A Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Quality Education in Our Lives and Societies
What is the impact of quality education in our lives and societies?
Education, in simple terms, is the act or experience through which an individual obtains formative effect to their mind and/or physical ability. It involves a formal process through which the society transforms its values, cultural heritage and skills from one generation to the other. This is achieved through institutions of learning such as schools, colleges and universities. The quality of education can be assessed based on several principles. According to Global Monitoring Report of 2005, quality education can be assessed on two principles; cognitive development of the learner and the role played by education in creating responsible citizens with good values and attitudes (Business Council of Australia, 2005). It should therefore involve relevant aims, learning from assessment, good use of time and have subject balance among many others. This is brought about by an interplay of the following interrelated dimensions; quality of teaching personnel, availability of quality of learning resources, quality of teaching practices adopted, the learning environment quality and the quality of results obtained or posted.
Education is fundamental in the development of human civilization, a better society and economic development of a nation. Through education, peace and diplomacy in the society is enhanced. It is through education that people learn how to understand others from different cultural backgrounds which helps in maintaining better social relationships in the society. Lowering poverty levels, disease risk factors and common health problems largely depends on education (UNESCO, 2004). It also helps in the creation of opportunities since the highly educated individuals get well-paying jobs while those who never attained any significant levels of education have low chances of succeeding in life. Overall, it can be said, education plays a crucial role in any nation’s economic growth. According to a 2005 Access Economics report there was a 1.1 % increase in the Gross Domestic Product of Australia as a result of increased rate of participation in training and education (Business Council of Australia, 2005).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
Aim of the Research
The aim of this research is to help in the study and analysis of the impact of quality education on the lives of people and the society at large. Almost everyone can contribute significant views on the benefits of education to the individual, society and the nation at large. However I thought it would be necessary if the impact of not only education but quality education has on individuals and the society can be investigated. There is need to go back to various societies with quality education and conduct a quantitative research on the positive and negative (if any) impacts of quality education to their lives and society.
Highly educated individuals have been found to be healthier and to have a higher life expectancy than their counterparts with little or no education (Barker et al. 2011). Studies conducted on the relationship between health and education in developed countries like the United States and those in Europe have not been that successful. This is based on the fact that most members in those societies have attained higher levels of education and there are no significant variations in their schooling. Studies done in countries with high education attainment and those in countries with less education attainment give different outcomes that direct comparisons cannot be drawn from. However effect of education on health is supported by comparing crude deaths in these developed countries before educational revolution and those at present.
Education has been found to contribute greatly on the choice of spouses among females in the society. Highly educated females would prefer to have spouses with higher education levels than themselves as opposed to their counterparts who received no or little education. Education has also been thought to have an impact on a woman’s fertility and the health of an infant. Females that spent most of their time in schools are thought to have reduced fertility than those who stayed little or no time studying. A study was therefore conducted by Justin and his team to evaluate the impact education has on a woman’s fertility and infant health (Mccrary et al. 2011).
According to the study conducted by Mccrary et al. (2011) it was found out that schooling affected a woman’s fertility in terms of the timing of first pregnancy, number of children to be given birth to, interval between these children and even the probability of ever giving birth. Most educated women would prefer having lesser children and a reasonable interval between them. Some of them showed they would prefer not giving birth either. School entry policies also contributed negatively towards a woman’s fertility. Education also affected a woman’s behavior something that impacted directly on the infant’s health. However, the research found no significant impact on the infant health based on the low birth weight rate for infants in California of 0.0014 from the previous 0.0024 for ladies aged 23yrs.
Studies done on mortality rates based on the educational levels of the participants have found out that those individuals with low educational standards record higher figures than those with higher education levels. A study was conducted to show the relationship between cancer mortality and the educational levels among some European countries (Menvielle et al. 2008) which showed that individuals with low educational standards had more mortality rates than those with higher educational levels. However, margins in mortality rates among men were higher than those in women. In the study, margin in the difference was much smaller for women in Spain than in the other countries. The high margins in men than in women were attributed to the fact that there exist more inequalities in men than in women.
Education has a key role in promoting social cohesion, good citizenship associations and an individual’s well being. Societies that have been deprived of education record high cases of social exclusions and other social evils. A study conducted in Pakistan on teachers’ perceptions on social problems and education (Buzdar et al. 2015) showed that ignorance and illiteracy in the society were connected with most of the social problems. Corruption was among the highlighted social problem with most of the respondents claiming that it went unnoticed in the society due to the high illiteracy and ignorance levels. Gender related problems such as domestic violence and sexual harassment was also pointed out. Majority of the respondents were concerned about the existence of these evils in the society despite having vast knowledge about them.
Education helps in eliminating crime in the society. Incorporation of crime education within the education system limits an individual’s available ties viable for participation in crime, increases opportunities of success through employment and the patience and risk version developed through education (Machin et al. 2011). Teenagers who have spent most of their teenage life in school have been found to have lesser probabilities of engaging in teenage crime related activities. In the 1970s, school leaving ages were changed from 15 years to 16 years in countries such as the United States, England and Wales. From a study conducted in England it was found out that education has a positive impact on property crime than violent crime (which accounted for about 70% of crimes). In 2007/2008 there was 1% decrease in the levels of the number of people with no educational qualifications. During the same period, only 2% cases of property crimes were recorded, which is a significant reduction (Stephen et al. 2011).
Many hypotheses have been put forth about effects of education on civic engagement. Some people argue that education has a critical role in encouraging citizen participation in the democratic processes. Civic benefits that were in existence led to increased number of common schools and educational reforms in the 19th century. According to a study done by United States’ department of education (Dee et al. 2003) educational involvement promoted civic engagement like resisting child labor and engaging in activities such as voting. Voter participation was seen to be high among societies that were educated than those with little education. These individuals had a better understanding of their constitutional requirements and their role in nation development.
Basing on the literature review above, there are many benefits of education to an individual, the society and the nation as a whole. Several hypotheses have been put forward to help in data collection and analysis during the study. Some of these hypotheses have been drawn from the literature review and are as follows.
First of all it is hypothesized that quality education will have a greater positive impact than that observed in just an education. This therefore means that individuals and societies that have quality education will enjoy more benefits of education than their counterparts without quality education. The other hypothesis is that individuals and the society are responsible for impacts felt from quality education attainment. It is also hypothesized that people find it difficult to differentiate whether they have undergone quality education or just education. Finally it is hypothesized there is no significant difference in the impacts of education and those of quality education. This implies that individuals and societies without quality education will enjoy same benefits to a similar extend like those with quality education. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]
This will be a quantitative study and so quantitative approach will be applied in investigating the impacts of quality education on people’s lives and the society. This study will involve collecting information from schools, colleges and nearby households. Samples to be used in the study would be selected using both random and non-random sampling techniques. Simple random sampling will be used in determining the school and colleges to be used in the study while purposive and convenience sampling will be used in subject selection. Households to be used in the study will be determined strictly through purposive sampling. Four secondary schools, three colleges and 15 households will be used during the study.
Subjects of Study
Subjects of the study will mainly involve; college students, school going students and parents or guardians to this students. Secondary (high) school students will be the point of interest rather than primary (elementary) going pupils. School going students of about 14-16 years will be selected using purposive sampling methods and college students of age about 17-22 years also selected from their colleges purposively. Household chosen will include those lying in the middle class category and those in the high class category. Only households within the same district within the same location will be selected for the study. Emphasis will be put on households with graduates and those yet to have graduates among their family members. Samples of about 10 students per school, 12 per college and two members of the households will be involved in the study.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]
Questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews will be used in data collection. Data collected and obtained through these tools will then be compiled and analyzed as either descriptive or inferential data. All tools of data collection will be tested through a reconnaissance study that will be done six months before the actual study.
Questionnaires will be filled by school going students and those in colleges. Questions in the questionnaires will be both open ended and closed ended questions. These questionnaires will consist of questions about their understanding about quality education and its impact to their lives and the society. These students will also be involved in two focus group discussions. Interviews will only be conducted when researching in households. During all this procedures ages of participants, their social-economic and status and residence will be captured.
Participants in the households will be interviewed using an interview guide with questions on different areas of study. Questions will include whether the education they underwent was quality education. Gender, age and socioeconomic status and type of residence of the participants will also be taken.
Descriptive information of the samples used will be obtained on age, residential setting (for the households) and gender (for all participants). After analysis this information will then be presented in tables and graphs with their central measures of tendencies inform of mean, median and modes. Standard deviation and ranges will also be calculated from the data.
Inferences will be drawn to test all the hypotheses set using the t-test, significance level of 0.05 and at 95 % confidence interval. T-testing will be preferred given that our samples will be in all cases less than 30 and the population standard-deviation is unknown (Lefevere, 2014).
Conclusion and Significance of The study
Findings obtained during the study are expected to boost the societies understanding about quality education and its significance. Students and the members of the society involved will also come to learn that education not only benefits them but also plays a bigger role in their wellbeing and that of other society members.
Baker, D. P., Leon, J., Smith Greenaway, E. G., Collins, J., & Movit, M. (2011). The Education Effect on Population Health: A Reassessment. Population and Development Review, 37(2), 307–332.
Business Council of Australia. (2005).Increasing Participation in Education and Training: Key Policy Steps. Melbourne, Australia: Author
Buzdar, M. A., & Ali, A. (2015). Beliefs of Prospective Teachers to Eliminate Social Problems of Pakistani Society. Anadolu Journal Of Educational Sciences International, 5(1).
Dee, T. S. (2004). Are there civic returns to education? Journal of Public Economics, 88(9-10), 1697-1720.
Feinberg, I., Frijters, J., Johnson-Lawrence, V., Greenberg, D., Nightingale, E., & Moodie, C. (2016). Examining Associations between Health Information Seeking Behavior and
Adult Education Status in the U.S.: An Analysis of the 2012 PIAAC Data. PLoS ONE, 11(2), e0148751.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO. (2004). Educational for all: The quality imperative. Paris: Author.
Lefevere, L, S. (2014). 1,001 Statistics Practice Problems for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Machin, S., Marie, O., & Vuji?, S. (2011). The Crime Reducing Effect of Education*. The Economic Journal, 121(552), 463-484.
Mccrary, J., & Royer, H. (2011). The Effect of Female Education on Fertility and Infant Health: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth. American Economic Review, 101(1), 158-195.
Menvielle, G., Kunst, A. E., Stirbu, I., Strand, B. H., Borrell, C., Regidor, E., … Mackenbach, J. P. (2008). Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe. British Journal of Cancer, 98(5), 1012–1019.