Essay Writing Service Sample: T.M. MacMillan
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 11, 2019

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Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Severe Head Injury by T.M. MacMillan


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder directly relates to head injuries suffered by patients following road traffic accidents. The stress reactions of the accidents were associated with several intrusive thoughts and avoidance of physical and cognitive events based on the sequence of the accident. PTSD appears to manifest itself even when there was a loss of consciousness and organic amnesia for the accidents and the subsequent events. Car accidents can cause PTSD among people that are directly involved in car accidents and later suffer head injuries in addition to relatives of the affected persons that never witnessed but have memories of the incident.

The article is based on the case scenario of a girl that was involved in a car accident and was diagnosed with severe brain swelling and the effects she suffered for a duration of over three months in addition to the nature of treatment used for her PSTD symptoms. The study shows that she went through different treatments for a duration of three months in different medical departments. After being discharged from her head injury treatment, she resumed work, where she was known to be a competent employee capable of handling all duties. After fourteen months, she started to show psychogenic symptoms known to be common with a head injury such as poor concentration, severe headaches, undue fatigue, occasional dizziness, and difficulty coping at work (McMillan, 1991, p. 431). At home, her mother noticed that she blamed herself for surviving while her friend, who was driving died from the accident. Her mother noticed some additional symptoms such as loss of libido, early awakening and tearfulness, hopelessness, and poor appetite (McMillan, 1991, p. 431).

PTSD after disasters or combating stress is now being noticed in adults especially with head injuries. Amnesia is also related when the head injuries are severe but has also been noticed in accidents with smaller impacts. Studies show that the possibility of PTSD occurrence in minor head injuries has been suggested (McMillan, 1991, p. 432). In addition, the stress associated with post-accident trauma can be ameliorated by behavioral techniques as was shown in the case of AC (McMillan, 1991, p. 433). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Critical Analysis

This is a research article that attempts to provide evidence of the study objectives by use of a case study. The thesis statement was the relation between head injuries and PTSD, and the provided example shows how such injuries can affect people even after undergoing treatment regardless of their age. In addition, it bases the objective on adults and chooses the case of an 18-year-old girl while still mentioning that PTSD can also affect children.

This is a British Journal of Psychiatry and was published by T. M. MacMillan in London. The author an established professor of Clinical Neuropsychology and has written very many articles on psychiatry. He is the research director of the D.Clin.Psychology and MSc in Neuropsychology courses at the University of Glasgow, a position that has given him wide exposure to issues related to PTSD (The University of Glasgow, 2016).

Upon the analysis of this article, MacMillan shows excellent research skills by providing all information on the case study for one to relate with the objective of the article. This is the case because AC is an 18-year-old girl that suffers from PTSD while her mother is also shown to be affected by learning the details of the accident, even though she was never involved. In addition, he uses simple psychological terminologies as that serves to facilitate information with many readers. This means that the article has an open audience of any person interested in PTSD and car accidents. The article also relies on data from a case study to which many people can relate, as car accidents are common with people, and the reactions are readily witnessed in society. While considering the medical explanation of when the victim was hospitalized provides people with real life examples such as Intensive Care Unit while leaving out the prescriptions that would have been associated with such treatment (McMillan, 1991, p.431). One would expect that a professor such as MacMillan would choose technical terms while writing an article. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The focus of this article is to show people that adults also experience PTSD after accidents and combating stress as opposed to previous studies that only associated the condition with children. To achieve this, it compares the relations between PTSD and accidents when head injuries are involved. His presentation of data is excellent as he chooses a single case study and includes different effects in AC’s life. According to the article, AC sustained a severe head injury resulting in unconsciousness at the age of 18 when she was involved as a passenger in a collision between two cars (McMillan, 1991, p.431). He specifies AC’s age as 18 to show that she suffered the accident as an adult as in normal cases, people associate teenagers as youngsters while that is not the case. In addition, the fact that AC was 18 years and she accomplished so much at her workplace served to show the effects that PTSD can have on people. By stating the effects of the head injury at AC’s workplace and home shows how intensive, a head injury after an accident can affect the victims. To be specific, McMillan (1991) states that there were symptoms of depression, including negative thinking, feelings of failure, loss of interest hopelessness, poor appetite, loss of libido, early wakening, and tearfulness.

The writing style used for the article is very effective as it involves a clear arrangement of points using subtitles, paragraphs, and numbering. In addition, he references his work so that the reader can do more research and find out whether there is additional information from the sources. The subtitles are made in bold to ensure that a reader can always anticipate the nature of content before reading. From a general view, the article shows a well-arranged content that could give a person the framework used by McMillan for this research article. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


MacMillan concludes the article by providing an alternative means through which people can deal with PTSD. Given his field of expertise, he suggests that behavioral techniques could be effective in dealing with this condition among adults as that was the effective method used for AC’s case. He gives this advice to clinicians as the use of medical techniques proved ineffective with AC’s case, but with the addition of behavioral techniques then it could be possible to deal with the PTSD. This makes the article an effective research study that analyzes a situation while enlightening people in addition to providing viable solutions. Therefore, based on the information provided by the article, one would assume that the target audiences are clinicians and other experts within the field of psychology. However, any interested person could also benefit from this information by knowing the best solutions to seek when involved in car accidents whether the injuries are minor or major.


McMillan, M. T. (1991). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, and Severe Head Injury. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 431-433. Retrieved November 16, 2016

The University of Glasgow. (2016). Professor Tom McMillan.



Write My Essay Sample: Knowledge Management and Learning
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 6, 2019

Write My Essay Sample: Knowledge Management and Learning

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Question One

James O.McKinsey, the founder of the firm, recruited experienced executive and trained them by use of an integrated approach that he had initiated. Among the pillars of the approach was holding a session with the consultants every Saturday with the aim of discussing goals, policies, procedures and encouraging the experts to think independently and for themselves (Bartlett, 2000). James O.McKinsey impacted the sense of professionalism to the associates by adopting and having ethical principles that aimed at serving the clients amicably and more efficiently.

The firm also adopted policies such as profits been shared from a firm pool rather than an office pool, clients been accorded the necessary assistance and also the recruitment of professionals. The company also provided guidelines and principles that aimed at ensuring that the firm served its clients well (Prichard, 2000). The recruitment of MD’s that had the knowledge and know-how of the way to run the firm also contributed significantly to the expansion of the enterprise as they had all it takes to ensure the productivity of the company was enhanced.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Question Two

The commission on firm and goals proposed that the growth of the firm had to be slowed and the MD, Daniel adopted an approach that is changing the model of the organization (Bartlett, 2000). It changes from the office base that the firm operated on to client relationship of the firm to leadership thoughts and making of strong strategies to the consultant market with the aim of losing clients so as to have a managed client list that the firm can manage so that the firm can grow efficiently.

He also began training so as to impact the consultants with the appropriate skills and expertise as well as encouraging developments of functional expertise with the aim of diffusing knowledge and experience (Bartlett, 2000). This approach was put in place to ensure that what the commission had proposed was observed and the efficiency of the firm was enhanced.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Fred Gluck brought together a group of partners with the aim of sharing ideas on strategy expertise and the importance of focusing on knowledge building of the partners and consultants, and he also ensured that the strategy on training was not a one-time thing but rather an ongoing practice of the firm (Prichard, 2000). Fred also initiated the training of the partners with the aim of making sure that the partners and consultants had what it takes to be able to serve the growing list of clients efficiently and more thus enhancing productivity.

Question Three

The firm in its two-decade long change process has been efficient because it is through the adoption of the strategy education that the consultants stopped being generalists and did specialization and its through the specialization and teamwork that the clients were served well and efficiently as work was now done well.The team was well chosen comprising of  qualified, available and nonconflicted associates

Balancing assignments of over 80 consultants to 25 ongoing teams was a complicated process that involved matching the needs of the engagement and the individual consultants’ development requirements (Sanchez & Heene, 2005). The adoption of professionalism also contributed significantly to the sufficient running and meeting of the goals set as well as ensuring that the client’s need was met. The idea of working in teams was adopted, and the team would converged an internal workshop was planned to keep customer management informed, involved, and committed to the emerging conclusions. Out of this meeting, the team would focus on  core beliefs and viable options that provided its agenda for the next phase of the project.

Co-leadership roleBray reflected on the challenges he and his co-leaders faced. The first was to make telecom an exciting and interesting practice so it could attract the best associates. The problem is we rarely feel the need to draw on those groups. For example, knowing the firm’s pricing practice has world-class expertise in industrial pricing, but it’s hard to learn how to apply it to telecom meaning that mostly calls on the pricing experts within the practice

Dull was contacted by an executive search firm that had been retained by McKinsey to recruit potential consultants in consumer marketing, Dull soon discovered that there was no structured development program. Like the eight experienced consumer marketing recruits in other offices, he was expected to create his agenda (Bartlett, 2000). It was difficult for him since he discovered that it was not easy to execute the set proposal as specialization in the firm was not embraced.

The adoption of the various techniques that the commission had proposed was welcomed and initiated in the organization and was active in the smooth running of the firm ensuring that the clients were served well and satisfactory, and this provided that clients were satisfied with the end results. The adoption of the training of the consultants and the partners was done throughout and not seasonal, so the acquisition of knowledge was throughout the year.

Question four

The Rajat Gupta’s approach which involved the persuasion of all the four methods as he presumed that discussions were consuming energy that should have been directed towards the activity itself. First was to capitalize on the firm’s long-term investment in practice development driven by Clientele Industry Sectors and Functional Capability Groups and also through the creation of some new channels, forums, and mechanisms for knowledge.

Building on an experiment begun in offices where two- to six-person teams from offices around the world were encouraged to come up with ideas that grew out of recent client engagements. They would then be required to formalize them for presentation at a regional competition with senior partners and customers as judges so as to develop and organize learning (Bartlett, 2000). Next was the focus on emerging issues that were of importance to CEOs both internal and external expertise to come up with ideas and approaches that aimed at addressing the emerging issues encountered during the daily running of the firm.

It is through the focusing on the issues at hand that a firm or organization can move forward because it can know the problems at hand and deal with them accordingly to ensure they do not recur. As a senior partner, i would advise Rajat Gupta that the approach he is using is okay since at the end of it all he will come up with the most appropriate approach which the firm can now adopt and having tested the proposal they are convinced that the method will work for the company.

The approach is also efficient because it will ensure that the firm comes up with the right approach since it has tested all the four methods and has come comprehensively to a conclusion and that the method they have adopted is the most appropriate (Tsoukas, 2004). In the running of the firm, the approaches are all relevant in such a way that there is a right to weigh the options so that they can comprehensively acknowledge the efficiency and effectively. The procedures ensured that there was the recruitment of more research-oriented people and linked more efficiently into the academic arena as knowledge was perceived as been the baseline of any professional and its through that that professionalism was established (Tsoukas, 2004).The setting of goals and ensuring they are met and having settings with the aim of discussing progress and ensuring that all pending issues are addressed and adhered to and addressed appropriately well.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Bartlett, C. A., & Harvard Business School. (January 01, 2000). McKinsey & Company: Managing Knowledge and Learning.

European Conference on Organizational Knowledge, Learning, and Capabilities, Tsoukas, H., & Mylonopoulos, N. (2004). Organizations as knowledge systems: Knowledge, learning, and dynamic capabilities. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Prichard, C. (2000). Managing Knowledge: Critical investigations of work and learning. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Sanchez, R., & Heene, A. (2005). A focused issue on managing knowledge assets and organizational learning. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI.


Essay Writing Service Sample: Categorical Imperative
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 5, 2019

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Immanuel Kant’s View On Lying

Immanuel Kant had an incredibly strong opinion on lying. He was of the view that lying is always immoral and in no situation can it be justified or considered. Upon this belief, he developed a theory of morality called Categorical Imperative, in which he defines the existence of an absolute, unconditional requirement which supersedes all possible situations, which is necessary and can be justified as an end. The Categorical Imperative basically states that that which ought to be done must be influenced by reason only and not on the desired outcome. Kant believed that the duty to be truthful was far more important than any other function that would be conflicting with it. Kant’s opinion of honesty as a mission is grounded in his belief that to lie is to deny the other individual the option of rational choice on how to act on the information given to them and thus, denying them respect as intelligent human beings[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

He argues that lying terminates the validity of any contracts and efficiently makes any personal dealings pointless because the other party only becomes an instrument, given a limited view of a situation and expected to react to it without the freedom of rational choice (Kant, 1993). I disagree with Kant’s stand on lying as there are lies that have the potential to prevent us from hurting others and violating our duty of benevolence towards them. Take for example a scenario in the times of the Holocaust where people would lie to the German soldiers to protect [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] the Jews they housed. Kant’s argument if applied in this case would violate those people’s moral duty to protect the lives of their fellow human beings, regardless of religious background or race. Always telling the truth is an unachievable feat, given the malicious nature of human being as this would expose one to abuse by those willing to manipulate others to get their way. If all human beings were morally well disposed of, not only would it be everyone’s duty not to lie, there would be no need to lie in the first place.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]


Kant, I., Ellington, J. W., & Kant, I. (1993).Grounding for the metaphysics of morals; with, On a supposed right to lie because of philanthropic concerns. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co.

Write My Essay Sample: The Loving Story
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 3, 2019

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In the small town of Central Point, Virginia in early 1958, a girl 18 years of age got pregnant by a man she loved. While this would be a reason for celebration, she was black. A black woman, pregnant by a white man. In any other situation, this would have been a regular occurrence but the state of Virginia, the couple had committed a felony. In June 1958, to evade the Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act of 1924 which criminalized marriage between whites and non-whites, the two traveled to Washington, D.C. to get married. This only gave them temporary relief as upon return to their hometown, they were ambushed in the middle of the night, arrested and charged with “cohabiting as man and wife, against the peace and dignity of the Commonwealth” (Wolfe, 2015).

The Judge allowed the suspension of their one year prison year sentence for the age of 25 only if the couple left the state of Virginia, effectively exiling them from their families and the rural life they were accustomed to. Five years of having to sneak while visiting families led Mildred to write to the Attorney General seeking help (Sheppard, 2012). It is in this background that the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed a motion for the Virginia trial court to set aside the sentence, arguing that the violated statutes ran counter to the Fourteenth Amendment which protects citizen rights and equal protection of the laws. Despite a lengthy process that entailed arguments that both the white and non-white partners were punished equally and therefore the sentence did not violate the equal protection of the laws. The verdict was overruled by the Supreme Court because Virginia’s anti-miscegenation statute went against not only the Due Process Clause but also the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

First Response:

Virginia’s anti-miscegenation laws which classified the mixing of races through marriage, cohabitation, and procreation as a felony that would attract a one to five-year prison sentence were racist because they had been enacted to allow white supremacy. No logical reason does not imply racial discrimination that would justify this law. The fact that the Law only prohibited interracial marriages involving white people makes it obvious that it was enacted to further the white supremacy agenda. The Supreme Court ruling set a precedent not only for other cases involving racial discrimination but also any other forms of discrimination which caused minorities to be denied equal rights as others, an example being In Obergefell v. Hodges, where the Loving case was cited severally in deciding the fate of same-sex marriage in Ohio.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Second response:

The right to marry is among the basic civil rights of man and is the basis of existence and survival of the human race, as it is mostly from marriage the human needs of companionship and procreation are fulfilled. The use of racial classification contained in the statutes of Virginia to deny the Loving this right was directly subversive of the equality principle that forms the foundation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The judgment passed on the Loving deprived them of liberty without due process of law. According to the Fourteenth Amendment, the freedom of choice of who to marry must not be curtailed by an individual’s race. The American constitution protects the freedom to marry or that not to marry a person of a different race as a personal choice which cannot be infringed upon by the state.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]



Buirski, N. (2015, April 15). Watch The Loving Story (2011) Full Movie Online Free | Tubi TV [Video file].

Sheppard, K. (2012, February 13). “The Loving Story”: How an Interracial Couple Changed a Nation | Mother Jones.

Wolfe, B. (2015, November 4). Racial Integrity Laws (1924–1930).

Essay Writing Service Sample: Cold War
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 3, 2019

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War II ended with an allied victory in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union had already been at odds for years. Democratic Americans didn’t trust the communist Soviet regime and had refused to recognize their power for years in the early 20th century. The fear of communists creating all-powerful workers’ unions in capitalist America and clearly intending to take over parts of Eastern Europe also played a large role in alienating the USSR from the rest of the world and pitting them against the United States. The USSR felt it unfair the the United States refused to share nuclear secrets and they finally pulled what Winston Churchill referred to as the “iron curtain.” All of these events led to a 45 year war during which no shots were fired. It was the Soviets, however, who truly started and maintained the Cold War.

Though the actual beginning of the Cold War is still argued over, the causes have always been clear. Democratic America had greatly distrusted communist Russia for years, beginning with the red scare in the 1920s. President Roosevelt had maintained a shaky alliance with the Soviet Union throughout the greater part of World War II, declaring that all should be done to stay on good terms with Stalin and his government. However, early on in his presidency, Truman moved from Roosevelt’s strategy of cooperation to one of containment. He saw the dangers as the Soviets, under Stalin, repeatedly failed to meet agreements and continued to attempt takeovers of Turkey and Greece. During this time, Great Britain admitted to the United States that it could no longer support these governments and asked for assistance in keeping them out of Soviet hands.

In 1947, a meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers took place in Moscow. At this time, nothing was accomplished and many eastern European countries were at risk of being taken over by Stalin’s communist regime. George C. Marshall was appointed Secretary of State just months before this meeting and, upon returning home, he began putting together a staff to begin planning for economic assistance of Europe. Marshall, as well as Truman, believed that the Soviet Union should not be allowed to take over those countries that were falling in Eastern Europe. Though the western European countries approved of the plan, the representative for the Soviet Union rejected the plan outright for his country and all European Soviet countries. Thus, the division of the European continent became even greater.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Aside from the United States government’s inherent dislike of Stalin’s political beliefs and regime, the other major issue at the heart of the cold war was nuclear weapons. The United States had recently shown their hand quite clearly, releasing two atomic bombs in Japan in 1945. Though it was known that the Soviets had been working to develop nuclear weaponry, they had not yet proven their access or ability. The extent of their arsenal was as unknown to us as ours was to them. This fear created extreme rancor among the major powers in the world as well as scaring citizens. The Soviets refused any transparency regarding their nuclear program and the United States also refused to share their secrets.

History is written by the victors. However, in this case, there are many opinions on who started the Cold War. In my opinion, it was the fault of both countries. The United States had grown tremendously during the first two world wars. Neither Roosevelt nor Truman was willing to give that up to the Soviets. They feared that the Soviet Union would continue to grow, usurping America as the primary world superpower. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The Soviets desperately wanted control in Europe and were not willing to back down. By the time Gorbachev was leading Russia in the 1980s, knowledge about the Russian military and its capabilities was at an all-time premium. While pledging truth and honesty, Gorbachev fed the Soviet people and the rest of the world lies through state-created and -approved media filled with pro-communist/anti-capitalist propaganda. Both countries were afraid of what they did not know and this created a volatile atmosphere that could have ended in the fall of much more than the Soviet Union. Communism scared capitalist Americans because in practice it all too often becomes totalitarianism. In the case of the USSR, this is exactly what happened. By locking down the country and almost entirely refusing to be transparent to the rest of the world in any way, the Soviet Union is mostly to blame for the length and seriousness of the Cold War. Open communication and a reasonable level of transparency is essential in a global economy. By creating the iron curtain and removing themselves almost completely from the rest of the world at a time when fear was at an all-time high, the Soviets’ attitudes and actions were the catalyst for the Cold War. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Write My Essay Sample: National Cuisines
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 30, 2019


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Indian cuisine, Mexican cuisine, Chinese cuisine, Japanese cuisines and Thai cuisines are just but a few popular national dishes associated with the respective countries.  Every one of the 196 countries of the world has a dish (dishes) associated with it that is a collection or regional cuisines (Jolliffe, 2014).

But, is there such a thing as a national cuisine or are the dietary habits of a nation the culmination of a country’s social, economic factors? Can an entire country pick a national cuisine based on magical uniform tastes and preferences of its demographics? Are national cuisines just a recent sentimental attempt to preserve culture in feeding habits in a world of changing demographics? Is it possible to name at least three top dishes in every country that would make up a national cuisine? (Timothy, 2016) Is it possible for an entire country to dramatically shift its dietary habits as a result of a shift in the supply of food products? This essay tackles the façade behind a national cuisine to explain that the diet of any single nation is purely just a result of socio-economic factors over preference.

A nation’s dietary habits are a result of food availability, climatic conditions, trade commodities, production superiority, traditions, culture and cooking practices (Jolliffe, 2014). A nation with the advantage of a large water area is likely to have its feeding habits leaning towards sea foods which would be the contrast of an agriculturally productive country where dietary habits would heavily lean on farm produce.  In this case, the dietary habits are the result of geographical positioning and availability as opposed to dietary preferences.

This essay shall take a case study of Japan and Japanese cuisine to explore the dramatic change in what was previously embraced as a national cuisine and consequently imported outside Japan as an embedment of Japanese culture. It shall look at the shift of Japan’s national cuisine from sushi and miso soup to ramen and curry. Ramen and curry are a dietary shift inspired by favorable trading terms that have led to the mass importation of food and food products.


Jolliffe, L. (2014). Spices and tourism: Destinations, attractions and cuisines.

In Timothy, D. J. (2016). Heritage Cuisines: Traditions, identities, and tourism.


Write My Essay Sample: Policing
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 30, 2019

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There is adequate evidence that indicates the existence of social and economic inequalities between dominant and minority ethnic Canadian groups. Many years of deferred treatment between the two is the most plausible explanation for the existence of these disparities. Historically, the Canadian society has enforced norms and ideologies that have differentiated treatment of its citizens with preferable treatment for the dominant ethnic groups (Ben-Porat, 2007). These standards and customs influence current thinking about race and ethnicity. The differential perception of police officers from minority Canadian communities hinders their work effectiveness.

The Canadian police are multicultural. Service officers have been drawn from across all ethnic groups in a bid to create racial balance in the force. Racial balance has been seen as one of the easiest ways to achieve fairness in the treatment of citizens by the police (Melchers, 2003).  Studies point to minority Canadian ethnic groups already making up a fair percentage of the entire Canadian police force (Melchers, 2003). The number indicates a significant achievement for a democracy that has grappled with the issue of ethnic inequalities for long. However, the process has created a new challenge for both the society and the police force. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The problem relates to the treatment and perception of police from dominant and minority ethnic groups by the citizens and fellow police officers. Stenning (2003) confirms that there are gaping differences in the treatment of police from dominant and minority groups in Canada. Police from minority ethnic groups have raised concern over differential treatment that takes on an ethnic direction. The deferred treatment affects how other officers, as well as how members of the society relates with them. The treatment further affects their job placement and social lives (Stenning, 2003).

The demographic composition of police in various Canadian provinces is not a fair representation of the diversity of the Canadian communities (Griffiths, 2007). Representation of police officers from minority aboriginal communities in the main cities that are located away from their communities is particularly wanting. According to Jain, Singh, and Agocs (2000), several commissions and inquiries have cited these disparities in the representation as a factor that affects the overall effectiveness of the police force in the main urban areas in Canada. The rising cases of police-community conflicts have been linked to such disparities in representation. In a society where ethnic differences are at the center of the strategies used in the distribution of wealth and power, representation of the police force becomes an important consideration for minority communities.

The perception of such communities towards the police it two folds. On the one hand, the representation has a positive connotation and members of the minority community see it as a form of security and pride. On the contrary, they may perceive it negatively as a way of imposing undue control over them, as Bahdi et al. (2010) note. In the first context, police officers from minority communities are hailed and respected by their community members. In the second context, however, they are seen as traitors and subjected to isolation and discrimination.

Bahdi et al. (2010) further write that with the ongoing reforms to integrate police work to the daily lives of citizens in Canada, the perception of police by both peers and the community is a factor of great importance. It influences how police go about their primary role of enforcing the law, as well as the effort they put in reducing the tensions that exist between the dominant and minority groups in a country.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

 The Labeling Theory

The major theoretical perspective that can be used to elaborate how perceptions of the police by various groups affect their overall effectiveness is the labeling theory. As Piquero and Brame (2008) state, the labeling theory explains how the classification of people can hinder their opportunities and create negative feelings towards certain groups of individuals. The labeling theory explains the possible reasons for the power conflicts that are witnessed between classes and how discrimination can put one group in a position of advantage over another group.

Through symbolic interactionism, symbols and the meanings assigned to them are interpreted  (Piquero & Brame, 2008). Differences in how members of a given culture interpret these symbols affects how they interact with each other. The symbols/labels assigned to the police determine how they are perceived by different members of the community. The actions of police affect how they are viewed by members of the society and their peers (Brunson & Miller, 2006). An important aspect of the labeling theory is the deviance. According to Brunson and Miller (2006), deviance is a product of the community’s act of assigning a label to a person. It is the opposite of compliance.

There is primary and secondary deviance. Brunson and Miller (2006) observe that primary deviance is the initial act of deviance while secondary deviance is any subsequent act of deviance. Primary deviance refers to any act that makes the authority figure, such as the court system, to label an individual to be deviant in the first place. Secondary deviance includes all subsequent acts of deviance that compound on the original action. Secondary deviance is associated with labeling (Brunson & Miller, 2006). When a person accepts the initial label of being deviant, they are more likely to involve themselves in further acts of deviance and vice versa. Labeling is thus a critical factor that leads people to become delinquents (Brunson & Miller, 2006). When an individual who has a primary label surrounds themselves with other persons who can offer moral support, there are high chances that they might develop new forms of deviance.

Labeling theory also goes ahead to explain the nature of interactions between those who are labeled to be deviant and those who are not. Schaefer (2008) states that this is the main reason for segregations between populations in many societies. The deferred treatment of members of dominant and minority groups by the police, which in turn lead to negative labeling, can be explained using the labeling theory. Aggressiveness and use of force by the police against minority groups leads to them being given negative labels and perceptions (Schaefer, 2008). These attitudes influence the subsequent behavior of police officers towards these groups.

The self-prophesying perspective of the labeling theory explains how police officers who are given negative labels by members of the community are more likely to be aggressive and discriminative against these communities. According to Szeto (2014), when people are given negative labels, they internalize them and conform to them even when the labels are not true. A police officer who is labeled negatively is likely to comply with the label and portray the behaviors associated with the label. If members of a minority community consider a police officer to be aggressive and further disrespect the officer, the police officers will eventually become aggressive against the community (Szeto, 2014). The self-prophesying perspective explains the internalization of behaviors by police officers that often leads to members of given communities assigning them negative labels.

Police Culture and Their Labeling By the Community

Nickels and Verma (2008) define police culture as a type of organizational culture characteristic to the police force. It consists of unwritten codes and rules that dictate how a police officer will function. It builds a sense of solidarity and willingness to perform as well as conform to police standards. Police culture partially explains the tendency of both male and female officers to be overly aggressive, use force in all situations, and more preference for more masculine as opposed to desk oriented tasks.

Police culture is viewed negatively across most platforms. It is a strong force that permeates and prevails in most police agencies in different countries. Police culture is associated with characteristics such as cynicism, the loyalty above all else doctrine, authoritarianism, alienation, and close-mindedness, which are lowly regarded by most community members (Bikos, 2016). Police culture gives the police a robot perception in the eyes of the public.

According to Bikos (2016), over the last one decade, however, a more positive perception of police culture has developed. The positive perception has been increasingly associated with teamwork, community support, sacrifice, and comradeship. It enables members of the police force to survive in the demanding culture in which they operate. Police culture encourages and empowers police officers to offer help to each other in time of need. Officers facing dangerous situations can rely on comrades due to the shared cultural values.

There exists a relationship between police culture and police labeling. Since there is a conflict between societal expectations of the police and the provisions of police culture, the society ascribes negative labels to the police. Szeto (2014) states that most of the behaviors that characterize police culture are the direct opposite of what the society views as ethical or proper conduct. In maintaining law and order, the police may, for example, resort to the use of excessive force. Such a move may be interpreted to be discriminative by some members of the affected culture. The use of tricks, coercion, and mockery to get confessions from suspects in order to ensure that cases are successful and cases are fast is also viewed negatively by members of the society (Szeto, 2014). Such acts lead to negative labeling of the police by members of the community.

Police officers acquire police culture during training in most cases, though there also are some natural predispositions that influence it. During training, there are activities such as drills, storytelling by instructors, and extensive periods of strenuous exercises that lead to the acquisition of traits associated with police culture (Szeto, 2014). These events transform a person’s personality and change how they view the world. Interactions even with members of their own community change. The police culture defines what it is like to be a police officer (Szeto, 2014). It makes police officers consider themselves to be insiders while the rest of the people to be outsiders. Police officers as insiders treat the strangers (outsiders) with suspicion (Stezo, 2014). Police officers are thus more likely to adhere to the mandate and professionalism of the police force than to societal expectations. The result creates a divide between these two groups, leading to negative labeling. According to Schaefer (2008), continuous labeling leads to the internalization of the stated labels and concretizes the negative perceptions of community members towards police officers.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Police Culture, Labeling Theory and the Differential Perception of Police from Minority Communities in Canada

There is the differential perception of police from minority communities in Canada. These differences in perception also seem to take on a gender dimension in which case male and female police officers from minority communities are viewed differently. According to Ben-Porat (2007), the recruitment of minorities into the police force is intended to benefit interactions between the police force and the minority communities who are considered to be linguistically and culturally alienated. Police recruiters assume that police from minority communities will extend preferable and fair treatment to people from their communities, consequently bridging the perceived cultural gap in the treatment of individuals. The recruitment of people from the minority communities into the police forces has increased drastically over the past two decades.  On this note, the hiring of police from minority aboriginal Canadian communities has grown from 10% to about 30% in the last one decade (Szeto, 2014).

Police officers from minority communities are viewed as perfect solutions to the problems facing members of their communities. They have a better understanding of their communities and are thus better placed to solve problems such as drug abuse and crime (Szeto, 2014). These officers are expected to use more lenient ways of resolving these issues. However, most police from minority communities fail in both addressing the internal issues of their communities and its relationship with the police service due to the influence of police culture (Szeto, 2014).  The inclination towards professionalism associated with police culture limits the ability of these police officers to interact more positively with members of their communities. They end up treating their community members just like police officers from dominant groups would, and thus, beating the logic of their recruitment. According to Jain et al. (2000), this is the reason police from aboriginal Canadian communities are confined by their employers within their cities and on similar ranks.

Skogan and Frydl (2004) write that there are no credible research findings that show police officers from minority aboriginal Canadian communities interacting differently with citizens on the basis of ethnicity. These officers treat Canadian citizens the same regardless of race. As such, it conforms to the findings of a study conducted by Sun and Payne (2004) that showed that black and white police with similar treatment towards both black and white citizens.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Failure to give members of their communities preferable treatment often leads to police officers from aboriginal Canadian communities being labeled traitors (Griffiths, 2007). They are viewed with suspicion and considered to be agents of oppression. Also, the negative label placed on the entire police as a result of cumulative injustices contributes to the negativity of these communities towards police in general. Regardless of the treatment, they give the officers a negative perception in the eyes of minority communities (Griffiths, 2007). The traitor label affects how members of the community, including family members, interact with police officers who are their own. Hostility towards police of aboriginal communities by members of their native communities is not uncommon. O’Neill and Holdaway (2007) observe that such hostility compromises the window dressing ability of selective recruitment from aboriginal Canadian communities.

From the discussion, it is evident that deferred treatment of police from minority Canadian communities has an adverse bearing on the effectiveness of their work. They are perceived to be traitors by members of their communities due to failure to give them preferable treatment. On the other hand, the officers are viewed as tools to resolve historical problems by their employers. They are thus posted to their communities and confined to lower ranks where they have constant interactions with members of their communities. These two perceptions and the resultant environment makes it difficult for these officers to fulfill their mandate effectively.


Bahdi, R., Bent, R., Cohen, I., Henry, F., Holmes, R., Jackman, B., … Whitaker, R. (2010). Racial profiling. Vancouver, BC: British Columbia Civil Liberties Association.


Ben-Porat, G. (2007). Policing multicultural states: Lessons from the Canadian model. In Immigration, minorities and multiculturalism in democracies conference. Montreal, QC: Ethnicity and Democratic Governance.


Bikos, L. J. (2016). “I took the blue pill”: The effect of the hegemonic masculine police culture on Canadian policewomen’s identities (Master’s thesis). The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.


Brunson, R. K., & Miller, J. (2006). Gender, race, and urban policing: The experience of African American youths. Gender & Society, 20(4), 531-552.


Griffiths, C. T. (2007). Canadian police work (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: Thomson Nelson.


Jain, H. C., Singh, P., & Agocs, C. (2000). Recruitment, selection and promotion of visible-minority and aboriginal police officers in selected Canadian police services. Canadian Public Administration, 43(1), 46-74.


Melchers, R. (2003). Do Toronto police engage in racial profiling? Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 45(3), 347-366.

Nickels, E. L., & Verma, A. (2008). Dimensions of police culture: A study in Canada, India, and Japan. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 31(2), 186-209.


O’Neill, M., & Holdaway, S. (2007). Examining ‘window dressing’: The views of black police associations on recruitment and training. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(3), 483-500.


Piquero, A. R., & Brame, R. W. (2008). Assessing the race-crime and ethnicity-crime relationship in a sample of serious adolescent delinquents. Crime & Delinquency, 54(3), 390-422.


Schaefer, R. T. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of race, ethnicity, and society (Vol. 1). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.


Skogan, W. G., & Frydl, K. (Eds.). (2004). Fairness and effectiveness in policing. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.


Stenning, P. C. (2003). Policing the cultural kaleidoscope: Recent Canadian experience. Police & Society, (7), 13-47.


Sun, I. Y., & Payne, B. K. (2004). Racial Differences in Resolving Conflicts: A Comparison between Black and White Police Officers. Crime & Delinquency, 50(4), 516-541.


Szeto, J. (2014). Policing diversity with diversity: Exploring organizational rhetoric, myth, and minority police officers’ perceptions and experiences (Master’s thesis). Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario.

Write My Essay Sample: Trying Out One’s New Sword
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 29, 2019

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The arguments presented in the analysis of Mary Midgley’s ‘Trying Out One’s New Sword’ are not comprehensive in identifying some of the errors in the work. The critique points out that Midgley is successful in arguing against moral isolationism because she presents solid facts about the differences that exist in understanding different cultures (Midgley, 1981). The critique, however, does not explore the fundamental basis of all cultures, inherently agreeing with the argument presented by Midgley instead of exploring the basis of understanding the traditions of other cultures.

The support for Midgley’s position is constructed on the basis of her own argument, and there are no outside references used in the critique to justify any objections. The critique does not present an objection to the argument against moral isolationism, instead backing up the theories already presented by Midgley. Therefore, there is no insightful analysis of the evidence that has been presented by the author, instead using her own argument to justify the critique. Additional outside references such as other arguments for and against moral isolationism would have helped to make the argument much stronger.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The critique correctly points out that Midgley is not successful in refuting the theory of normative ethical relativism. There is evidence presented to show this fact, and it is linked to the common theories explaining behavior and cultural differences (Midgley, 1981).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] However, again, there are no outside sources to make this argument stronger, and this proves a significant challenge in making a convincing case of the errors in Midgley’s argument. Making use of other arguments for and against normative ethical relativism would help to clarify some of the errors and oversights presented in Midgley’s argument. It would make it much easier to present a coherent critique that is based on facts and observable evidence.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Midgley, M. (1981). Trying Out One’s New Sword, from Heart and Mind. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Essay Writing Sample: Is Objectivity Possible in Non-Fiction Films?
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 28, 2019


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Objectivity is difficult to achieve in any form of communication; however, since non-fiction films are based on facts, objectivity is theoretically possible. This paper will argue that even if objectivity in non-fiction films is theoretically possibly, it is never truly achieved. Objectivity is never achieved because any film that makes it beyond a cellphone video recorder and simple computer editing is made with the intention of either making profit or communicating a message that the maker deems significant. If the premise professional non-fiction films are created for a specific purpose, then subjectivity or bias is an unavoidable aspect of these films.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

It is theoretically possible for non-fiction films to be objective because they have the purpose of communication objective information; however, societal forces drive non-fiction film makers to produce films that have a purpose beyond simply communication objective information. In modern society, anyone with a smartphone can make a non-fiction film. Non-fiction films made with smartphones or armature filming software will be less influenced by societal forces that direct the purpose of these films. This is because the non-professional films may only be for personal use, they are often not intended to make profit, and may only be viewed by a small audience. The class of non-fiction films discussed here will be limited to films that have been professionally produced, or at least to ones that appear on the website “IMDb” or the “International Movie Database,” which is an internationally recognized database for professional films (Amazon.com, 2017). Any non-fiction film that is produced with the intention of appearing on IMDB has the purpose of being viewed by a large audience, making a profit, or communicating some significant message. If a film is professionally produced with one of the purposes mentioned in the previous sentence, then it cannot be truly objective. Objectivity is defined by Merriam Webster’s dictionary as the un-biased and un-opinionated representation of a set of facts. If a non-fiction film is made with the purpose of creating profit for the makers, then the presentation of facts will be biased. For a non-fiction film to make profit, it has either have significant education value, or have significant entertainment value for large audiences. Non-fiction films with significant education value will be the most objective films, however bias still cannot be entirely eliminated due to the nature of film as a form of communication. If a non-fiction film is made with the purpose of communicating a message that the maker deems significant, then the presentation of facts will most certainly be opinionated. If a film is made with the goal of communicating a certain perspective or message for society, then this innately contradicts the definition of objectivity because the film is communicating an opinion about a collection of facts. Therefore, professional non-fiction films are driven by societal forces to either make profit or communicate a message and thus cannot objectively present factual information. The following section will provide examples of three different non-fiction films or film series that will demonstrate this conclusion. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here]

Many films under the genera ‘documentary’ on the International Movie Database openly admit that the information presented is fictional and documentaries that are mostly factual still contain hidden bias. The most obvious examples of non-fiction films that contain heavy bias are those which are classified as horror documentaries. Horror documentaries cover topics like supernatural experiences, extraterrestrial sightings, or corrupt alien politicians that control society; these kinds of topics are ones that most academics group under the heading ‘conspiracy theories.’ Non-fiction films that discuss controversial topics like the supernatural, the extraterrestrial, or extreme corruption are relevant to a large group of people; however, the style of filming associated with horror documentaries is conducive to entertainment. The facts that are presented in the film may be somewhat objective, but horror documentary films are intended to create an emotional response in viewers. Horror documentaries will use ‘real footage’ dark lighting, low and brooding music, and ‘witness accounts’ that intend to make the viewer feel opinionated about the facts presented; therefore, horror documentaries cannot be objective. Even documentaries not classified as ‘horror documentaries’ will often be clearly biased and create an emotional response in viewers.

The documentary “The Nightmare” is a non-fiction film that explores the topic of sleep paralysis. Although the film claims to be a documentary that presents facts on sleep paralysis, no scientifically verified information is presented and expert opinions of academics in the field are never discussed (Ascher, 2015). Instead, “The Nightmare” suggests to the viewer that sleep paralysis is caused by demons and that it can be stopped by praying or chanting the holy name of Jesus Christ (Ascher, 2015). The proposition in “The Nightmare” that sleep paralysis is caused by demons is contradicted by scientifically verified research into the phenomenon. Psychologist argue that sleep paralysis is a result of an brain phenomenon where one feels ‘awake’ but is still in a dream like state in which they experience images that feel real. There is no scientific research that supports the notion that sleep paralysis is caused by demons. Therefore, “The Nightmare” is a classified as a non-fiction film, but is clearly biased and not objective.

Nature and history documentaries are mostly factually objective, however bias still exists because these non-fiction films have a purpose. Consider the popular non-fiction film series “Planet Earth.” The series “Planet Earth” presents the viewer with objective, scientific information about the various biomes, ecosystems, and organisms found on planet earth (Attenborough, 2006). The basic information about different biomes and ecosystems that the film presents is objective, however the interpretation and presentation of this information is not. This is again because of the purpose of professional non-fiction films is to make profit or communicate a message. The film “Planet Earth” was very profitable; it was profitable because it displays stunning high-resolution images of the natural world and tells miniature stories in each episode about the lives of the people and organisms in the particular biome discussed (Attenborough, 2006). Although the presented interpretation of facts in the film are interpretations generally accepted by the scientific community, they cannot be called truly objective facts because scientific disagreement still exists. For example, “Planet Earth” holds the view that the theory of human induced global climate change is true (Attenborough, 2006). Even though most the scientific community agrees that human induced global climate change is a fact, there are still those who dispute it. If a theory or piece of information is not fully agreed upon by the global scientific community then it cannot be considered objective information.

History documentaries are most often created with the intent of providing an accurate account of past events, however the film makers purpose will still influence the objectivity of these films. If a non-fiction film maker creates a historic film with the purpose of providing educational value and accurate account of events, the film will inadvertently include a biased interpretation of those events. This is because accounts of historical events come from a variety of sources, objectivity in these sources is extremely difficult to achieve. Accounts of historical events come from witness accounts, memoirs, film, photographs, biographies, etc. Although a comparison of different sources of information about historical events can help eliminate bias, it is extremely difficult for anyone to record events without including personal bias. This is a recognized academic issue for analysis of historical events. It is impossible for a person to record events without including personal bias because humans are always influenced by personal perception of the world around them. Our memories cannot be trusted, eye witness accounts in courts of law have in modern society been labelled as unreliable because human perception will modify sequences of events, this is proven in the field of psychology.

From this brief discussion of characteristics of different classes of non-fiction films, scientific or nature films are concluded to be the most objective. However, scientific or nature films often still include bias. For example, the non-fiction film “Blackfish” presents a scientific argument against the act of keeping large marine whales in captivity (Cowperthwaite, 2013). The film uses scientific data to argue that captivity has significant negative implications for the mental health of whales (Cowperthwaite, 2013). It is claimed in the film that captivity drives whales to commit violent acts against humans and therefore captivity of large intelligent mammals like whales should not be tolerated (Cowperthwaite, 2013). The non-fiction film “Blackfish” objectively presents facts about the psychological needs of whales in captivity. This film also describes the sequence of events that lead to the death of a trainer at Sea World, California (Cowperthwaite, 2013). However, the documentary clearly takes the position that captivity of large marine animals is wrong and should be banned, this is a subjective view. The non-fiction film “Blackfish” does not present objective scientific information that supports the humane captivity of large marine animals. This is because the films purpose is to convince the audience that captivity of large marine animals is wrong and inhumane, therefore the film is not objective.

Literature on the objective nature of non-fiction films supports the conclusion of this paper. A book titled “Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies” by David Bordwell and Noel Carroll discusses a theory by Bill Nichols on objectivity in non-fiction film. Nichols argues that non-fiction films cannot be objective because the objective view is a third-person view (Bordwell & Carroll, 1996). Per Nichols argument, non-fiction films cannot present information in the third-person view and so are not objective (Bordwell & Carroll, 1996). Furthermore, Nichols argues that the objective view is one that allows each audience member to come to their own conclusions (Bordwell & Carroll, 1996). Non-fiction films do not allow viewers to come to their own conclusions because they do not present a complete picture of the topic or issues presented in the films. Also, it is difficult for viewers to come to their own conclusions because the information is specifically crafted by the film maker to leave specific impressions on the viewer. Information in non-fiction films are crafted by including or excluding specific sets of facts and using a combination of music and imagery to give the viewer a pre-conceived impression. Nichols final condition for objectivity claims that the objective view is a disinterested view (Bordwell & Carroll, 1996). This paper argues that non-fiction films cannot be objective because the maker has a purpose, the maker is interested in the topic and crafts the film to reflect their interest. In a paper by a producer of documentary film, Jill Godmilow, she interviews the well-known documentary film maker Ann-Louise Shapiro about aspects of documentary film. Shapiro openly admits that “documentary film…straddles the categories of fact and fiction, art and document, entertainment and knowledge” (Shapiro, 1). Shapiro argues that documentary film makers should not claim to produce a comprehensive, objective, description of events in their documentaries (Shapiro, 1998). Instead, Shapiro claims that documentary film makers are only able to provide a subjective account of events that seeks to engage the audience in some way (Shapiro, 1998). A paper titled “Reading Reel Non-fiction: Documentary Films for Young Adults” the author provides a quote from a “Time” magazine film critic Richard Schickel. In the paper, the quote by Schickel claims that a documentary is only an organisation of nonfictional film that is designed to support the pre-conceived beliefs of the filmmaker (Phillips & Teasley, 2010). Schickel take this concept even further and states that it is juvenile to assume that those who make documentaries seek to present objective truth (Phillips & Teasley, 2010).

Through examples and a discussion of the sources, this paper has argued that objectivity is not possible in documentaries or non-fiction films. Indeed, the ability for film to create subjective responses in viewers is one of the strengths of this form of communication. Film is inherently entertaining; the moving images, high resolution pictures, and ability for film to present topics in first person perspectives is what makes them so appealing to mass audiences. Even if objectivity cannot be achieved in non-fiction films, they still have significant value for society. Non-fiction films can educate viewers on complex topics in a relatively short amount of time in a way that leaves a lasting impression. So, even if non-fiction films cannot be objective, they still must be appreciated for their educational value to society.  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Works Cited

Amazon.com. (2017). IMDb: International Movie Database. Retrieved from IMDb: International Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/

Ascher, R. (Director). (2015). The Nightmare [Motion Picture].

Attenborough, D. (Director). (2006). Planet Earth [Motion Picture].

Bordwell, D., & Carroll, N. (1996). Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies . Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Cowperthwaite, G. (Director). (2013). Blackfish [Motion Picture].

Phillips, N. C., & Teasley, A. B. (2010). Reading Reel Nonfiction: Documentary Films for Young Adults. The ALAN Review, 51-59.

Shapiro, A.-L. (1998). How Real is the Reality in Documentary Film? Jill Godmilow, in conversationg with Ann-Louise Shapiro. (J. Godmilow, Interviewer)



Write My Essay Sample: World Historiography
Posted by: Write My Essay on: May 26, 2019

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  1. Europe during the Medieval (Dark Ages)

Dark Ages is a term used in historical philosophy and periodization which describes the Middle Ages in ancient history (approximately from AD 476 to AD 800). This term is used to show the demographical, economic, political and cultural deterioration that was seen after the fall of the Roman Empire. There has been arguments between ‘light versus darkness’ discussion for the term since its inception as different scholars continue to debate on whether Europe was actually dark as it has been said to be. This time was referred as dark ages due to the fact that before that Europe was in light (when it was presumed to be united under the Roman Empire). According to Bell (1971), this period was also called the Migration period in Europe

This period (AD 476-800) was marred with economic and political recessions after the Roman Empire fell apart. The term Dark though imagery however indicates that there was no political stability or any economic unity within the tribes of Europe as they settled where they felt was comfortable with them. Europe during this time was dark because it was marred with warfare and decline in urban centers, according to how various studies show it.

During this time, the Barbarian people in Europe were trying to move from one place to another in search of places to settle. These tribes include: Bulgars, Huns, Goths, Vandals, Subic, Alana, Franks and the Anglo Saxons. These have made it easy for the historians to study this period and come up with how things were running at the time after the disintegration of the Roman Empire (Bell, 1971).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Another reason as to why Europe was dark is because there was lack of a center of authority as each barbarian tribe settled on its own although the period was marred with vast and verge warfare and conquests. The lack of historical records that prove these doubts confirm that Europe did not have any form of civilization that would have made it possible to clear such doubts as we have today. Lack of civilization in this case proves a point that there was no form of ‘light’ during this time since, after the disintegration of the Roman Empire, small kingdoms arose but in their quest to unite the world was not possible and this makes historians think that this period was met with political uncertainties.

On the other hand, the European economy during this time was not predictable since after the fall of the Roman currency, trade was affected, prompting the use of barter trade as the sole and main method to trade. This paint a picture of Europe with no economic plan proving a point that Europe was dark during the ‘dark ages’. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

  1. West Africa with West Europe

West Africa and West Europe has had a lot of contact since the enlightenment period. This contact started during the transatlantic trade where slave trade was imminent. On the other hand, France which is in West Europe acquired most of its colonies in West Africa, and this increased this contact between most of the West African states and West Europe. However, the question still remaining is how they currently compare. This question can be answered on examining the social economic and political aspect of both West Africa and West Europe (Fage, 1969).

Socially, there is much to compare and contrast between these two sides. Collectively, West Europe is more advanced than West Africa in most aspects. Educationally, West Europe has seen several strides ahead of the West African States. In West Africa illiteracy level is still over 30% something that makes them to be still more behind than these European countries were literacy levels are over 95%.

In health sector, West Africa is also much left behind by the West European countries in so many ways. There are no enough health centers and the doctor to the population ratio is so high making the child mortality and life expectancy to be low than in Europe. On the other hand, poverty levels are also higher in West Africa than it is in Europe an indication that there is much difference between these two, socially. However, in religion, West Africa is well advanced compared to West Europe where religion is not common and this makes Africa to raise supreme in the two in this social sector (Fage, 1969).

Economically, there is much difference between the two sides where again West Africa trails West Europe on this matter. Despite West Africa being the economic heavy weight in Africa due to Petroleum, it is far much ahead of the two sides. Economic progression in West Europe has been steered by the Agrarian Revolution which enhanced industrialization where the industries have grown as a result of the revolution.

Politically, west Africa as had much difficulties of late where political stability has been experienced in countries such as Libya, Tunisia, Ivory Coast, Mali and Burkina Faso among other states. On the other hand, West Europe is met with political stability which is the back bone to the progress that they have made. The best thing in this aspect is for these states to ensure that political stability is enhanced to make sure that these states are able to compete well with the West European states.

  1. Oba of Benin

The poem about Oba of Benin is an excellent poem that shows how the archaic political systems were in the past. Africa was a continent that had several strong kingdoms before the onset of colonization. Oba of Benin is a poem that shows the strengths that the King of Benin had and what it implied to the subjects while he was in power (Sidahome, 1964). These political systems have become archaic although in some parts of the world it is still in use and common. For instance, this system is still in use in some Africans countries such as Swaziland, Morocco and Lesotho where hereditary kings rule these countries (Obrien, 1991).

In these political systems, the Kings or the emperors ruled certain group, in most cases people of the same ethnic background. The old Benin Kingdom has been in use even up to date where Oba the King was supreme and is political power was hereditary. This political system was applied in Ghana (Ashante Kingdom), Old Ghana, Mali (Old Mali kingdom), Uganda (Buganda Kingdom) and in Zimbabwe (Mwene Mutapa Kingdom of the Shona (Oliver, 1992)

These kingdoms, despite their influential history and strength, are no longer existent today due to the influence of the Western civilization which brought in things such as constitutional governments and democratic governments. However, these archaic systems of government are still in use today in so many parts of the world (Obien, 1991). Some of these countries have used these systems in tandem with the new world politics. These countries are for instance, England, Denmark, Belgium and Spain where Kings are still in power but they allow the citizens to vote for their preferred president or Prime minister. In the Arab world, the same is experienced where there are King Rulers in such countries as UAE, the Jordan and Saudi Arabia.

“Oba Erediauwa the Great! In between the legs of Iyoba, You come!” is an indication of the use of culture in ruling. This is evident in such countries as Benin and Swaziland where culture is still supreme. For instance, the infamous reed dance conducted by King Mswati of Swaziland is an indication of how culture can be used in this century in ruling. These are, however, archaic political systems that are only used in very few parts of the world especially in Africa.

  1. The Epic of Sundiata vs. the Life of Charlemagne.

The Epic of Sundiata to me is a more convincing tale than the Life of Charlemagne since it reflects greatness in it. This chronicle gives clear epic of the Mali Empire which was one of the greatest Sudanese Empires that existed during those times. This empire dates back to AD 400 and it was started by the Soninke people. These people expanded their domain from where Mali is and Niger up to where Sahara desert starts. The Epic of Sundiata is a chronicle that explains why the Old Ghana Kingdom fell as result of defeat by the Soninke people (Oliver, 1992). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

It  is an epic story of Sundiata Keita on how he single handedly built the Empire of Mali in AD 1200. The epic begin with a prophecy made by a seer known as Maghan Kon Fatta who was by then the ruler of Mali kingdom which was by this time a small empire. After several years Sundiata, a very strong man, emerges and helps Mali to soar high as he leads his people into conquering new lands through his strength.

This Malinke historical information is rich in providing the best historical moments. However, there is a debate on whether the Sundiata Keita was a Jihadist or not. On this aspect, it is even more clear that Islam had began to gain roots in West Africa, but the chronicles do not state on whether Sundiata was under the Islam jihadist mission of expansion of their territory. However, the political turmoil and religious changes could have been the reason as to why the Mali Empire was able to expand in such a vast speed.

The introduction of Islam in this region, west of Sudan, proofs that Sundiata was not a Jihadist. According to Lapidus (1989), he probably gained his fighting techniques and skills from within (Lapidus, 1989). Again they had gained support from the north who sold them war tools such as swords, daggers and even fire arms much later. The epic of Sundiata is a real portrayal of greatness among the two tales.

The other reason as to why Sundiata rose supreme is because he was a wealthy merchant due to the Trans-Saharan trade. This economical strength made him to be greater and successful in war and he was able to conquer more and vast lands in West Africa. Sundiata is a real and true portrayal of greatness and provides Africa with history of greatness as Alexander the great did for Greece in 300 BC. This tale is an ideal tale that shows how African civilization was before the coming of the Europeans in Africa.


Bell, B. (1971). The dark ages in ancient history. I. The first dark age in Egypt. American             Journal of Archaeology, 75(1), 1-26.

Fage, J. D. (1969). A history of West Africa: An introductory survey. Gregg Revivals.

Lapidus, I. M., (1989) A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

.O’brien, J. (1991). Golden ages, dark ages: imagining the past in anthropology and history.        Univ of California Press.

Oliver, R. (1992) The African Experience. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.

Sidahome, J. E. (1964). Stories of the Benin Empire .Lancaster: Oxford University Press.

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