Essay Writing Sample: Retelling Experiments
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 21, 2018

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Hagan Joel in the article “Retelling Experiments: Retelling Experiments: H.B.D. Kettlewell’s Studies of Industrial Melanism in Peppered Months” talks about the H.B.D Kettlwell’s study significance on the natural selection as well as the effect it has in the further study and knowledge of scientific evidence about natural selection. He also discusses how this study ended up being obscure after other scholars misused its information.

H.B.D Kettlewell refers to a British ecological geneticist that gave rise to a revolutionary article by the name “Darwin’s Missing Evidence” in the late fifty’s. The article contains information on the peppered moth’s natural selection that was affected greatly by the soot caused by the industrial revolution. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In his analysis, Hagan discusses the main points from Kettlewell’s information that include, the manner in which scholars made use of his study to cause ambiguity that has possibly been regarded as misinterpreting information that greatly impacted how the main study was viewed (Hagan, 1999, p. 143). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

According to the article, in the early years before the industrial revolution, almost all peppered moths appeared to have black spots on their grayish white wings. The peppered moth is regarded as being among the many moths’ species that show evidence of industrial melanism. In this sense, industrial melanism refers to when the skin pigmentation becomes dark colored by the generation process following a certain cause and in this case being the soot that was caused by the industrial revolution (Hagan, 1999, p.152).

The article in general looks at how idealized accounts for the study by Kettlewell have been applied by biology teachers and professional biologists while at the same time reacting to David Rudge criticisms to Hagan’s early discussions on the same study highlighting the claims by Rudge on the purely observational studies significance for the eventual popularization and acceptance of the explanation by Kettlewells for the industrial melanism evolution. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]


Hagen, J. B. (1999). : H.B.D. Kettlewell’s Studies of Industrial Melanism in Peppered Months. Biology and Philosophy, 14(1), 39-54.

Essay Writing Service Sample: Social Determinants of Health
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 21, 2018

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The primary health determinant in this article is social determinants. Social health determinants refer to social factors as well as physical conditions of the area where the affected population is born, live, work, play, and age. Social determinants have been observed to significantly affect a broad range of functioning, health, and the outcomes of the quality of life (Travis). The plan covered in the article is the funding by the Vancouver Chinatown Foundation to build a ten to twelve story complex that will include two hundred and fifty housing units that will be subsidized for the local community.  This project mainly targets a region that is occupied currently by a group of homeless people living in tents.

This social health determinant will improve the sanitary conditions of the population living in the community. This plan will be able to support the local community by allowing the city to rent about half of the expected two hundred and fifty units at a welfare shelter that will be at $ 375 every month for a single-person household (Travis). With reduced rent rates, the residence will direct the amount of money they will be saving to better food and nutrients hence better health conditions.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

They will also have extra funds to access medical facilities and buy drugs and treatment if they fall ill. Poor health outcomes have always been observed to make worse health conditions following the interaction between individuals or a population and their physical and social environment. The integrated, complex, and overlapping economic systems and social structures are often responsible for most inequalities related to health.

The other health determinant mentioned in the article is health services. In addition to coming up with subsidized housing facilities for the low-income population, the plan also involves coming up with an integrated health center. Such a health center will allow for easier access to quality health care for this population. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Social health determinants are typically shaped by the distribution of power, money, and resources to the residents. With improved housing, the population will not be exposed to some of the conditions that result in the natural spread of diseases such as cold nights and attacks by disease-causing insects as compared to when they are living in tents. For example, in this case, the Carnegie Community Center is committed to coming up with community-controlled housing at a welfare/pension rate at 58 West Hastings (Travis). This way, the population will be able to save on some of their income and direct the income to access better medication and medical facilities.

Such interventions should be encouraged now that they play a significant role in improving health conditions in low-income populations. Support from the government as well as other foundations should be promoted and implemented so as to increase the funding for such projects. For example, in this case, the provincial government announced to provide $ 500 million for affordable-housing programs (Travis). The other example is the effort by the Vancouver Coastal Health to help subsidize it health intervention through rent it will be paying for the health center facility it will be operating in the region.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Work Cited

Lupick, Travis. “City reveals big social-housing plans for 58 West Hastings and calls on province to raise the rates.” (October 6, 2016).

Essay Writing Service Sample: Technology in Business Management
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 19, 2018

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As the world continues to globalize, so is the need to incorporate new technology in the business realm. It is necessary for the strategic management and importantly, a key determinant of the organizational performance. For instance, it increases efficiency besides reducing the human resources required. That way, it offers a competitive advantage for the business leveraging on marketing performance as long as management proficiency prevails (Peppard, 2000). Notably, the forecasting and life cycle limitations in the firm can post profound and consistent adverse effects as far as the success of the business is concerned. In that regard, use of technology acts as a remedy.

Network Activities

Networking is vital in building businesses. However, doing it carelessly can jeopardize the hard labor of managers. Thus, it is important to do this right. Some of the network activities include internet chat rooms, online forums, networking websites, attending trade meetings and message-posting on mailing lists.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Internet chat rooms have facilitated telecommuting in many companies. Currently, they focus on leveraging on the web technology in ensuring that telecommuting creates a socially viable option for work arrangements. That way, telecommuters would feel part of the organization. The reason behind this is based on the fact that they use the internet as a medium of information sharing based on communication of one-to-one or even one-to-many. As Castells (2002) asserts, this negates its current view as a place where telecommuters spend considerable time in talking with friends rather than working, but a place that connects the organization’s cultural and social fabric. It has helped many companies to realize that old rules are no longer applicable in an on-line world.

By participating in the networking websites, organizations would be sure to interact with a vast population of users. Thus, it provides them with a platform to market their products. Research indicate that many companies that use social sites to promote their business experience tremendous growth as they open many channels of accessing customers. So is the case with other online fora.

Importance of Continuous Improvement

It is a long-term strategy that seeks to improve the business regarding flexibility, quality, customer satisfaction and the speed with which organization avails their products to the market. While this can range from the simple daily changes in an organization to major shifts in procedures and focus on a global structure, it requires the right strategy to realize success and keep abreast with it. Continuous improvement is important in that it keeps customer satisfaction in the loop, by ensuring quality is never at stake. As the satisfied customers continue to buy products of a company, they end recommending it to others. In the long run, the company enjoys better returns. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Additionally, through continuous improvement, the product development team can enhance the existing products ensuring they consistently meet the ever dynamic customer requirements. That way, companies, through continues improvement, enthusiastically maintain their market share. According to Chapman and Corso (2005), both the new product development and innovation play a central role in making market breakthroughs.

Even more, organizations that maintain high standards of production through continuous improvement keep their reputation. When prospects review companies, this gives them great chances for winning companies as potential suppliers. In a nutshell, vendors are ranked based on their reputation, financial performance, status in the industry and opinion polls. Through continuous improvement, companies would be sure to maintain their public relations hence their awareness and reputation alike.

Software Categories

Software describes the various programs that run computer and related devices in a specific manner. They come in three main categories; application software, system software and programming tools (Smith & Nair, 2005). The application software is designed to handle particular tasks in computer systems. These include word processing software, Excel spreadsheets and functions, web browsers, among others.  Also, the software can serve specific functions such as truck scheduling and accounting among other purposes. With that in mind, there are various subcategories of application software according to the intended purposes. For instance, we have the financial software to deal with the finance databases of a company.

The system software, on the other hand, constitutes programs that aid the computer in booting and running various application software installed in it. In other words, these are the broad range of software installed in a computer to enable it function. These include drivers, the operating system, and debugger among others. The software can also help one to manage the system resources. In essence, the system software is designed for computer system itself, thus not for human users. [Click Essay Writer to

In the business realm, understanding the various categories of software helps companies to utilize the right application for the right purpose. This knowledge has necessitated the development of software that organizations use to increase their performance. For instance, System Application Products (SAP) software helps in ensuring organizations meet their primary goals of satisfying customer demands by monitoring the store deliveries. Also, the Customer Relation Management (CRM) software is currently in place to help companies in the invoicing and billing applications that assist them to keep their financial information in an organized manner (Peppard, 2000). Malik (2016) reinforces this idea by claiming that use of this software enables companies to easily track customer history (Malik, 2016, pp.171-195).


Use of technologies in business operations helps to facilitate top-notched efficiency besides reducing costs of production. As opposed to traditional means of business management which resulted in difficulties in managing various activities, new technologies have proved to increase organizational performance and hence high-profit margins (Peppard, 2000). Thus, it is important for firms to embrace new technologies for business excellence.


Chapman, R. L., & Corso, M. (2005). From continuous improvement to collaborative innovation: the next challenge in supply chain management. Production planning & control, 16(4), 339-344.

Castells, M. (2002). The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, business, and society. Oxford: Oxford University Press on Demand.

Malik, P. (2016). Customer Relation Management. Journal for Studies in Management and Planning, 2(3), 171-195.

Peppard, J. (2000). Customer relationship management (CRM) in financial services. European Management Journal, 18(3), 312-327.

Smith, J. E., & Nair, R. (2005). The architecture of virtual machines. Computer, 38(5), 32-38.

Essay Writing Service Sample:Police Frisking
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 19, 2018

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On page 9, the report detailed how the study sample was constructed. How many study sites were selected? What is the one common characteristic of all the youth participated in the study?

The researchers posit that the research on stop and frisk by police involved an analysis of administrative data that is maintained by the New York Police Department. Based on this data, the researchers selected six study sites namely “Bedford-Stuyvesant and East New York (including Brownsville) in Brooklyn, Jamaica and Jackson Heights in Queens, East Harlem in Manhattan, and the South Bronx” (Fratello, Rengifo & Trone, 2013, p.9). A common characteristic of the youth who participated in this study involved having been stopped by police at least once in their lifetime. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here]

Could you summarize the attitude toward the police among youth surveyed in this study? What about their willingness to report crime?

Out of the roughly 500 young people interviewed in this study, a majority expressed resentment towards the police for being stopped and frisked. The youths noted that they had an alarmingly low trust towards the law enforcement especially due to involvement of more intensive responses other than the simple verbal interaction with the officers. In this study, 83% of the respondents felt that they had been stopped without a reason. The researchers posit that 61% of the young people also felt that the officers whom they encountered were biased. Due to the low level of trust in the law enforcement, the youths who had been stopped are less willing to report crime even in circumstances where they are the victims.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Among the four recommendations by Vera, which one do you think is the most important to rebuild the trust between the police and the youth in the most affected communities?

I think collaboration with the predominantly black and Hispanic communities in areas where more concentration of stop and frisk will have a greater impact in rebuilding trust between the youth and the police. Since a majority of the youths who showed resentment and expressed bias on the part of the police are from this these groups, partnering can help improve the relationship between officers and the public. Additionally, since the youths interviewed expressed confidence on what they can achieve, they are likely to replicate the respect and trust from exhibited by the officers. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Fratello, J., Rengifo, A. & Trone, J. (2013). Coming of Age with Stop and Frisk:   Experiences, Self

Essay Writing Sample: Spiritual Healing: Laotisian and Malaysian Cultures
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 17, 2018

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Spiritual healing which encompasses both ancient and modern techniques has been widely used in traditional and modern societies. Specialization has brought about religious specialists who derive their income from performing religious rituals. Spiritual healers are classified as either shamans or priests and use supernatural powers or spirits to heal. In a similar way, the spiritual healers cure the sick, they also have the ability to put a spell on people. Shamanism which refers to use of various techniques by the religious specialists in healing the sick, prophesying success, as well as divining the future, is an apprentice that has been passed over to both men and women throughout history. This essay focuses on the differences and similarities in spiritual healing of Laotisisan and Malaysian cultures.

The Laotisian community in South East Asia has for decades held a strong belief and worship of spirits. Laotisians posits that the ghost spirit referred to as Phii can either be bad or good (Bielawski, 2015). This society, therefore, relies on the shamans who are called upon to appease or exterminate malicious spirits. According to Alberts (2015), the two shamans are often used in healing the sick by contacting the spirits. One of the spiritual healers plays a musical instrument instructing the evil spirit to come forth while the second shaman is present so that the spirits goes into his body after the ceremony. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In a similar manner, the Malaysian society believes in shamans who have the power to perform traditional healing and spiritual rituals. Referred to as bomoh, they serve as an alternative for modern medicine (Bielawski, 2015). In both Loatisian and Malaysian societies, the shamans are believed to derive their powers from the supernatural entities. This power is derived through trances and dreams and enables the shaman to either cast a spell or heal.

However, the Laotisian and Malaysian shamans differ in the process of administering rituals. In Laotisian the shamans rely on musical instruments in achieving the altered state of consciousness that help them to travel the journey between the spiritual and physical worlds. On the other hand, the shamans in the Malaysian society do no rely on musical instruments, but shake and rattle as their way of communicating with the spirits (Winkelman, 2010). In Laotisian society the people are required to offer sacrifices such as chicken before the rituals can be performed. This differs with the Malaysian society where such rituals administered by the shamans have specific timing such as mornings that are common with weddings and new babies’ ceremonies.

The practices carried out by the shamans have been found to be similar in all societies. According to Stein and Stein (2015), the spiritual healers use spirits in helping “the members of their community by healing the sick, defining the future, and ensuring success in the hunt” (p. 120). The shamans use rituals to contact the supernatural entities and thus, act as the mediators between the people and the spirits. Through this process, the shamans are able to alter their states of consciousness and thus being in a position to fight the evil spirits that cause diseases (Stein and Stein, 2015, p. 121). The rituals also incorporate the use of various theatrical and dramatic techniques on the part of the shaman such as singing, dancing, drumming and elaborate costumes (p. 121). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

On the other hand, shamanism today has changed with scholars identifying it as a technique for achieving an altered state of consciousness. Stein and Stein (2015), argue that Neoshamanism involves attaining a new reality by increasing the awareness of the energy field through body movements and breathing. Other than relying on the spirits, neoshamanism posits that human beings can be guided into achieving an altered state. Neoshamans differ from the classical shamanism through the process of realizing the new reality. For example, use of drumming that would enable the shamans to attain a state of consciousness has been replaced by a relaxed attitude that enables the neoshamans to concentrate their energy into a central path. The participants are, therefore, guided through this journey by invoking on supernatural imagery experiences such as a dark cave. In this state, the neoshamans can travel to the dark world and interact with the spirits. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Neoshamanism and classical shamanism differ in various ways, such as the role of fear or the dark side as well as the focus on the community versus focus on improving one’s life. The origins of core shamanism in Castaneda on the other hand, lack accuracy of the accounts, rendering the work to be fictional. This has, therefore, led to neoshamanism being regarded as fictional due its fraudulent spiritual leaders. Although neoshamanism achieves the goal of altering the state of consciousness, I believe it is not a legitimate form of shamanism. Neoshamanism is more of a cultural appropriation of the American culture and often misrepresent the cultures that seem to have inspired its rise. This is evident due to lack of supporting evidence in the accuracy of events as well as its spiritual leaders. Additionally, neoshamanism tends to focus on the positive and ignores the dark side of spirits. This dents its credibility of shamanism that shares a common believe of bad and good spirits.


Shamanism represents a way of life as well as an ancient healing tradition that is still in practice today. Shamanism lays focus on connecting the human soul to the nature through a journey of altering the state of consciousness. With the help of an intermediary, the human soul can connect with the spirit world and in the process creating healing and well-being in the society.



Alberts, T. K. (2015). Shamanism, Discourse, Modernity. Burlington, VT: Routledge.

Bielawski, D. P. (2015). Traditional healing. Salem Press Encyclopedia Of Health.

Stein, R., L. & Stein, P. (2015). Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft. New York,      Routledge.

Winkelman, M. (2010). Shamanism: A Biopsychosocial Paradigm of Consciousness and Healing, 2nd Edition. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.


Write My Essay Sample: History and Philosophy of Interscholastic Sports
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 17, 2018

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Sports which involves activities that challenge both the mind and body, has many benefits to everyone. Sports impart the sense of discipline, togetherness, value of time and fitness and good health. Interscholastic sports, also referred to as interscholastic athletics, are athletic activities organized among various academic or learning institutions in the United States. This paper explores the history and philosophy of interscholastic sports and major events and organizations influencing the advancement of interscholastic sport, influence of European sport organizations, the development of community sport, and the formation of organized sport in America. It also discusses the governing bodies in the United States.

History and Philosophy of Interscholastic Sports

started in 1859 as a result of high school students forming a baseball team. At this time, interscholastic sports were overseen and organized by students. However, the administration had to come in to offer guidance and finance the events.  Due to stiff competition in the coming years, the students started hiring skilled baseball players who were not school going. These kinds of ‘game mercenaries’ characterized the sports for a long time. In early 1900s scholastic athletics had started being well established in the US. During the same time, the American demographics were shifting from agricultural to urban society. Thus, interscholastic sports were viewed as a tool that could teach good citizenship. It was also perceived as a tool with the potential of reducing urban gang affiliations and negative behaviors among the youth thus keeping them pre-occupied (Jable, 1986).  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In 1993 Luther Gulick who was the Director of Physical Education at New York City came up with Public Schools Athletic League which was to organize completions among public schools. In 1905 Gulick and Elizabeth came up with the Girls Branch of the Public Schools Athletic League which however was not involved with competitive activities. At the end of World War I, the number of students enrolling to schools had increased. This led to an increase in the number of participants and so a growth in interscholastic athletics. At this time states were involved with organizing the various major sports; baseball, football and basketball.

Governing Bodies in the United States

The National Federation of High Schools (NFHS) was formed due to the need for regulation, governance and continuity. NFHS established standards rules for the interscholastic sports competition and provided guidance and education for the sport administrators across the whole nation. In 1976 the idea of coming up with a national organization for athletic administrators was proposed by the NFHS Athletic Directors Advisory Committee. This was later approved by the Executive Committee of the NFHS and the National Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Association (NIAA). The National Federation of State High School Associations is a body at the national level which is mandated with the responsibilities of setting up rules and regulations of competition for most high school sports and activities in the United States. Majority of the high schools both public and private belong to the State’s High School Association which belongs to the NFHS State’s High School Association Most of the high schools in America belong to the State’s High School Association. However, some states have separate associations for public and non-public high schools. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

On the other hand, The University Interscholastic League is a governing body for public schools’ athletic, music and academic completions in the United States. It is charged with the responsibility of sanctioning many events among students in various grades. For instance; competitions in grades 2-8 are limited to district level only while competitions for 9-12 grade advance in most cases from the district levels to regional then to state levels.  Grades7-8, which comprises of junior level, does not proceed beyond the district level. Students are also required to compete in individual and team activity at high school and varsity levels for only four years and be below nineteen years old.

Major events and organizations influencing the advancement of interscholastic sport

Establishment of the New York Public Schools Athletic League by Luther Gulick, in 1903 led to establishment of similar leagues in other 177 cities by 1925. This was a big boost in promoting interscholastic sports. However the organizers had to do away with some unsportsmanlike conduct for instance the use of nonstudent professionals.  The 1930s through 1950s saw interscholastic sports spread rapidly. At this time sport opportunities for females also increased. Sport opportunities for girls were also increased more by the Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and its implementation in 1975 (US News and World Report, 2011, September 2).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]



Majority of the people supporting school sport programs believe that sports contribute greatly to the overall education of students. Sports also improve the functioning and health of cardiovascular and muscular systems. With sports there is also improved flexibility, mobility, and coordination and ability to maintain body weight.


US News and World Report, (2011, September 2). “High School Sports Participation Increases for 22nd Straight Year”.

Jable, J.T. (2004). “Interscholastic Athletics.” Encyclopedia of Children and Adulthood in History and Society

Jable, J.T.(1986). “High School Athletics, History Justifies Extracalicular Status”. Journal of Physical Education, Dancing and Recreation.

Write My Essay Sample: Measuring Anger
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 16, 2018

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Quantifying non-Quantifiable Data: Anger

Anger is a negative, inner feeling state of the mind that is characterized by strong feelings of displeasure, annoyance and hostility. It is linked with cognitive and subjective distortions of one’s physiology, and tendencies of engaging in behavioral actions which are socially contructed and reinforced. In the study, the researcher chooses to measure anger in a university Population. The method and instrument that are used to measure the phenomenon are Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and Anger Disorders Scale (ADS) (Voorhees et al., 2014).

The research questions are:

  1. Do the ADS highly correlate and have good convergent validity with the Aggression subscale of the PAI?
  2. Do the ADS have an internal consistency which is good?

To determine if the options of research questions and response were valid and reliable, the researcher considered the results of the study. These results showed that the ADS was a valid instrument of assessment where the  alpha coefficients that were calculated for the whole scale as well as each higher order factor score showed a  good reliability. The Positive correlations were also confirmed between the PAI Aggression subscale and the ADS subscales. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]


Under the Anger Disorders Scale (ADS), the total scale of The Cronbach Alpha coefficient was .98 and the for the higher-order factor scales of the alpha coefficients ranged from .92 to .96. The subscales alpha coefficients ranged from.71 to .93.The PAl full scales internal consistency alphas was satisfactory. In PAI, the full scales alphas were .87, .82, and .83 for clinical, normative, and college samples respectively. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The researcher collected the data in person. This enabled the researcher to read the respondents body language as well as their facial expressions. The researcher collected data in groups. This made it possible to obtain more information in detail on attitudes, perceptions, and insights of the respondents. The research was researcher-administered and thus it was easy for question clarification, increased rate of response, questionnaire completion and greater environmental control.



Voorhees, E, E, V., Dennis, P, A., Elbogen, E, B., Clancy, C, P., Hertzberg, M, A., Beckham, J,

C & Calhoun, P, S. (2014). Personality Assessment Inventory Internalizing Externalizing Structure in Veterans with Posttraumatic and Stress Disorder: Associations with Aggression. Aggress Behav, 40(6): 582-592


Essay Writing Service Sample: Social Work Research
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 16, 2018

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Measuring Group Success

The study made use of questionnaires that included forty-two items. Questionnaires were used following their high internal consistency as well as their ability to produce meaningful discriminations in several settings.  The subjects of the study were required to use 4- point frequency/ severity to rate the level of which they experienced in each state. The total scores on the scale ranged from no distress scaled at 0 and a maximum distress scaled at 126. The analysis involved summing up each symptom and the higher scores showing more distress. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Images – Rene Rossignaud

The study made use of a feminist empowerment model as well as strengths perspective framework in the group process. This model was adopted now that it focused on strengthening women in areas such as communication, assertiveness, self-esteem, and relationships. This approach was convenient now that it allowed the subjects of study to be able to develop tools required to reach their potential as valuable and unique individuals.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The researcher also administered the DASS posttest within a period of twelve weeks to determine emotional changes. The scale had zero as the least anxious/ stressed/depressed mark while three as the most anxious/ stressed/depressed mark. The analysis process involved summing up all symptoms scores, and the results showed a drop of about seventy-two percent and these figures were a reflection of the eight members of the subject of study who were still in the group at the last session during the posttest administration. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The subjects of the study were provided with a qualitative measurement form for evaluation to rate the satisfaction of members of the group format agency. The evaluation form consisted of closed questions as well as fill-ins.


Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. M. (Eds.). (2014). Social work case studies: Foundation year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing


Yegidis, B. L., Weinbach, R. W., & Myers, L. L. (2012). Research methods for social workers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon

Essay Writing Sample: Critical Thinking Assignment:
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 16, 2018

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Moneyball Case Study

The movie “Moneyball” sought to strike a delicate balance between intuition and statistics while, at the same time, challenging the traditional precedent way of scouting for talents. The sabermetrics statistics challenged the cherished orthodox methodology of operations. This results to fierce resistance from stakeholders in the major league of baseball players. To better understand this, and the challenges faced by Billy Beane while documenting how he became successful through the use of sabermetrics, the following should be addressed: who is resisting the change and why, the behaviors employed to depict the resistance, the role emotions play on both sides of the argument, the behaviors and tactics employed by Billy Beane and Peter Brand to overcome resistance to their new approach and finally the lessons learnt from the case study.

The group which resists the adaptation of sabermetrics statistic methodology at Oakland athletics is Major League baseball stakeholders. Specifically, those who resist change are the field managers because the new methodology rendered their job obsolete. The other group is the professional athlete, because it reduces their bargaining power when it comes to signing new deals. Sabermetrics is a cost cutting method focused on the past performance and the future performance of the player (Palmer, 2016, Pg. 270).  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The major league baseball player and the stakeholders resist the new system because it challenges their treasured orthodox modus operandi. Their traditional way of doing things was at stake and they did not like it at all. The major league baseball players treasure and also have deep respect for convention and precedent. Thus, they too, were opposed to the proposed change. While the new system challenges the same in two fronts, one was through questioning the efficiency of established predictors of performance such as the lean body mass, grip strength, vertical jump mean, pro-agility, peak power and 10-yd sprint. The other was through the reduction of the needs for professional opinions and judgment. This clearly shows why the top field management and the top players were greatly opposed to it. In the process, it threatened job security of field managers across the industry, most of them who were employed based on the strength and knowledge of individual characteristics and aspects of the game. Since this was no longer going to be required in the new proposed system, it is logically apparent why these two groups were greatly opposed to it. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Billy Beane and Peter Brands are faced with a hostile environment especially from field managers whose jobs were directly threatened by the number crunching Peter Brands theory. Other players also resisted the new strategy on the grounds that it affected the value of their contracts. Since the system could match performance and skill through scenario analysis. This is because the system strictly relied upon statistics and intuition. The new sabermetrics through batting averages and on-base percentage challenged the status quo rendering their jobs obsolete.

Billy was heartbroken after his divorce and the losing streaks were in desperate need of a win.  Billy also is enraged because after the losing almost uninterruptedly he lacks sufficient funds to buy good players. While on the other hand, the other stakeholders feel that their jobs have been threatened to the extent that they react out of fear rather than being rational. To some extent the two sides of the divide react out of fear of losing their jobs. The approach that Billy and peter use is to apply it to their newly selected team with the hope that it works. The new strategy works with such high success rates to an extent the investors and other team members want to adopt the new system.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In conclusion, I have learnt that change is inevitable and that one should always seek different ways to tackle changes. Also, in moments of change, there are always opposing forces over the same proposal based purely on personal benefits. Those who feel threatened by the proposed change obviously resist it whereas to the proposers and those who feel favored always support the move.  Thus, moments like this calls for conflict resolution techniques to avoid the deadlock. In most instances, force always wins.  In the event of change directly affecting athletes or any industry one must be ready to become the early adopters or else if they lag behind they might suffer tremendous losses. It is obvious, had the MLB never have implemented the new system and given in to the politics of the field managers and top players, they would have never have won, or rather improved greatly, as evidenced by their latest postings. The MLB stakeholders ought to have realized that the new efficient methods of oppression was by use of sabermetrics.


Palmer, Ian (2016). Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach. New

York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Kindle Edition.

Write My Essay Sample: Study Two Literature Review
Posted by: Write My Essay on: August 16, 2018

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Color psychology offers a study that readily explores human behavior, fears, and aspirations. The study beforehand articulates that color has the capacity to influence perception with very significant psychological ramifications attached (Elliot & Aarts, 2011). The literature herein reveals that color can greatly influence individuals’ perceptions, behavior, and performances at various situations. In the analysis provided, it is prudent to say that color can easily affect the way in which individuals function. Researchers have detailed the possibility of color to impact the performance in tests and individuals with weaker taste on red color, particularly, may perform dismally, when the instructions are printed in red color.

Studies have affirmed that whenever test takers are served with red-colored instructions, chances are that their test scores will be greatly affected. The researcher reviewed literature on experimental psychology and found that the effect of color red on academic work affects performance. The study offers that color associations are deeply embedded that individuals become predisposed to particular reactions at the sight of color red. Building on this finding, Elliot, Maier, Binser, Friedman, and Pekrun (2009) analysis explore that a mere flash of red color before undertaking a test is enough to make examinees to mistake the paper for being too abstract, hence higher chances of failing in such paper. In reaction to the red color, students tend to build a psychological defense against such papers, thus making them to perform poorly on test scores. In the tests administered to the examinees, for instance, the participants were treated to a choice of questions to which they responded. Predictably, the majority of the respondents chose to attend to the seemingly easiest question. This shows how individuals would always want to avoid failure by any means. Thus, it is conceivable that color conveys different meanings to different people in different contexts or situations. Invariably, if the context or situation changes, chances are that the implications equally changes. Traditionally, many people tend to associate color red with marking mistakes or errors on class work. Thus, it is appropriate to contend that color might have aesthetic merit, but can equally carry coded messages and convey explicit information. The study’s view on avoidance motivation forms part of this assumption. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In a study aimed at establishing the Intelligent Quotient (IQ) of individuals, four experiments proved that a transitory illusion of color red prior to an exam easily impairs performance and negates test scores (Feltman & Elliot, 2011). Two other studies demonstrated that the link between avoidance motivation and color red are too obvious, especially, when tasked with a challenging phenomenon. Where the psychophysiological measures and choice are applied, the individuals with weaker taste on color red stand a diminishing chance. Such a study springs from the concept that a team that puts on red uniform is has higher probability of winning a competition due to the fear factor it injects on the opponent. Researchers have attempted to address this phenomenon and examined the motives behind this occurrence. In their analysis, Feltman and Elliot (2011) found that putting on a red color makes individuals to have a feeling of higher dominance levels. This acts as a way of scaring off the opponent who easily perceive such a team as highly sophisticated. Overall, seeing the opponent team in color red has an intimidating effect on a team that dons other softer colors. Intimately, color red has a refined but clear effect upon the people who are partaking of any competitions.

Marketers have used color in a range of market segments to attract consumer attention to influence buying behavior. According to Maier, Elliot, and Lichtenfeld, S. (2008) color appeal to consumers in identifying their preferred brands and product alternatives. Consumers who are seeking variety will always get attracted to certain types of colors when deciding on new brands. Usually, the color red-packaging receives more buyer attention than other colors deemed as dull, the packaging factor greatly influence he buyer behavior and consumerism. Tanaka and Tokuno (2011) study looked at the visual cues aimed at analyzing the purchasing behavior for certain types of brands. Participants were shown the same product in four different colors and brands. Their findings demonstrate that individuals selected packages as per the colors, which attract their involuntary and voluntary attention. Elliot, at al (2009) notes that, based on these findings, it is possible to infer that color choices based on packages influence the buying behavior. Usually, new companies prefer diverse color codes to bring attention to their brand. However, traditional companies might consider using their trade-mark colors to entrench their market presence. Whereas a company is altering its look or appearance of a product, it may consider maintaining the same color codes, as consumers use color in identifying and searching for their favorite brands in stores. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

From the above analysis, it is conceivable that attention is subconsciously captured before individuals can consciously attend to an idea. Color, therefore, plays a significant role in in harnessing the perception of individuals to make them spring into action. Similarly, a research seeking to establish the reason behind color preference found out that brain activation plays a pivotal role when certain types of color is present (Feltman & Elliot, 2011). Expressly, when individuals are presented by various colors, they tend to focus on their favorite colors, or that which stands out among the rest, before purposefully turning their attention to the message entailed in the colors. The implication created by this analogy is that objects can capture the attention of individuals based on color, thus usurping their consciousness to have a keen look at an object. The literature findings demonstrate that due care must be taken in contextualizing color to achieve certain ends. In their analysis, Feltman and Elliot (2011) did not just use any color to justify their claims. They evaluated the colors based on guidelines that depict saturation, hue, and glare to document their findings precisely. The majority of the studies found in the literature explore that color psychology has greater impact on individuals’ behavior, perception, and performances at various situations.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The hypothesis of this article is based on the notion that color has the capacity to evoke motivation, excite perception, and have an impact on individuals without necessarily being conscious of it and its effects. Such a general assumption leads individuals to perform dismally without their consent and negatively impact academic performance. From interfering with the cognitive skills to its ability to excite the physical and motor factors, it is prudent to infer that color red can have a robust impact on individuals. Largely, it must not be lost that colors have significant psychological effects, which readily shape the perceptions, behavior, and performances of individuals.



Elliot, A. J., & Aarts, H. (2011). Perception of the color red enhances the force and velocity of     motor output. Emotion11(2), 445.


Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., Binser, M. J., Friedman, R., & Pekrun, R. (2009). The effect of red on avoidance behavior in achievement contexts. Personality and Social PsychologyBulletin35(3), 365-375.


Feltman, R., & Elliot, A. J. (2011). The influence of red on perceptions of relative dominance and threat in a competitive context. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology33(2), 308-314.


Maier, M. A., Elliot, A. J., & Lichtenfeld, S. (2008). Mediation of the negative effect of red on intellectual performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.


Tanaka, A., & Tokuno, Y. (2011). The effect of the color red on avoidance motivation. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal39(2), 287-289.



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