, it is important to note that the ‘nature versus nurture’ theory plays a major role in social anxiety (Benson & Haith, 2009). Additionally, some medical practitioners might be quick to highlight that this scenario is more complex that it seems- this ‘nature versus nurture’ theory is just but an understatement of the complexity of this unusual complication. They usually argue that individuals are different when it comes to responding to stressful situations and fear as well. This is because, while some people might be unmoved by any given situation or event, the social-phobic person might develop an abnormal response to the situation (Hersen & Ammerman, 2000).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

From the above analysis it is apparent that there is no explanation for an individual’s abnormal behavior that is concretely right or accurate – it is just right based on certain scenarios. As a result, an individual’s’ fear of social settings might arise from a frightening encounter that occurred even from childhood. However, it should also be noted that the abnormal behavior might be increased by an individual’s susceptibility to develop fears in response to certain situations. In some aspects, this response might be, in part, caused by inconsistencies in the human genes (Schmidt & Schulkin, 1999).

Recent advancements in the medical field have increased the chances of recovery from such a complication. Some of the notable methods used in the medical context today include psychotherapy, exposure therapy, and Neuro-Linguistic Programming techniques. Psychotherapy often involves several counseling sessions attended by the client with a certified psychologist to determine the best medical approach for the complication. Exposure therapy involves placing the client in situations that often lead to phobia in the first place and using techniques such as positive reinforcement to eliminate these fears. Finally, Neuro-Linguistic Programming involves the use of special hypnosis techniques and special language to reprogram the individual’s responses to the phobia. The levels of the effectiveness of any given treatment are also subject to various factors. For instance, the competence of the medical practitioner, the patient and the duration of time required to administer the treatment as well.

References

Asmundson, G. & Stein, M. (1994). Selective processing of social threat in patients with generalized social phobia: Evaluation using a dot-probe paradigm. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8(2), 107-117.

Benson, J. & Haith, M. (2009). Social and emotional development in infancy and early childhood (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Academic.

Heimberg, R. (1995). Social phobia (1st ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Hersen, M. & Ammerman, R. (2000). Advanced abnormal child psychology (1st ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schmidt, L. & Schulkin, J. (1999). Extreme fear, shyness, and social phobia (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Essay Writing Service Sample: My Addiction: Working Out
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 22, 2018

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Addiction is the engagement of a given behavior repeatedly even despite its positive or negative implications. When an individual is addicted, they find it hard to overcome their behavioral inclinations. They become dependent on the objects that reinforce their addictions and spend most of their time engaging in single behavior. When people hear the word addiction, the first thing that comes to their minds is drug addiction or alcohol addiction. Nonetheless, addiction is not always negative. Addiction can be positive and be channeled towards furthering one’s successes.

I am addicted to working out, as I tend to engage in physical exercises more than most people do. Working out involves the use of body building tools and other gym equipment to enhance the muscle and physical well-being. I started working out when I was 12 where I would engage in mild forms of practice such as jogging and wrestling. Over time, such actions formed an important part of me in a way that made me feel inadequate when not exercising. Therefore, I increased my exercising frequency and intensity of the workout schedule. I enjoy the process of growth and have been able to appreciate every step I engaged to become disciplined in my workout initiatives.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Before my addiction, I used to weigh 140 pounds, but with my workout schedules, I have managed to shed off some weight as I am now skinnier. This current situation has given me confidence in my daily activities. This addiction has enabled me to overcome paranoia and feelings of inadequacy that initially marred my peace. I am now able to speak more confidently in public. The progress I have had in the bodybuilding process has given me the morale on overcoming any challenges in life. I am more optimistic about life because of my addictive tendency. Based on my experience, I believe that life will always work out for the best as long as we extend the utmost effort.

I go to the gym five or six times a week. While at the gym, I often engage other bodybuilders and establish friendships, and this shows how my addiction has positively influenced my relationships with people. A gym is a social place that has provided me with a platform through which I met different people and established friendships. I also noticed that most people within the gym have a positive attitude towards life, a situation that has helped me avoid detrimental relationships. I work out around respectful and disciplined persons who have made the addiction a good thing in shaping my life. Since people tend to be influenced by the persons around them, this has placed me in the right environment.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

I feel healthier because of my addiction as I have experienced a feeling of being physically fit. Maintaining the workouts requires people to engage in healthy behavioral practices as well. The best health practices are required for one to manage to lift heavy weights among other activities within the gym. Such practices include the avoidance of fatty foods and intake of healthier foods. Bodybuilding affects the human mind in different ways. Popular effects include boosting mental stability and striking a balance of the mind. I can admit these effects as I can now control my temperament and emotions better than I did prior to the body building exercises. Before, I had a bad temper, and that always resulted in conflict with family members and friends. However, with the practice of pragmatism and self-control I have been able to make my situation better by establishing good relations.

I also consider working out to be a source of entertainment as it leaves me fulfilled at the end of the exercises. Even though one gets tired, there is a feeling of greatness that follows when one knows they have accomplished all goals for the day. In addition to this, the workout sessions are accompanied with jokes and jibes at each other, a process that makes lifting weights simpler. With this entertainment also comes educational moments within the gyms. People share ideas on the best ways of working out and ideal diets depending on the involved goals. When people are at the gym, they also share their life experiences, which can help people avoid common mistakes whether during working out or even in society.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Conclusively, addiction is not always associated with negativity when that is not the case. In my case, it becomes a good thing as it has managed to change my life positively. There are indeed negative addictions, which entail the use of drugs such as cocaine. Such addictions negatively affect the physical and mental health of the subjects. They limit the efficiencies of the addicted parties and create a sense of unfruitful dependence. As a workout enthusiast, I can employ my time positively to better my health and social relationships. Therefore, exercising should be an addiction that people seek to make their lives better.

 

Write My Essay Sample: Role of aging on the LGBT community
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 20, 2018

 

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This paper contains an analysis of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Community, specifically, the effect aging has on adult members of the community. The paper examines the challenges they face, how they deal with them and the various organization that has been established to assist them to embrace this stage of their lives. This paper also contains the experience of some of the members of the community who have experienced the effect of aging while being part of an exclusive community.

The term LGBT stands for some distinct groups within the gay community. This community comprises of Lesbians, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people. More widely it includes organizations and individuals who support the rights of these people. In this paper, we narrow down to the LGBT people only. Minority groups always face challenges in various aspects of life and aging is no exception. Although there have been problems in obtaining statistics on the size of the community, it is a fast growing one. As the proportion of America’s older population is growing, so is the number of (LGBT) adults who are going into their earlier years. In some decades, the number of LGBT adults of 65 years and above is expected to double and reach more than 3 million by 2030 (Adams, 2011).

The experience of aging in the LGBT community as described by a member of this community highlights various challenges they face. In a letter to Steven Petrow, the author of “Steven Petrows Complete Gay & Lesbian Manners”  and a columnist for the New York Times,  a 59-year-old male decries being friendless having lost almost all his friends to death and retirement. He feels like an outsider despite living in an area with a relatively large gay community and finds no connection on social media either. Despite his urge to go out dancing from time to time, he feels uncomfortable because he would not fit in and spends most of his time at home (Petrow, 2013). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Obviously, access to health care is a major challenge. While their heterosexual counterparts receive care from their families, gay people may face hostility from not only family members but also health care providers. The fear of discrimination also makes them shy away from seeking proper health care (Adams, 2011).  This coupled up with the high rate of HIV/AIDS infection in this community means not many members survive to old age, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The situation is made worse by the fact that some LGBT unions are not recognized by law in some states meaning partners cannot be granted leave to take care of their ailing partners. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Financial insecurity is worse for homosexual adults than heterosexual adults, not only is there a possibility of employment discrimination which hinders their saving capacity for old age, but also state laws may shut one out of access to their partner’s inheritance or require them to pay very high taxes (Adams, 2011).

Finally, social isolation, which is a challenge faced by all aging populations, is worse for members of the LGBT community because more often than not they do not feel welcome in many places where older people socialize such as religious centers. The effects of this isolation include depression, poor nutrition, delayed care-seeking and premature mortality (Adams, 2011).

While some are dealing with these challenges by complete avoidance of the underlying issues, others are making an effort at coping while others are successfully coping with aging by building close-knit social support systems.  Efforts are being made to address these challenges. Resources such as the federally funded  National Resource Center on LGBT Aging has been created to enable training of aging care providers to allow them to care for elderly LGBT people. The LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN) is has been established as a subdivision of the American Society on Aging and raises awareness on the unique experiences of the elderly LGBT community members regarding access to healthcare and other services.  Other examples of organizations addressing the issue of aging in the LGBT community are FORGE Transgender aging network and several LGBT rights activists. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

References

Adams, M. (2011). AARP Pride: The Biggest Issues Facing Older LGBT Americans — AARP.

 

Petrow, S. (2013, March 19). A Gay Man at Midlife Ponders Being Lonely and Invisible

 

Essay Writing Sample: Quantitative Analysis
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 20, 2018

 

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A Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Quality Education in Our Lives and Societies

Research Problem

What is the impact of quality education in our lives and societies?

Introduction

Education, in simple terms, is the act or experience through which an individual obtains formative effect to their mind and/or physical ability. It involves a formal process through which the society transforms its values, cultural heritage and skills from one generation to the other. This is achieved through institutions of learning such as schools, colleges and universities. The quality of education can be assessed based on several principles. According to Global Monitoring Report of 2005, quality education can be assessed on two principles; cognitive development of the learner and the role played by education in creating responsible citizens with good values and attitudes (Business Council of Australia, 2005). It should therefore involve relevant aims, learning from assessment, good use of time and have subject balance among many others. This is brought about by an interplay of the following interrelated dimensions; quality of teaching personnel, availability of quality of learning resources, quality of teaching practices adopted, the learning environment quality and the quality of results obtained or posted.

Education is fundamental in the development of human civilization, a better society and economic development of a nation. Through education, peace and diplomacy in the society is enhanced. It is through education that people learn how to understand others from different cultural backgrounds which helps in maintaining better social relationships in the society. Lowering poverty levels, disease risk factors and common health problems largely depends on education (UNESCO, 2004). It also helps in the creation of opportunities since the highly educated individuals get well-paying jobs while those who never attained any significant levels of education have low chances of succeeding in life.  Overall, it can be said, education plays a crucial role in any nation’s economic growth. According to a 2005 Access Economics report there was a 1.1 % increase in the Gross Domestic Product of Australia as a result of increased rate of participation in training and education (Business Council of Australia, 2005).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

 

Aim of the Research

The aim of this research is to help in the study and analysis of the impact of quality education on the lives of people and the society at large. Almost everyone can contribute significant views on the benefits of education to the individual, society and the nation at large. However I thought it would be necessary if the impact of not only education but quality education has on individuals and the society can be investigated. There is need to go back to various societies with quality education and conduct a quantitative research on the positive and negative (if any) impacts of quality education to their lives and society.

Literature Review

Highly educated individuals have been found to be healthier and to have a higher life expectancy than their counterparts with little or no education (Barker et al. 2011). Studies conducted on the relationship between health and education in developed countries like the United States and those in Europe have not been that successful. This is based on the fact that most members in those societies have attained higher levels of education and there are no significant variations in their schooling. Studies done in countries with high education attainment and those in countries with less education attainment give different outcomes that direct comparisons cannot be drawn from. However effect of education on health is supported by comparing crude deaths in these developed countries before educational revolution and those at present.

Education has been found to contribute greatly on the choice of spouses among females in the society. Highly educated females would prefer to have spouses with higher education levels than themselves as opposed to their counterparts who received no or little education. Education has also been thought to have an impact on a woman’s fertility and the health of an infant. Females that spent most of their time in schools are thought to have reduced fertility than those who stayed little or no time studying. A study was therefore conducted by Justin and his team to evaluate the impact education has on a woman’s fertility and infant health (Mccrary et al. 2011).

According to the study conducted by Mccrary et al. (2011) it was found out that schooling affected a woman’s fertility in terms of the timing of first pregnancy, number of children to be given birth to, interval between these children and even the probability of ever giving birth. Most educated women would prefer having lesser children and a reasonable interval between them. Some of them showed they would prefer not giving birth either. School entry policies also contributed negatively towards a woman’s fertility. Education also affected a woman’s behavior something that impacted directly on the infant’s health. However, the research found no significant impact on the infant health based on the low birth weight rate for infants in California of 0.0014 from the previous 0.0024 for ladies aged 23yrs.

Studies done on mortality rates based on the educational levels of the participants have found out that those individuals with low educational standards record higher figures than those with higher education levels. A study was conducted to show the relationship between cancer mortality and the educational levels among some European countries (Menvielle et al. 2008) which showed that individuals with low educational standards had more mortality rates than those with higher educational levels. However, margins in mortality rates among men were higher than those in women. In the study, margin in the difference was much smaller for women in Spain than in the other countries. The high margins in men than in women were attributed to the fact that there exist more inequalities in men than in women.

Education has a key role in promoting social cohesion, good citizenship associations and an individual’s well being. Societies that have been deprived of education record high cases of social exclusions and other social evils. A study conducted in Pakistan on teachers’ perceptions on social problems and education (Buzdar et al. 2015) showed that ignorance and illiteracy in the society were connected with most of the social problems. Corruption was among the highlighted social problem with most of the respondents claiming that it went unnoticed in the society due to the high illiteracy and ignorance levels. Gender related problems such as domestic violence and sexual harassment was also pointed out. Majority of the respondents were concerned about the existence of these evils in the society despite having vast knowledge about them.

Education helps in eliminating crime in the society. Incorporation of crime education within the education system limits an individual’s available ties viable for participation in crime, increases opportunities of success through employment and the patience and risk version developed through education (Machin et al. 2011). Teenagers who have spent most of their teenage life in school have been found to have lesser probabilities of engaging in teenage crime related activities. In the 1970s, school leaving ages were changed from 15 years to 16 years in countries such as the United States, England and Wales. From a study conducted in England it was found out that education has a positive impact on property crime than violent crime (which accounted for about 70% of crimes). In 2007/2008 there was 1% decrease in the levels of the number of people with no educational qualifications. During the same period, only 2% cases of property crimes were recorded, which is a significant reduction (Stephen et al. 2011).

Many hypotheses have been put forth about effects of education on civic engagement. Some people argue that education has a critical role in encouraging citizen participation in the democratic processes. Civic benefits that were in existence led to increased number of common schools and educational reforms in the 19th century. According to a study done by United States’ department of education (Dee et al. 2003) educational involvement promoted civic engagement like resisting child labor and engaging in activities such as voting. Voter participation was seen to be high among societies that were educated than those with little education. These individuals had a better understanding of their constitutional requirements and their role in nation development.

Hypotheses

Basing on the literature review above, there are many benefits of education to an individual, the society and the nation as a whole. Several hypotheses have been put forward to help in data collection and analysis during the study. Some of these hypotheses have been drawn from the literature review and are as follows.

First of all it is hypothesized that quality education will have a greater positive impact than that observed in just an education. This therefore means that individuals and societies that have quality education will enjoy more benefits of education than their counterparts without quality education. The other hypothesis is that individuals and the society are responsible for impacts felt from quality education attainment. It is also hypothesized that people find it difficult to differentiate whether they have undergone quality education or just education. Finally it is hypothesized there is no significant difference in the impacts of education and those of quality education. This implies that individuals and societies without quality education will enjoy same benefits to a similar extend like those with quality education. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Methodology

This will be a quantitative study and so quantitative approach will be applied in investigating the impacts of quality education on people’s lives and the society. This study will involve collecting information from schools, colleges and nearby households. Samples to be used in the study would be selected using both random and non-random sampling techniques. Simple random sampling will be used in determining the school and colleges to be used in the study while purposive and convenience sampling will be used in subject selection. Households to be used in the study will be determined strictly through purposive sampling. Four secondary schools, three colleges and 15 households will be used during the study.

Subjects of Study

Subjects of the study will mainly involve; college students, school going students and parents or guardians to this students. Secondary (high) school students will be the point of interest rather than primary (elementary) going pupils. School going students of about 14-16 years will be selected using purposive sampling methods and college students of age about 17-22 years also selected from their colleges purposively. Household chosen will include those lying in the middle class category and those in the high class category. Only households within the same district within the same location will be selected for the study. Emphasis will be put on households with graduates and those yet to have graduates among their family members. Samples of about 10 students per school, 12 per college and two members of the households will be involved in the study.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Instrumentation

Questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews will be used in data collection. Data collected and obtained through these tools will then be compiled and analyzed as either descriptive or inferential data. All tools of data collection will be tested through a reconnaissance study that will be done six months before the actual study.

Procedure

Questionnaires will be filled by school going students and those in colleges. Questions in the questionnaires will be both open ended and closed ended questions. These questionnaires will consist of questions about their understanding about quality education and its impact to their lives and the society. These students will also be involved in two focus group discussions. Interviews will only be conducted when researching in households. During all this procedures ages of participants, their social-economic and status and residence will be captured.

Participants in the households will be interviewed using an interview guide with questions on different areas of study. Questions will include whether the education they underwent was quality education. Gender, age and socioeconomic status and type of residence of the participants will also be taken.

Analysis

Descriptive information of the samples used will be obtained on age, residential setting (for the households) and gender (for all participants). After analysis this information will then be presented in tables and graphs with their central measures of tendencies inform of mean, median and modes. Standard deviation and ranges will also be calculated from the data.

Inferences will be drawn to test all the hypotheses set using the t-test, significance level of 0.05 and at 95 % confidence interval. T-testing will be preferred given that our samples will be in all cases less than 30 and the population standard-deviation is unknown (Lefevere, 2014).

Conclusion and Significance of The study

Findings obtained during the study are expected to boost the societies understanding about quality education and its significance. Students and the members of the society involved will also come to learn that education not only benefits them but also plays a bigger role in their wellbeing and that of other society members.

 

References

Baker, D. P., Leon, J., Smith Greenaway, E. G., Collins, J., & Movit, M. (2011). The Education Effect on Population Health: A Reassessment. Population and Development Review, 37(2), 307–332.

Business Council of Australia. (2005).Increasing Participation in Education and Training: Key Policy Steps. Melbourne, Australia:  Author

Buzdar, M. A., & Ali, A. (2015). Beliefs of Prospective Teachers to Eliminate Social Problems of Pakistani Society. Anadolu Journal Of Educational Sciences International, 5(1).

Dee, T. S. (2004). Are there civic returns to education? Journal of Public Economics, 88(9-10), 1697-1720.

Feinberg, I., Frijters, J., Johnson-Lawrence, V., Greenberg, D., Nightingale, E., & Moodie, C. (2016). Examining Associations between Health Information Seeking Behavior and

Adult Education Status in the U.S.: An Analysis of the 2012 PIAAC Data. PLoS ONE, 11(2), e0148751.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO. (2004). Educational for all: The quality imperative. Paris: Author.

Lefevere, L, S. (2014). 1,001 Statistics Practice Problems for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Machin, S., Marie, O., & Vuji?, S. (2011). The Crime Reducing Effect of Education*. The Economic Journal, 121(552), 463-484.

Mccrary, J., & Royer, H. (2011). The Effect of Female Education on Fertility and Infant Health: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth. American Economic Review, 101(1), 158-195.

Menvielle, G., Kunst, A. E., Stirbu, I., Strand, B. H., Borrell, C., Regidor, E., … Mackenbach, J. P. (2008). Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe. British Journal of Cancer, 98(5), 1012–1019.

 

Essay Writing Sample: Comparing and Contrasting Africa: Rwanda
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 18, 2018

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Introduction

In my life, I have been fed with negative information about life in Africa. The information that comes through the print media and social media and other platforms such as television and radio paint a despicable and hopeless life that All Africans lead in their respective countries. In particular, I watched a movie titled Hotel Rwanda that depicts the life in Africa and more specifically Rwanda, which amused me and thus ignited my curiosity about the quality of life is on the ground (Hotel Rwanda) Notably, at a personal level, I like carrying my research or trying to do what is humanly possible to find the actual side of a given scenario. In situations where I cannot provide my well-informed argument, I decide to rely on the available sources of information. In this case, I have lived knowing that Africa is a “dark” continent that struggles with diverse problems ranging from poverty to poor health care and death. However, this paper seeks to show that unlike this depiction, Africa is a vibrant continent with numerous opportunities.

The Imaginative Picture of Africa: Rwanda

Firstly, in my imagination, based on the information fed from different media sources, I believed that there is no city or safe place in Africa; and that the region is mostly jungles. The media has been printing the downside of Africa which includes the conflicts from one country to another. The tribal and religious elements in African conflicts are what the media has greatly magnified. The imagination for someone like me who had never been to any African country is that people living in African are always on constant warfare and killing each other every now and then. Notably, I have gradually come to a realization that the media gives selective reporting of African issues which has significantly contributed to several misconceptions about Africa. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]An example of such negative depiction is the African nation of Rwanda that is largely infamous for a genocide killing more than 100,000 people out of a tribal conflict (Berman, 2013). The movie I watched titled hotel Rwanda also depicts the country during the genocide period. This ignited my urge to visit Rwanda and see for myself how the county is fairing as well as get a feel of the nature of life in Africa. Among the burning questions in my mind was in regard to the lack of follow up reporting by media or content of how the country of Rwanda is now fairing or reconstructing after the genocide. Basically, all that comes to people’s minds upon the mention of Rwanda is the genocide that is also taught in history classes.  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Besides perceiving Africa as a place of conflict, I also had an original picture of a “sick” continent. Evidently, one of such situations was the issue of Ebola. As was the reality, there has been a recent Ebola outbreak in Africa which was widely reported on the media. The deadly disease is among the fastest killers in the world and I have not heard any reports of an outbreak in any other part of the world other than in Africa. In this way, I believed that the whole Africa is affected and that it was risky to visit an African nation.  I have also heard disgusting news about terror in Africa where terrorist groups such as the Boko Haram in West Africa abducts young school girls and holds them in isolation. This coupled with the reports of war in countries such as South Sudan and Somalia paint an ugly picture of the life in African continent. Finally, I had the belief that Africans are struggling with poverty and hunger. As noted above, it is true that many countries in Africa are struggling to provide for their populations and that famine and starvation are common occurrences. However, even if this phenomenon affects most countries, it may not be the reality in all countries in Africa. Based on the above imagination, I settled on visiting the country of Rwanda which other than the genocide two decades ago has not been mentioned a lot in the media recently. I figured that this would be a good choice for a personal case study of the Africa continent.

The Actual Picture of Africa

Upon travelling Rwanda, I was surprised to get a different view. Firstly, the hospitality and peaceful nature of people the country’s capital city of Kigali Rwanda was amazing. The smiles on their faces told an entirely different story. The harmony and unity with which they welcomed visitors at the airport and in the hotel was an uttermost contrast to my perception of the African natives. In fact, there was not a single indication of war fare or starvation all through my week long stay and all I saw was vibrant nature and wildlife and a very rich culture. The country has a working government and the people seemed satisfied as they had been given an opportunity to vote in an electoral process just like in America.  I asked about the genocide and found that majority of the people had put this behind and were now keen on nation building and development. I also got to learn that Rwanda was among the fastest developing countries around the world but was more excited by the cleanliness of the cities and the political stability. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Another key aspect was the availability of an efficiently working healthcare system that incorporated modern equipment. The level of cleanliness in the health facilities was different from what the media had been telling the world and I also learnt that Ebola had only affected a few countries in Western Africa out the more than 50 Africa countries. On the other hand, there was no congestion in the hospitals and there was an evidently vibrant education system with several universities in the capital city of Rwanda. This trip was among the most exciting times I have had in my life as it opened my eyes to a totally different nature of life in Africa

Conclusion

In conclusion, I am of the opinion that it should be prudent for media platforms to provide the accurate and current information for different countries in the world instead of just providing general information.

 

Works Cited

Berman, Jonathan E. Success in Africa: Ceo Insights from a Continent on the Rise. , 2013. Print

 

George, Terry, Keir Pearson, Don Cheadle, Sophie Okonedo, Joaquin Phoenix, and Nick Nolte. Hotel Rwanda. Madrid: OnPictures, 2005

Essay Writing Service Sample: The Effectiveness of Sentencing/Prison
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 15, 2018

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Prisons (or correctional facilities) are systems for crime control. Prisons together with the police and court system form an indispensable part of the criminal justice system of any nation. Although sentencing and penal systems vary across countries, the fundamental purpose of sentencing is to prevent criminal behavior by ensuring citizens respect the law (McKay-Panos, 2016). Sentencing aims at contributing to a just, peaceful, and safe society. Offenders are often sent to prison due to specific national purposes and principle guideline offered by the constitution (Looman & Carl, 2015). Sometimes the goals of a case can have an adverse effect, and as such, the philosophies of sentencing provided to a judge are used to determine the best wat to achieve the purpose of disposition.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In recent years, prisons and court systems have been the center of public focus. Recent studies have shown that most countries use the prison system fraudulently. Mona Lynch, a social scientist and professor, is cited saying that prosecutors used the law punitively to form a targeted warfare against minorities (Rodriguez, 2016, para. 2). Trends indicate that the public disapproves of the prison system. Most people feel that prison systems do not ultimately serve to rehabilitate people. Similarly, there are contentious debates on the effectiveness of in creating a just, peaceful, and safe society (Rodriguez, 2016). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

 

The impact of sentencing can be discussed with regards to factors like prison population and a country’s outlook on its justice system. Lynch (2016) asserts that countries need to refrain from over-reliance on incarceration and look at other correctional programs, mostly for youths.

Are Prisons Effective?

A prison is a facility where the state authority forcibly confines inmates as a form of punishment (Welch, 2013). Prisons are as a result of criminal justice systems. The earliest records of the penitentiary date back to the 3rd millennia BC (Welch, 2013).  Major ancient civilizations used the concept of prisons as a way to detain incarcerated people. In those ages, prisons would act as detentions for offenders or presumed offenders until sentencing to death or life of slavery (Welch, 2013). Prisons have morphed into correctional facilities working with the concept of rehabilitating and reforming criminals. Prisons are used to hold convicted or suspected offenders, but on rare occasions, they are used as political correctness tools for detaining political prisoners and enemies of the state.

 

Canada has two types of prisons: the federal level used for holding inmates serving more than two years, and the provincial/territorial prison for holding individuals serving two years or less (Goff, 1997). Canada has a low incarceration rate compared to other industrialized nations. Canada holds 116 per 100,000 people compared to U.S. 702 per 100,000 (Griffiths, 2014). Canada’s criminal system is responsible for ensuring the safety of prisoners, which explains why the country has invested highly in correctional facilities that seek to improve the life of offenders (Griffiths, 2014). Today, Canada has approximately 215 facilities ranging from federal to provincial prisons (Goff, 1997). Trevethan and Rastin (2004) report that most incarcerated people in the Canadian prison system are black or other minorities who are in most cases drug addicts. Additionally, the majority of the inmates are men, and they sometimes undergo psychological breakdowns (Trevethan & Rastin, 2004). The Canadian criminal system considers factors such as the severity of an offense or the level of danger to the society as the determinants for a sentence (Griffiths, 2014). Although the criminal justice system means well in its purpose to reform offenders, there is no clear answer on its effectiveness[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

According to the Canadian criminal code, a sentence must be proportional to the gravity of the crime and the preconditions under which the offense was committed (Correctional Service of Canada, 2016). Also, the penalty must be least restrictive to achieve the purpose of rehabilitating and reintegrating the individual. Sentencing should promote a sense of responsibility in the inmate as well as allowing the prisoner to acknowledge that they have made a mistake and are willing to change for the better. Prison offers one a chance to be monitored and mentored for them to change to law abiding citizens. Similarly, punishment helps influence the character of an offender (Duguid, 2000). Sociologists argue that the courses offered in prisons have a positive effect towards the thinking of a criminal. In Canada, these courses mostly constitute skill development and basic adult education. Sometimes, inmates have tutors talk to them about religion and family life (Griffiths, 2014). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

 

Theories of deterrence claim that sentencing might deter other people from committing the same crime. Critics, however, point out that individuals who hurt others might also do so inside prison walls. Deterrence, however, works in societies since most persons who see the harsh penalties seek to live a more peaceful life (Ashworth, 2010).

 

According to Ashworth (2010), theories of retribution work on the concept that criminals will achieve a proper balance if the punishment causes a high level of misery. In this case, retribution can instill fear, and this reduces crime. Although there are no accurate numbers to support the claim, there is an agreement that treatment approaches in the prison system have proven useful (Ashworth, 2010). Community-based programs have dramatically led to few criminal activities in Canada, thus reducing re-imprisonment. Additionally, restorative justice has been central to ensuring that inmates are back to their mental health by the time they leave the system (Ashworth, 2010).

 

Incarceration has adverse effects on individuals and their communities. The ineffectiveness of prisons in preventing crime and the socio-economic effects on societies in countries such as Netherlands, New Zealand, and Germany have led to policy changes that can be felt by other nations (Ashworth, 2010). As Griffiths (2014) further confirms, incarceration is not an enough strategy; however, arrest and punishment can be deterrent. Most inmates hail from minority communities and broken families, implying that some of the prisoners become comfortable in prisons. For small time offenders, extended periods in prisons have proven to be risky since they are exposed to high-risk offenders who then teach them how to commit other crimes (Griffiths, 2014). Some Canadian prisons do not fully carry out their provisions, thus the purpose of sentencing is not fully utilized (Looman & Carl, 2015). Another cause for alarm on the prison system and its effectiveness is the prevalence of prison suicide. Looman and Carl (2015) add that many imprisoned white males commit suicide, a case attributed to rampant prison violence. Furthermore, the rising costs of maintaining correctional facilities is an increasingly worrying trend. A research by QMI Agency and Thibault (2014) indicates that as of 2013/2014, the cost of housing an inmate reached an all high of $2.7 billion. From the figure, it is apparent that these institutions struggle to hold and care for the incarcerated.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

As the prison population grows, the services and the infrastructure required also expand. The prison industry involves the private sector that benefits directly from the jail system. The results has seen prisons morph from criminal justice institutions to institutions that offer cheap labor. As such, big corporations have decided to target the marginalized communities for petty crimes to ensure that they stay in business. From corrupt free point of view, imprisonment would work to reduce crime and consequently instill peace. Although the ineffectiveness of prisons is evident, it is imperative for the justice systems to seek alternatives to sentencing. Eliminating prison systems and replacing them with humane and efficient systems can prove helpful.

 

References

Ashworth, A. (2010). Sentencing and criminal justice (5th ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

 

Correctional Service of Canada. (2016). Serving time.

 

Duguid, S. (2000). Can prisons work? The prisoner as object and subject in modern corrections. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

 

Goff, C. H. (1997). Criminal justice in Canada: An introduction. Scarborough, ON: ITP Nelson.

 

Griffiths, C. T. (2014). Canadian criminal justice: A primer (5th ed.). Scarborough, ON: Nelson Education Limited.

 

Looman, M. D., & Carl, J. D. (2015). A country called prison: Mass incarceration and the making of a new nation. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

 

Lynch, M. P. (2016). Hard bargains: The coercive power of drug laws in federal court. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

 

McKay-Panos, L. (2016, January 5). Prisoners and work. LawNow.

 

Rodriguez, I. (2016, November 16). ‘Targeted’ injustice: Why prosecuting the war on drugs needs serious reform.

 

Thibault, E. (2014, March 18). Federal inmate cost soars to $117Gs each per year. Edmonton Sun.

 

Trevethan, S., & Rastin, C. J. (2004). A profile of visible minority offenders in the federal Canadian correctional system. Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service of Canada.

 

Welch, M. (2013). Corrections: A critical approach (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Write My Essay Sample: Violation of FERPA and the PSC Code of Ethics
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 14, 2018

 

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Regardless of where they were having the conversation, these teachers violated FERPA and the PSC Code of Ethics on several counts. Beyond that, they showed poor judgment by making defamatory remarks about a student and his mother in a public place. This situation is tricky because the teachers were having a conversation outside of school. Not only that, the conversation wasn’t recorded in any way that fits the definition given in the FERPA regulations. The regulations define “records” as “any information recorded in any way, including, but not limited to, hand writing, print, computer media, video or audio tape, film, microfilm, and microfiche” (20 U.S.C. 1232g). FERPA allows conversation between educators related to student records if there is a legitimate educational interest. The educators at the bar weren’t having a professional discussion related to education, they were maligning a student and his mother. They identified the student and the mother by name. Under FERPA, names are most definitely considered “personally identifiable information.” (34 CFR Part 99).  Despite not being recorded, the conversation does violate FERPA and there have been court cases regarding situations very similar to this one.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

It is even easier to see that these educators violated the PSC Code of Ethics. They have strict rules about confidential information and the ethical treatment of it:

Unethical conduct includes but is not limited to: sharing of confidential information concerning student academic and disciplinary records, health and medical information, family status and/or income, and assessment/testing results unless disclosure is required or permitted by law. (O.C.G.A. § 20-2-200)

The educators didn’t exactly start announcing Dean’s grades, but they did make it clear that he was a poor student who behaved badly. They then clearly identified his mother and defamed her as well. There was no legitimate educational reason for these educators to be discussing this student and certainly not in this way. Recently the Family Policy Compliance Office (FPCO) has taken a hard line against this sort of unprofessional gossip. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

  1. Assuming there is a FERPA violation, can Ms. Green sue – the teachers? -the school district? -you?

Disciplinary action for the educators would begin with a complaint filed with the FPCO. They would investigate and the educators would face disciplinary action if they were found guilty of violating FERPA. Discipline can include anything from temporary work suspension to prosecution if any laws were broken. In this case, I believe Ms. Green does also have legal grounds to sue for defamation of character. Regardless of the obvious FERPA violation, the educators have potentially harmed Ms. Green’s reputation as well as her son’s.

Defamation can be difficult to prove, as it is often based on unrecorded conversations, gossip and other unreliable forms of communication. The gray area of defamation law is that it often butts up against freedom of speech. In the case of the gossiping teachers, however, I don’t believe Ms. Green would have any problems proving that she and her son had been publicly defamed.

Though the laws vary by state, defamation is based on a statement that is published, false, injurious and unprivileged. The conversation between the teachers qualifies as a statement and when the bartender overheard it, it became “published.” The teachers said that Dean was a terrible student and his mother, Ms. Green, was an idiot. Then they said she would probably let her son eat paint chips. Each one of these comments could qualify as “injurious” to someone’s character. The last qualifier for a defamation claim is “unprivileged.” In some situations, “free speech is so important that the speakers should not be constrained by worries that they will be sued for defamation.” (Doskow, n.d.) In this case, the conversation as definitely unprivileged; there was no greater good to be achieved by these educators having that conversation.

As I mentioned before, there have been cases recently that greatly resemble this situation. In 2011, a principal mentioned a student’s name, his grades, and that he was disabled in a conversation with a fellow staff member. This conversation took place outside of school, but was overheard by someone who knew the student. A complaint was filed and the FPCO found that the principal had violated FERPA during the conversation. While it is often necessary for educators to share information about students, the FPCO has begun shining a light into the gray area between educators sharing professional information and just plain gossiping:

FERPA certainly does prohibit school employees from sharing education records and information derived from education records with school employees who do not have a legitimate educational interest.  And FERPA, not to mention common sense and common courtesy, dictates that such sharing should never take place in public, where it may be overheard by other parents or students. (Sutton, 2012).

  1. What is Ms. Green’s recourse, if any, for this situation?

            Ms. Green has several avenues for recourse in this situation. She can explore her state’s laws on defamation of character and most likely successfully sue the educators. The FPCO has disciplinary measures for violations. They often begin with a warning, but these disciplinary measures don’t just affect the educators who violate FERPA. FERPA applies to any educational facility that receives funding from the U.S. Department of Education. The Department of Education can remove funding from any educational institution that violates FERPA. The Act clearly states that FERPA is a list of “conditions for availability of funds to educational agencies or institutions.” (20 U.S.C. § 1232g). So while I, as the principal, would most likely not go to prison or have to pay any personal fines, the school and/or the school district would suffer greatly without funding from the Department of Education. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Though she could sue based on defamation of character, Ms. Green cannot personally sue the school or anyone involved based on a FERPA violation. In order to see any disciplinary measures handed to the school, Ms. Green will need to use the appropriate channels. Before she jumps into a legal battle with the school district or hires a lawyer to sue, she needs to file a complaint with the FPCO. The educators who were discussing her and her son might do this often. They showed, at the very least, poor judgement and, at worst they were maliciously gossiping with no mind about who might hear them. Ms. Green can file a complaint in writing. It must be submitted in writing within 180 days of the incident by a parent or a student over 18. The written complaint “must contain specific allegations of fact giving reasonable cause to believe that a FERPA violation has occurred.” (Family Policy Compliance Office, n.d.). The waitress was obviously able to remember what the educators said, so there is at least one reliable witness to this violation. Considering the FPCO’s careful monitoring of information privacy, I believe that Ms. Green and her son would be able to show that FERPA was violated.

References

Code of Ethics for Educators, O.C.G.A. § 20-2-200; 20-2-981 through 20-2-984.5

Doskow, E. (n.d.) Defamation Law Made Simple.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), 20 U.S.C. § 1232g.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), 34 CFR Part 99.

Family Policy Compliance Office. (n.d.) Filing a Complaint Under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).

Sutton, K. (2012, August 11). FPCO Finds FERPA Violation Based on “Gossip” Between School Employees.

Essay Writing Sample: Rhetorical Analysis
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 12, 2018

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The Power of Narrative in Election Speeches

“When preparing your speech, ensure you use soul catching words, watertight evidence and easy to follow transitions.” These are typical pieces of advice communication skills tutors give while teaching on speech. People deliver speeches in different events thereby applying their generative ideas in convincing their audience (Rodney, 2012). Occasions that demand well-prepared speeches for persuasion may include teaching, politics, churches or any other place where people gather. A particular interest lies in the policy, particularly presidential elections, where contenders for the same use the powers of speech like ethos, pathos, and logos (Shapiro, 2016). These are the proposals by Aristotle that scales how people organize their speeches to convince listeners (Rodney, 2012). This paper analyzes how the American campaigns utilize these together with the powers of narratives from the main presidential candidates, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump.

Democratic presidential hopeful Sen. Barack Obama D-Ill., speaks at a rally at Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pa., Monday, March 31, 2008.(AP Photo/Alex Brandon)

Speeches by Donald Trump to the voters come in rough facts and tempers. He has several ideas and examples from sources and actions from the former leaders. He can criticize the competitors and bring in the ideas to the people. His speeches are different from written ones in a way that gives a hard time for analysis of transitions and transcriptions. For Hillary, her information softly drives into the emotions. She has a command of patience and humility in her words. Her way of talking creates imagery to the listeners and leaves them to decide for themselves in humble ways, according to Fridah (2016). An audience to the two speakers draws lessons from the different ideas and facts they use to convince the people. Through these various ways, a linguist can draw several lessons from the two campaigners and their strength in the delivery styles (Shapiro, 2016). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The appeals on a personality that each presidential candidate presents to the people are different. From their past records and service to the public, it is not easy to have doubts about their abilities. The credibility of the people allows them to draw points from everywhere and convince the voters of the likely work they can do to them (Fridah, 2016). Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton have clear records of their work from the past to the time when they now seek election to the highest office in the land. The slogans “Make America great again” and “stronger together” for Trump and Clinton respectively, appear different but can convince the people to believe in the two (Matt, 2016). The ethical values they draw create appeals to the listeners.

The ideas of each presidential candidate come from the sources they cite and statistical figures they present. Hillary agrees to the fact that she can make the people of America more united for a greater future. She implores the powers of her narrations to the American identity around the world. She plays more of the mental awareness that the people of America will be strong while together (Fridah, 2016). These are ideas they try to sell to the outside world as well and make them aware of the future conditions of the country and relationship to the world. In her logos appeal, she makes her campaigns more credible by invitations of the current first lady Mitchell Obama to her conferences. Barrack Obama is famous for his oratory skill as well and appears once in a while to campaign for Hillary. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The case of Donald Trump is to create fear within the people of America and make them emotionally attached. He has figures of the different events in the history of America on how the country lost her pride. These have relations to war and volunteering activities to other countries. He points evil in the world and ways in which the involvement of America lowered its influence (Matt, 2016). These are concepts that keep people worried about the future. Sometimes, he connects the international relations to the problems in America like terrorism. He appeals to the people that his reelection will instill discipline within the state. He implores these pathos appeals.

The emotions of the people will determine if the power of a speech to influence their reasoning. Evidence and credibility of the speaker both combine to convince the listeners. The experiences of most people in relations to the issues the candidates raise herein will either convince or bring down these events. Shapiro, (2016) adds that the power with which these speeches and the evidence raise the inward thoughts of the people matters. For the Americans, they have two contradicting personalities and reasons for elections. As Hillary Clinton comes with a soft but determined appeal, Donald Trump presents a thunderous way of handling activities of the state.

WASHINGTON, DC – JANUARY 20: President Donald Trump delivers his inaugural address on the West Front of the U.S. Capitol on January 20, 2017 in Washington, DC. In today’s inauguration ceremony Donald J. Trump becomes the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images) *** BESTPIX ***

The results that the Americans expect for their country will call for their choices. If they feel their nation needs to be great again, they will remain skewed towards the ideas of Trump. In other considerations, they may want to remain united and create smooth relationships with the outside world (Matt, 2016). The latter creates an emotional bond between them and Hillary, allowing choices by application of logos. Finally, these ideas are about change, and none would deem right than the other. The people will decide whom they thought was right.

To conclude the American people are watching the campaigners in the coming elections. They have the ideas of what they need and want for their countries. The candidates are credible enough and can attract people’s attentions. The examples and statistical proofs to convince voters are the pathos appeals. Their powers to sway the people emotionally are their logos appeals. According to Aristotle, these are how people gain confidence from writings, other speakers, and presentations. They can make the right choices from these.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

References

Fridah, G. (2016, November 5). The world is watching America’s election. CNN.

Matt, F. (2016, October 19). When Hillary Clinton tested new slogans — 85 of them. The New

York Times.

Rodney, D. (2012). The persuasive appeal of the chronicler: A rhetorical analysis (3rd Ed.).        Sheffield, England: Almond Press.

Shapiro, J. (2016). Lawyers, liars, and the art of storytelling: using stories to advocate,    influence, and persuade. Chicago, IL: ABA Publishing, American Bar Association.

Essay Writing Service Sample: Intellectual Disability
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 8, 2018

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Introduction

Brief Description of the Situation

Alzheimer is a degenerative neurological condition that destroys the brain cells in a slow and progressive manner. The danger of this illness increases with time affecting an estimated 1 in 14 people over the age of 65 and 1 in every six people over the age of 80. Thus, this essay describes Alzheimer disease as an intellectual disability that is common among senior people from age 65 to 85. Alzheimer’s disease came into being after its discovery by Dr. Alois Alzheimer – a German psychiatrist, and pathologist in 1906. The disease trajectory characterizes itself by protein build up in the brain to form structures that inhibit the normal development and operation of the brain. This leads to the growth of foreign structures in the brain otherwise known as ‘plaques’ and ‘tangles’. These structures, according to Alzheimer’s Society (2015), lead to a disrupted connection between the nerve cells and the brain tissues, hence denatures the nerve cells. With chemical massagers that help to decode information to the brain destroyed, individuals suffer severe memory loss leading to Alzheimer’s disease (Boyd, 2010).

Description of the Disability, Prevalence, and Intervention

The disease is more common among senior people from age 65 to 85 and affects slightly more women as compared to men. People with Alzheimer disease live for around 8 to 10 years after they start to develop symptoms. Some individuals with this condition can live longer than this given the fact that the condition varies significantly from one personality to another. The disease is considered a disability because it has some risk factors (Goodey, 2014, p56).  The risk factors include increasing age, previous severe head injuries, and family history of the condition and everyday life factors as well as conditions that are associated with cardiovascular sickness. For instance, the symptoms develop gradually and become more severe over the course of several years. There is a general decline in all areas of mental ability; memory, thinking, and language resulting in substantial repercussions on behavior. However, timely diagnosis of Alzheimer disease can give the affected people the best chance to prepare as well as plan for the future (Burack, 2012, p. 53).  Medication helps relieve some of the symptoms and slow down the progression of the condition in some people. Additionally, psychological treatments contribute to support the memory, language ability and problem-solving skills of the people affected by the disease. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

 

Perspectives of Who Supports the Intervention

Since Alzheimer disease is a devastating and debilitating neurodegenerative condition, it requires previous responses. For my case, I support the creation of innovative community based support on the social and behavioral program for women suffering from the condition. The program will substantially offer creativity and recognition of the disease over the years. However, the program is committed to evaluating and designs scientifically proven techniques which accommodate the degenerative course of the disease. The program successfully addresses the goals and the needs as well as the evaluation of applying creative and robust treatment to people who have Alzheimer’s disease. Evidently, the program actively involves people in addressing current problems for the future (Foreman, 2013, p.34).  The goals of the treatment reflect the best interest of people with the disease. Addressing and achieving the goals of decreasing depression among people suffering from Alzheimer diseases contributes directly to the quality of life. Some government agencies have adopted this program and supported it both in ideas and finances to help achieve the desired goals and objectives. These organizations have emphasized community-based intervention programs to evaluate the anticipated outcomes for both the caregiver and the person with Alzheimer disease.

Perspectives of Who Does Not Support the Intervention

On the other hand, the program faced opposition from depressed individuals particularly men suffering from the disease by avoiding participating actively in the treatments offered. They suggested that the program does not reflect the interests of persons suffering from the disease. Further, they caused more controversial views concerning the program as an agency that was established to undermine the autonomy and dignity of individuals with dementia thus lacking real measurements tools for assessing interventions in severe dementia to accentuate the problem. Such remarks make the program to consider the ramifications of an intervention for all members suffering from the disease despite the gender disparity. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

The Level of Agency to Present the Case

Aging and Disability Resource Center is the level of a government agency where I will submit my issue of Alzheimer disease as an intellectual disability that is common among senior people from age 65 to 85. The agency provides a single and coordinated system of information that helps senior citizens with intellectual disability to seek long-term services as well as support. Ideally, the organization accomplishes the provision of reliable data, service access to older adults from 65 to 85, counseling and giving help to persons with disabilities. The agency facilitates the acquisition of services individualized to the unique and desires expressed by each. Central to such an endeavor, Aging and Disability Resource Center strives to empower and navigate health and long-term support by providing advice and assistance to the senior citizens who have Alzheimer’s disease (Race, 2014, p. 45).  The agency maintains rigorous quality assurance by helping people transition from hospitals and other institutional settings in the community. Thus, this is the best agency for implementing my innovative community based on the social and behavioral program for women. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here

Recommendations

The mission of Innovative community based on the social and behavioral program for females is to eliminate Alzheimer’s disease to provide and enhance care as well as support affected persons by reducing the danger of dementia through the support of brain health. Therefore, some of the recommendations include the following:

  • Provide proper screening and protective systems for dietary care
  • Assure proper nutrition and hydration to support pleasant and pleasurable life circumstances
  • Offer many prospects each day for providing a framework with a specific meaning, a sense of society as well as choice and fun.
  • To authorize people with dementia and their caregivers to make well-versed decisions

 

References

Alzheimer’s Society. (2015). What is Alzheimer’s disease? Leading the fight against dementia.

Boyd, M. (2010). Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis and treatments. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science.

Goodey, (2014). A history of intelligence and ‘intellectual disability’: The shaping of psychology

in early modern Europe. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Foreman, (2013). Education of students with an intellectual disability: Research and practice.

Charlotte, NC: Information Age Pub.

Burack, (2012). The Oxford handbook of intellectual disability and development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Race, (2014). Intellectual disability: Social approaches. Maidenhead, England: Open University

Press, McGraw Hill Education.

Write My Essay Sample: Mothers’ Incarceration and Its Effects on Their Children’s Education
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 8, 2018

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Mothers’ Incarceration and Its Effects on Their Children’s Education

Arrigo, B. A., & Shipley, S. L. (2004). Introduction to Forensic Psychology (2nd ed.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

In this book, Arrigo and Shipley show how incarceration can negatively impact on the psychology of children whose mother is incarcerated. On this matter, mother’s incarceration is connected to the child’s poor psychological development since he/she always looks up to the mother for everything imaginable. Arrigo and Shipley’s book on the impact of incarceration suggests that parental incarceration leads to negative mental imprints on the children’s psychological health, developmental health, as well as their education. Thus, they recommend other correctional measures to be imposed on mothers, apart from incarceration. This is because mother’s incarceration directly affects children who are innocent.

In this Saturday, Oct. 7, 2017, photo, inmate Angela Rekoutis holds her daughter Ava during “Kids Day” at the Utah State Prison in Draper, Utah. For mothers behind bars, photos and the rare visit are a lifeline to their children, many of whom face their own struggles while their moms are serving prison time. (Scott Sommerdorf/The Salt Lake Tribune via AP)

Berg, J. (2011). Critical review of literature: Children of incarcerated parents (Master’s Thesis). University of Wisconsin–Stout, Menomonie.

Berg on his Master’s thesis on the impact of incarceration to the children defined several reasons as to why this would affect the child’s performance in school and even lag behind socially. The academic thesis by Berg critically examines other scholarly articles that offers the researcher readily available information on the effects of incarceration of mothers to the children’s behavior and learning. It is an academic paper showing the educational aspect of the child and how it is affected.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Chandler, M. A. (2015, November 13). How do parents in prison affect children in school? The Washington Post. Retrieved from

This is an online scholarly article that clearly shows how children in school can be affected by parents in prison. In most cases, the article emphasis on the incarcerated mother and the effects it has to the way the child socializes with others in school and the general performance. The article examines education as a discipline and how it would be impacted by either of the parents being in prison. The article has rich information on the various ways children are negatively affected. It also shows the reasons as to why the children’s education can be affected.

Covington, S. S., & Bloom, B. E. (2003). Gendered justice: Women in the criminal justice system. In B. Bloom (Ed.), Gendered justice: Addressing female offenders (pp. 1-20). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic. Retrieved from

On this academic online journal, Covington and Bloom explores the challenges that female offenders go through in prison. The thought of their children having no one to care for them, leaves them frustrated and wishing they were free once and for all to witness their children’s happiness. The article further asserts that this affects the children’s academic performance, social and spiritual growth.  It further checks on the psychological perspective of the child and the mother when she is incarcerated in prison. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

Fejes, K. E  & Miller, D. (2002). Assessing Gender-specific Programming for juvenile Female Offenders: Creating Ownership, Voice, and Growth. Journal of Correctional Education, 53(2), 58-64.

This educational journal by Fejes and Miller (2002) is a perpetual portrayal of how ill incarceration of mothers can be to their children’s learning. Correctional educational, however offered to the mothers in prison, is not enough to help their children who still suffer a lot back at home. They are unable to come into terms with the fact that their parents are in prison; away from them. According to the researchers the children could undergo psychological torture due to the stigma invoked on them by other children who continuously provokes them about their incarcerated mothers/parents.

Feldman, R., Weller, A., Leckman, J. F, Kuint, J., & Eidelman, A. I. (1999). The Nature of the Mother’s Tie to her Infant: Maternal Bonding under Conditions of Proximity, Separation, and Potential Loss. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(6),

Feldman et al (1999) explore the different psychological problems the child would undergo if it happened that they were separated from each other. According to their explanation, the child and its mother bond well when they are together and this can be inseparable not unless the mother is incarcerated or death occurs. In such a case, the child grows psychologically abnormal where he/she experiences a lot of difficulties in life without the mother.

Glaze, L. E., & Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in Prison and their Minor Children. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from

This is a well researched article that is deeply relevant on the issue of the parents who are incarcerated while their children are suffering out there. Kids below the age of 10 years need their mother close to them on a daily basis.  Although simple as it might seem, this is a vital factor in the child’s mental development and if not well accorded to them, it can leave a damaging impact on the child’s psychology. The children are traumatized when they are taken to visit their parents in the prison to find them crying. On the other hand, the authors assert that this can greatly impact on the performance of the child in school as it is likely to dwindle as a result of this incarceration. In most cases the child will need a counselor in school who will keep the child hopeful of seeing their mother again.

Harris, Y. R., & Graham, J. A. (2010). Children of Incarcerated Parents: Theoretical       Developmental and Clinical issues. D. R. Carpenter et al. (Eds). New York, NY:           Springer

This is a well researched book that covers the psychological perspective of a child who has lost contact with his/her mum trough imprisonment. This book is more than thrilling as it expounds and gives examples of children affected by their parents especially mothers being incarcerated. The books on the other hand, points out on some of the most common conditions under which the child is tormented and psychologically ill. I would use the book to show some of the dire consequences incarceration of a parent could have on a child especially educationally.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Mumola, C. (2000). Incarcerated Parents and their Children. Washington, D.C: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

This is a legal document that indicates the rights that an incarcerated parent has on their kids even when they are still serving their sentences in jail. These parents still have a say and can contribute to their children’s lives although serving their terms on correctional facilities. On this aspect, the document spells out on the times and span the parent should be allowed to see and talk to their children and other family members. This can affect their children academically and even improve their grades greatly. I would use the article to show the government’s stand on incarcerated parent.

Sparks, S. D. (2015). Parent’s’ Incarceration Takes Toll on Children, Studies Say. Education Week, pp. 1-18.

Sparks writes a very detailed and well researched article on educational effect of incarceration on their children. On this aspect, it is clear that there is a huge impact felt on the child’s education due to the fact that the mother or one of the parent is imprisoned. The performance of the kid could go down since he/she lacks a suitable mentor and a friend. I would use the article to show how the incarceration toll has an effect on the children who are still on with their studies in school.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

References

Arrigo, B. A., & Shipley, S. L. (2004). Introduction to forensic psychology (2nd ed.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Berg, J. (2011). Critical review of literature: Children of incarcerated parents (Master’s Thesis). University of Wisconsin–Stout, Menomonie.

Chandler, M. A. (2015, November 13). How do parents in prison affect children in school? The Washington Post.

Covington, S. S., & Bloom, B. E. (2003). Gendered justice: Women in the criminal justice system. In B. Bloom (Ed.), Gendered justice: Addressing female offenders (pp. 1-20). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic.

Fejes, K. E., & Miller, D. (2002). Assessing gender-specific programming for juvenile female offenders: Creating ownership, voice, and growth. Journal of Correctional Education, 53(2), 58-64.

Feldman, R., Weller, A., Leckman, J. F, Kuint, J., & Eidelman, A. I. (1999). The nature of the mother’s tie to her infant: Maternal bonding under conditions of proximity, separation, and potential loss. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(6), 929-939.

Glaze, L. E., & Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Harris, Y. R., & Graham, J. A. (2010). Children of incarcerated parents: Theoretical developmental and clinical issues. D. R. Carpenter et al. (Eds). New York, NY: Springer.

Mumola, C. (2000). Incarcerated parents and their children. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Sparks, S. D. (2015). Parents’ incarceration takes toll on children, studies say. Education Week, pp. 1-18.

Woodard, T., & Copp, J. E. (2016). Maternal incarceration and children’s delinquent involvement: The role of sibling relationships. Children and Youth Services Review, 70, 340-348.

 

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