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Write My Essay Sample: Assisted Suicide
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 5, 2018

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Argument for Physician-Assisted Suicide

Doctors should be granted permission to assist terminally ill patients in ending their lives (assisted suicide)

Physician-assisted suicide is the process through which doctors allows terminally ill patients to die by denying them extreme medical measures such as CPR or giving them a lethal dose that allows them to die faster and painlessly (Dworkin & Bok, 2013). The right to assisted dying is a topic that has many views across the globe as some are against for moral and religious reasons while others support it out of empathy and respect for the dying. However, Patients suffering from terminal illnesses and painful grave conditions should have the right to choose assisted suicide or euthanasia, as these conditions prevent them from living their lives as healthy people (Quill, 2014). This paper aims at elaborating on the reasons why their doctors or physicians should make assisted dying available to patients.

First, the right to die is an important aspect of this argument. A competent, terminally ill person reserves the right to make a decision as to whether to continue in suffering or to opt for a much easier option which is assisted suicide. This right may be deemed to be as essential as any other basic human rights thus his is equivalent to a denial of any other human right. A state’s illegalization of euthanasia in the case of competent, terminally ill patients who wish to have a dignified, painless death interferes with protected liberty interest (American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 1996).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

It is argued that prohibition against killing patients stands as the first promise of self-restraint sworn to in the Hippocratic Oath and therefore that assisted suicide is in itself contrary to the basic foundation of the practice of medicine, which is to protect human life. However, over a period of many years since the establishment of the Hippocratic Oath, it has been modified sometimes as some of its contents became less and less applicable to the changing periods of the modern world.

Although medical technology has improved significantly, for example, patients with lung failure can use respirators and other medicines that serve to prolong the patient’s physiological processes, for the terminally ill, this only serves to prolong their suffering and agony (Nitschke, 2001). An example is the case of Lillian Boyes, a patient who has rheumatoid arthritis who asks her doctor’s assistance in dying, as she can no longer withstand the pain since the pain medicine is not sufficient in alleviating the pain (Quill, 2014). Assisted dying is the only means to an end as there is no cure for terminal illnesses.

There is the financial aspect of terminal illnesses. Maintaining patients’ suffering from terminal illnesses comes at a high cost. Not only are there expenses brought about by the regular hospital visits, medication and medical procedures which even the more financially able who have medical insurance, may not be covered under their specific cover, there is also the disadvantage of loss of income (Quill, 2014). A terminally ill patient may not be able to work, losing the source of income. This may also be made worse in the case where the sick person was the principal breadwinner. The family is forced not only to find a way of providing for themselves but also to be able to cater for the growing medical expenses. Also, upon their death, they leave their families in financial ruin due to the massive debts owed to the hospital.

Terminal illnesses have the tendency of reducing able, versatile, and healthy to weak individuals who are left with no option other than to rely on their relatives for food, personal hygiene and other dehumanizing aspects of life (Orfalli, 2011). Moreover, their lives continue to deteriorate to the point where they cannot see, move, or hear and eventually death. Such an individual should be allowed to die in dignity by granting them euthanasia.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

There is also the question as to whether the decision on how much is too much should be left in the authority of an institution as formal as the government. For the patients and their loved ones, at some point they are faced with tough decisions to make: When should we stop doing all that we can do to save this life? When do we stop undergoing therapies and let nature take its course? When are we unduly influenced by our fear of death and letting torturous medical methods excessively prolong the dying rather than preserve the living? These intensely personal and emotionally straining decisions should not be left to governments, judges or legislators. (LA TIMES, 2005)

In conclusion, terminally ill patients are usually in a huge dilemma on how to live their last days as they have to choose between living out the rest of their days in agony and pain or a slow death (assisted suicide). Of which, many choose the latter. Assisted suicide has several ethical reasons among them being, dying in dignity, saving cost and liberty interests. Therefore, physician-assisted dying is crucial in maintaining patients dignity among other aspects discussed in the paper.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

References

Dworkin Gerald, R. G Frey, and Sissela Bok. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Print.

Orfali Robert. Death with Dignity. Minneapolis, Minn.: Mill City Press, 2011. Print.

Quill Timothy, E, and M. Pabst Battin. Physician-Assisted Dying. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. Print.

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (1996, December 10). LA TIMES. (2005, March 22).

Los Angeles Times – Euthanasia – ProCon.org [Web log post].

Nitschke, P. (2001, June 5). Philip Nitschke, Ph.D., MBBS – Euthanasia –

Essay Writing Sample: Duties of Care
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 4, 2018

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Duties of Care Within the Hospitality Industry

When working within the hospitality industry, one must fully understand and utilize well-informed and reasonable judgement in dealing with customers and guests. While accidents may occur within these industries, hospitality leaders must be aware of the potential for legal action against the industry regardless of the defendant’s intentions when working with the plaintiff. One of the key elements in fully understanding and being engaged in hospitality law is to understand Tort Law and Negligence, and how they must act in order to avoid legal action against them. Tort Law allows for individuals who have experienced damages, whether physical, emotional, or monetary, to receive compensation from the damager (Westcott, 2016). There are two key types of torts with respect to this law: intentional, which means that the individual meant to cause damages, or unintentional, which means that the individual was negligent and caused accidental damages as a result (Westcott, 2016). For the businesses to operate effectively within the hospitality industry, the leadership and employees involved must clearly comprehend the two kinds of torts, what they mean in terms of legal action and hospitality law, and how they can contribute towards best practices within their industries to avoid issues.

It is important to be able to differentiate and understand the two types of Tort Law in order for individuals to not breach either form. Intentional torts are when the damager completes an action that they know will result in damages to the victim, whether they are physical, mental, or monetary. This does not necessarily imply physical violence, but can include it, as well as acts of vandalism or trespassing (Stanford EDU, 2012). In contrast, unintentional torts are a result of negligence against a plaintiff. Negligence refers to failing to complete reasonable acts, or any acts that a normal and reasonable person would commit, to reduce the chances of threats of health and safety (Westcott, 2016). For a victim to successfully prove an incident of negligence, they must show that they suffered an injury (either physical, mental, or monetary), that a duty of care existed (that the damager was responsible for the plaintiff’s health and safety), that this duty of care was breached (that reasonable actions were not taken as per industry standard), and that the actions, or lack of actions, from the defendant clearly caused the injury to the victim (Westcott, 2016). While torts can comprise of actions that infringe upon both civil and criminal matters, accusations of a breach of tort law is governed by civil courts rather than criminal ones (Stanford EDU, 2012). The difference between dealing with issues of tort in criminal versus civil courts is that civil courts award the plaintiff with reparations to be paid by the defendant, rather than sentencing them to jail-time (Stanford EDU, 2012). This type of award is called a “civil remedy” (Stanford EDU, 2012). The values of these civil remedies are determined by several factors, including any monetary losses (including a loss of wages), the cost to repair damaged property, punitive damages (punishment for intentional torts), or a valuation on the plaintiff’s pain and suffering resulting from the breach of care (Stanford EDU, 2012). In understanding the two types of torts, and how they can be committed and charged, individuals within the hospitality industry can better prepare themselves throughout their day-to-day lives to avoid such lawsuits. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Within the hospitality industry, the more common occurrence of breaches in tort law are acts of negligence by either employees or businesses. Within unintentional tort, there are a number of types of negligence that employees or businesses can commit, and it is important to understand these to ensure that the proper duty of care is provided to all guests and customers. Negligence claims can occur as a result of two things: first, if the defendant failed to complete an action that a reasonable person would take, and two, if they failed to properly complete an action, resulting in injury to the plaintiff (Barth & Hayes, 2012). An example case of negligence is if a hotel guest decided to dive into an unmarked pool that was too shallow for diving (Barth & Hayes, 2012). If the guest did not realize that the pool was shallow, and the pool was not marked as unsafe for diving, then the hotel could be held negligent under unintentional tort, because they did not properly mark the pool area (Barth & Hayes, 2012). As an extended example, if the hotel had improperly marked the pool as safe for diving, or with a deep depth of ten feet, but the pool was only 5 feet deep, then they could also be held negligent because they improperly labelled the pool (Barth & Hayes, 2012). There are many types of negligence that a business or individual within the hospitality industry could be held accountable for. These include: gross negligence, contributory and comparative negligence, strict liability, and intentional acts. In contrast to regular negligence charges, charges of gross negligence result when a business or individual completely overlooks the standards of care for the duty owned to a guest, customer, or public (Barth & Hayes, 2012). In successful cases of gross negligence, the defendant will not only be charged for reparations to the plaintiff, but will also be forced to pay punitive damages as a punishment for their actions (Barth & Hayes, 2012). Punitive damages allow courts to make examples of poorly-performing individuals, to discourage others from making the same mistakes. Contributory negligence is when a guest or customer provides a contributory action to an injury they receive because of a business or individual (Barth & Hayes, 2012). In these cases, the damages or reparations to be paid by the individual or business will likely be reduced, as the plaintiff helped to cause the actions; the blame will be split between the two, but the defendant will likely still have to pay some reparations (Barth & Hayes, 2012). This split of blame between the two parties is termed “Comparative Negligence” (Barth & Hayes, 2012). In contrast to the other forms of negligence discussed, Strict Liability is when a business or individual hosts an event or service deemed too dangerous to operate (Barth & Hayes, 2012). In this case, even if the guest or customer participated in contributory negligence towards the damages, the defendant would still be held completely at fault, because the plaintiff should not have been participating in the first place (Barth & Hayes, 2012). Finally, Intentional Acts in this case differ from intentional tort, as they are a result of a third party performing intentional actions that resulted in damages to the plaintiff. For instance, if a fight breaks out in a bar, the bar itself will not be held accountable for the injuries of the victims (Barth & Hayes, 2012). Understanding these different types of negligence is key for individuals to ensure that they refrain from breaching their duty of care to their guests and customers. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

To ensure for hospitality best practices, and to avoid any breaches of tort, managers and leaders within the industry must ensure staff provides safe accommodations and public spaces, serves safe food and drinks, responsibly dispenses alcoholic drinks, provides thorough and mandatory health and safety training for all staff members, provides reasonable warnings to guests and customers of any potential dangers on the premises, and reasonably protects guest’s personal items from theft or damage (Barth & Hayes, 2012). The behaviour of leaders within the hospitality industry has the power to both prevent health and safety incidents, as well as prevent them (Jackson, 2016). For the most efficient and effective operations, hospitality businesses should properly train and support their staff to ensure that they performed reasonably, as the actions they take reflect both upon themselves, as well as on the business. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

References

Barth, S. C., & Hayes, D. K. (2012, October). Hospitality Law: Managing Legal Issues in the Hospitality Industry.

Jackson, J. (2016, October). Beyond Decision Making for Outdoor Leaders: Expanding the Safety Behaviour Research Agenda.

Stanford EDU. (2012, October). TORTS (NOT A PIECE OF CAKE) .

Westcott, M. (2016). Tort Law and Negligence. Retrieved from Open Textbook Resource – BC:

Essay Writing Service Sample: The Cannabis Conspiracy
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 3, 2018

The Cannabis Conspiracy: Why is Weed Illegal?

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People often have different choices of drugs when it comes to abuse, and this depends on the involved countries. Marijuana is a common drug that is found in various countries and has a range of names depending on the countries of concern. While this is a popular drug, it is illegal to use in all states except California (Masunaga). The main reason behind its illegal status among the Americans is its adverse effects on human health. However, there exist some conspiracy theories on why Marijuana is considered illegal. These theories are based on cartels interests and racism.

The involved cartels fought the legality of marijuana ranged from paper industries and petrochemical industries. Hemp could be processed to produce environmental friendly paper and chemicals, which would threaten the alternative resources used for the same processes (Hidel).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]At the time, influential people had already invested in the paper manufacturing and chemical production sectors and opted to use the law to prevent the use of hemp. The racist theory mainly associated the use of Marijuana with colored and Hispanic persons, which prompted the government to consider the drug as harmful and therefore illegal (Hidel). At the time, racism was rampant, making the passing of such a bill easier. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

This article provides logical facts based on the persons involved in the banning of marijuana in America. Even though it explains their motives behind their choices, it fails to explain why people have never challenged the illegal status of marijuana in the modern America. Based on the article, it would be right to suggest that the illegalization of Marijuana was meant to meet the needs of a few elite people, but this also fails to explain why the future generations have never challenged the same. In a world that is capitalist-oriented, it would be expected that some companies have challenged the use of marijuana based on the context of production and not personal use. Therefore, these conspiracy theories are less convincing on why Hemp was illegalized. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Works Cited

Hidel, Tom. “The Cannabis Conspiracy: Why is Weed Illegal?” Illuminatirex. IlluminatiRex,

2017,

Masunaga, Samantha. “Marijuana is now legal in California, but it can still keep you from

getting a job.” Los Angeles Times. LA Times, December 9, 2016, ”

 

Write My Essay Sample: Amartya Sen and Development
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 30, 2018

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Amartya Sen is a distinguished professor of economics who was born on 3rd November 1933 in Santiniketan India. He won the Nobel prize of economics in 1998 for his contribution to welfare economics and its fundamental problems.  His contribution also covered the social choice, poverty and the measurement of welfare, a rare work that has a major impact on politics. His work relating to the causes of famine has changed the way public approaches the issue. He has successful managed to show how, in his analysis of poverty, hundreds of people within a country might starve even if a nation’s production of food has not declined. Sen, (2001) asserts that simple measures of Gross National Product are not enough in the assessment of the standard of living. He was thus fundamental in the creation of the United Nations Human Development Index that is today an authoritative international source of welfare in relation to comparison among countries.

Amartya Sen conceptualizes development as freedom where human being development is all about the growth of citizens’ abilities. It is a Universalists convention of notion that emphasizes the need of human’s beings to live a good life where all humans are entitled to live such a life.  This idea advocates for human flourishing as the main basis of solving global poverty and inequality and not its absence. Dre?ze, & Sen, (2002) state that freedom is all about increasing a people’s prospects and access to those things in which they have reason of value, hence they challenge the traditional concept of quantifying development through economic growth. Sen acknowledges that an increase in poor people incomes directly contributes to the growth of their liberty. He states that a sole increase in income has at its best an unequal and at its worst a detrimental impact on the greater part of a nation’s inhabitants (Dre?ze, & Sen, 2002).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Therefore there is a necessity for radical redistributive measures that will facilitate the poor to gain from any development. Amartya Sen, therefore, coined and adopted the capability approach to address these concerns.  Capability approach is defined by its emphasis upon the ethical importance of a person’s ability to attaining the type of lives they have a basis to value. This paradigm differentiates it from the more established approaches to moral evaluation for example resourcesim and utilitarianism that focus on the availability of the means to the good life and subjective well-being respectively. According to Alexander, (2008), capability approach defines an individual’s capability to a good life that is best defined by a set of valuable beings and doings. This for example may include a loving relationships and good health that bequeaths them a real success.  Amartya Sen first advocated this capability approach in the 1980’s which has comprehensively been applied to the situations involving the human development index for example at the UNDP (Kuklys, 2005).

It is indeed an alternative measure to the narrow econometrics variable measures of GDP per capita. In this approach, poverty is thus understood as deprivation in the capacity to live a high-quality life while development is defined as the expansion of capability. Sen argues that starvation is the characteristic of some individuals lacking enough food to eat, and it is not the characteristic of there being not enough food to eat (Kuklys, 2005).  The genesis of this argument was after the famine of 1943 in Bengal, where a realization was detected by Sen. He noticed that the overall food production was not any lower as compared to 1941 when famine and starvation was not present. Starvation was as a result of the wages being paid to farm laborers in 1942 not keeping up with the rise in food prices due to inflation in Calcutta. The genesis of the inflation was an economic boom in Calcutta due to war production at the time.

It is this economic fundamental that brought about a shift in entitlements where laborers suffered a real reduction in the capacity to command power over food. Sen, (2001) argues that poverty; famine, unfulfilled basic needs, political freedoms violations, and subjugation of women still continue to occur in the modern world irrespective of the unprecedented wealth and opulence reflected across the world. The previous strategies that have been employed to address these challenges are feted with structural errors that make them fail. Hence, the need for the capability approach that puts human flourishing at its core instead of economic growth in the quest to resolving the dilemma of poverty and worldwide inequality (Dre?ze, & Sen, 2002).  The pursuit for freedom for all mankind entails expansion of citizen’s capabilities through removal of the various types of impediments and not on making up of what the citizen’s lack. Therefore, development is the elimination of the various forms of impediments to development that leave the masses with constrained choice and a without chance of executing their rational urgency.

The major impediments to freedom are therefore poverty, tyranny, systemic social deprivations, deplorable public facilities, poor economic opportunities, intolerance, and other activities of repressive states.  By removing these impediments, the living standards of people will then be able to be uplifted, especially through ushering in factors like  increased economic  opportunities, social facilities, political freedom, transparency and security which are instrumental (Alexander, 2008).  These factors need to be interconnected for example the social facilities that involve the markets and the state.  Therefore, society’s arrangement needs to be investigated so as to seek out their contributions to guaranteeing and enhancing substantive freedoms of individuals. Through this, Amartya Sen believes that individuals will be the main agents of change instead of them being recipients of dispensed benefits.

The social facilities are meant to provide the opportunities that will further augment the well-being of the populace. Consequently the growth of freedom is vital to a nation’s development agenda, as a principal means as well as the primary end. The goal of development, in the end, becomes wider than the arithmetical determination of Gross National Product.  The notion of development should, therefore, be pursued systematically in order for it to be brought about.  For this reasons, poverty is thought of not as an abnormality, but as a phenomenon that can be resolved. For that reason, policy makers need to acknowledge that the privileges of mankind in a capitalistic world are situated on the same locus as their sufferings (Sen, 2001). This means that the predicament of development is anchored squarely in what has been classified as prosperity and how people and institutions go about advocating and promoting that classification, just in the same manner it does for poverty.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

This proposition means that a person can be happy without a lot of freedoms and a person could also have a good amount of freedom devoid of attaining much freedom. A person can, therefore, have a substantial freedom without achieving much meaning that freedom is by itself not free from a person’s ability or aspiration to apply it to any specific end. These makes development to be less of “making up of what people are deprived of” i.e. modernization to it being more of removal of impediments that prevent the same people from existing in a manner that they may otherwise choose for example State violence or market inequalities (Dre?ze, & Sen, 2002). There is no significance of political liberty on formal paper if the people are in reality being prohibited from benefiting from those freedoms as a result of impediments like discrimination, tribalism, malnutrition, racism, natural calamities or even epidemiological risk.

Yet many politicians and institutions are yet to understand and take on board this claim as they endeavor to address the supposed needs and the short-term political interest. A look at the millennium development objectives advocates Amartya Sen philosophy as free will is one of its core tenets of basic values.  Yet there is a big challenge in integrating freedom with economic production, a challenge that has been with mankind since the time of enlightenment political thinking. Economic Development is a politically emotional issue that is ethically essential and the elementary challenge it creates for the society can never be resolved unless the world adopts Amartya Sen Line of thought (Rauhut, Hatti, & Olsson, 2005).  Yet resolving the predicament of development is more important in the modern world that is divided between the advancement of globalization and the retardation of the art of politics when it comes to superior judgment.  The challenge is in the transformation of the state or country that currently does not bestow liberty to its people into a nation or state that does.  Amartya Sen Offers little advice about how this can or should be achieved (Kuklys, 2005).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Moreover, even in those countries that are labeled as developed nations, there is still freedom deficits that reverse the development goals achieved so far. Political freedoms are indeed compromised by entrenched interests in the United States of America and Australia as well as by the entrenched powers of the oligarchy in much of Europe and Japan.  The protectionism of large corporations in Japan and Europe limits the trade and industry independence of small and medium enterprises (Alexander, 2008). The social opportunities are also constrained in many countries of the world mainly because the rich have access to education and health facilities compared to the poor.

Even though Amartya Sen has raised issues pertaining to cultural freedoms, progress in this field will require a massive shift in attitudes for progress to occur. He also does not deal with the subject of how individual liberty ought to be crafted into the overall society that requires foregoing some aspects of personal freedoms in order to coexist peacefully (Rauhut, Hatti, & Olsson, 2005).

References

Alexander, J. M. (2008). Capabilities and social justice: The political philosophy of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Pub.

Dre?ze, J., & Sen, A. K. (2002). India: Development and participation. Oxford [u.a.: Oxford University Press.

Kuklys, W. (2005). Amartya Sen’s capability approach: Theoretical insights and empirical applications. Berlin: Springer.

Rauhut, D., Hatti, N., & Olsson, C.-A. (2005). Economists and poverty: From Adam Smith to Amartya Sen. New Delhi: Vedams.

Sen, A. K. (2001). Development as freedom. Oxford [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press.

Essay Writing Sample: Application of Critical Theory in Aristotle and Plato’s Work
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 28, 2018

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Question: The history of critical theory could be described as a sustained conversation and negotiation between the texts making up that history. Discuss how a later text in this course inherits and adapts the argument of an earlier one.

The historical-critical theory can be interpreted on a broad spectrum of the disciplines of both philosophy and the history of social sciences (Hohendahl et.al, 37). Among one of the interpretations is the fact that critical theory influenced various generations of social theorists in Western European Marxist tradition as well as German philosophers. According to critical theorist, a “critical” theory distinguishes from a “traditional” theory based on a particular practical objective.

In general, critical theory is a Marxist-inspired movement in political and social philosophy, which was formerly associated with the Frankfurt school’s work (Hohendahl et.al, 57). Over the years, critical theories have been building on the thoughts of Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx in maintaining that the primary objective of philosophy is to help in understanding and overcoming the social structures through which human beings have not only dominated but also oppressed. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]In this way, by believing that like other forms and aspects of knowledge, science has been utilized as a tool of oppression, critical theorists caution against having blind faith in the scientific developments and progress (Hohendahl et.al, 65). On the same breath, these scholars argue that scientific knowledge should not be followed as an end in itself without referring to the objective of human emancipation. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Based on this argument, critical theory has been instrumental in the study of literature, history, law, as well as social sciences. Therefore, critical theory can be described as a sustained negotiation and conversation between the texts making up that history. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] On this premise, the following paper will discuss the works of Aristotle and Plato by showing how critical theory applies in Aristotle’s application of Plato’s work.

Work Cited

Hohendahl, Peter U, and Jaimey Fisher. Critical Theory: Current State and Future Prospects.New York: Berghahn Books, 2012. Print.

Essay Writing Service Sample: The Capital Punishment
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 27, 2018

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Introduction

Death penalty, which is also known as capital punishment, is a government practice that involves execution of those found on the wrong side of the law.  The practice and laws on death penalty have been in existence for quite some time and dates back to 18th century B.C. The Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon saw people get executed when found to have committed one of the twenty different crimes.  Athens, through the Draconian Code of Athens, used death penalty as their only means of punishment. During these ancient times, death penalty meant dying by burning, crucifixion, strangling, drowning and even being torn apart. This paper, therefore, outlines the significant arguments for and against death penalty.

To begin with, we should all acknowledge that death penalty is still in practice in the current world. However, this practice is limited to some countries and the conditions for this penalty vary significantly among countries. Some countries are known for prescribing death penalty for those individuals with severe mental diseases. Majority of the countries that exercise death penalty on law offenders would do so for cases like war crimes, desertion or mutiny in the military. A significant number of those given the death penalty are imprisoned for several years on death rows while awaiting their day of execution.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Currently, about 102 countries in the world have completely done away with  death penalty as a way of punishment for any of the crimes committed. Six other countries have removed death penalty only for ordinary crimes but consider it for serious crimes like war crimes. Thirty-two countries are currently in the process of abolishing death penalty while the remaining 58 still maintain the practice. Among those countries that still hold the practice whether for all crimes or just serious crimes, 25 of them executed 1,634 people in 2015. This figure raises concerns since it is the highest number of executions in the last 25 years. For all the countries that have abolished death penalty whether totally or partially and for those who still retain the practice could be based on the following reasons.

Arguments for Death Penalty

Countries such as the United States and China are among some of the nations that still practice death penalty as a form of punishment for criminals. Other countries and states are also known to have abolished death penalty and then later reinstated it. For instance, Chad abolished death penalty completely in 2014 but reinstated it in 2015 for crimes involving terrorism. There are many reasons as to why death penalty has not been abolished by these countries despite the concerns raised by organizations such Amnesty International. To some extend, I second the decision by these countries not to abolish death penalty on various grounds.

To start with, I strongly believe that death penalty was instituted by our creator God. In Genesis chapter nine versus six, it says that anyone who leads to another shedding blood then this person’s blood shall also be shed by mine hand like he did to the other. It further explains that men were made in the image of God and so life must be respected. From my point of view, death sentence for murders is okay since even God Himself supports it. Exodus chapter 21 verse 12 further goes on to say: anyone who causes another to die shall also be killed. However, other people might claim that this is in the Old Testament, and that now we have the New Testament this has changed. In revelation, a New Testament book, chapter 13 verses 10 also says; anyone that kills with the sword shall also be killed by the sword. Apostle Paul in the book of Acts chapter 25 verses 11 sums this argument by saying that some crimes are worthy punishment by death. He say in this book that if he is found to have committed a crime worth death sentence he won’t refuse to die.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Death penalty deters anyone wishing to engage in crime from committing the crime. There is need to continue with death penalty since it deters other murderers from committing the crime while at the same time it prevents the society from such murderers. It is also unethical to let someone who has murdered an innocent person to live. Statistics also show that crime rate is low in states that have death penalty (Muhlhausen, 2007).

It is believed that crime can be lowered by harsher treatments like death penalty among others. Basing on the general deterrence theory, it is apparent that when the risk for apprehension and punishment is increased, people will always shun away from such criminal activities. Criminals, like other members of the society, would weigh between utility (in this case their self-interest) and prices (which in this case is the constraints or punishments they may face) before embarking on any criminal activity (Muhlhausen, 2007). This can then be compared to the analogy that when prices in the real market increase, people tend to reduce their utilities or in other cases move for other less expensive commodities.

It has been confirmed through studies that death penalty, especially through the means of execution, has a significant impact on deterring crimes that result to death penalty. For instance, from 2004 to 2008, only 4 out of the 251 inmates that were executed in the US chose electrocution over lethal injection. The other 247 chose execution via lethal injection since it appeared less painful than the electric chair. This shows that, not only do this inmates fear death penalty but also care on how they are going to die (Radelet et al., 2008).

Absence of death penalty results into the increase of homicides. For instance, it is argued that the rise of homicide cases in the mid-1960s in New York could be attributed to the cessation of legal executions. It is reported that about 41 thousand people had been murdered since 1965 in New York as was opposed to those murdered in the previous twenty-three years. 1965 is known to be the year in which New York, one of the states in America, abolished death sentence (Galliher et al., 2001). What followed was disastrous than was expected.  By the time death penalty was abolished, there were about 400 victims of murder. However it did not take time before this figure rose to 1500 cases of murder per year, this only took 3 three years to escalate to such levels. During this particular time, it is also estimated that more people were killed on the streets of New York as compared to those killed during the war in Vietnam. All this were attributed to the absence of death penalty by the then senator of New York Volker (Galliher et al., 2001).

Death penalty is just a punishment like other punishments for other crimes. Basing on the principles of right and wrong when it comes to humanity, we find out that individuals should be praised and rewarded for the good deeds while being condemned and punished for their wrong deeds. This therefore means that any wrong in the society should not be left unpunished. For instance, if one is found stealing he or she must be arraigned in a court of law and sentenced accordingly. The same should apply to anyone found kidnapping a child. These two scenarios demand that these particular individuals serve given terms in prison or even pay fines for their crimes. Denying these particular individuals freedom by putting them behind bars is sufficient for them to pay for their wrong doings.

However, the case with murder and other capital offences should be viewed in different perspectives. For instance, if one is accused to have been responsible of murder of a child or any member of given family, denial of freedom is not sufficient. Loss of life cannot be punished by merely restraining someone in a prison and in which they receive constant food supply, clothing and health services. It would be even more annoying to keep someone who murdered one’s close friend or family member in jail and still pay for their upkeep and accommodation through taxes. A solution to all this would therefore be execution which ends the person’s life like they did to those they murdered. Thus, other crimes like murder, war crimes and robbery with violence should be meted with harsh punishments commensurate to the crime committed; in this case, death penalty.

Arguments against Death Penalty

Through studies, death penalty has been established death penalty leads to more harm to both the individual being executed and the society. It also fails to meet the approach of investing in the solution but rather the problem. The argument presented herein is based on some of the disadvantages that more than 120 countries considered prior abolishing the death penalty. Below are some of the disadvantages associated with exercising death penalty to law offenders of a country.

Killing the murderer does not kill murder. It is apparent that dead men are not in the position of committing any crime leave alone murder. Killing one who has killed therefore does not make any sense at all in terms of correcting the wrong done. Statistics show that states that still practice death penalty have more cases of murder per year than those that have already abolished it. For instance, murder rates in death penalty state was higher by 28% and 25%  than that for non-death penalty states in the year 2011 and 2015 respectively (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016). The other point of argument is that people who commit murder do not sit down and weigh the consequences of being executed as punishment. To my point of view the fear for the harsh penalty which is death could make some people afraid of but it is not significant enough to deter the majority of the society against crime.

From the above information one can clearly tell that though the perpetrators of murder are gotten rid of through execution in the death penalty states, the vice still exists. Ironically, states that have abolished death penalty and in which we expect higher cases of murder have lower murder rates per year. Among all the years from 1999 to 2015 there is not a single year that this death penalty states have recorded figures lower than the non-death sentence state in the United States of America (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016). When it comes to crime deterrence, one would even wonder if this punishment can help reduce other crimes yet it fails in reducing the capital crimes such as murder.

Death sentence is against human rights. Every human being has the right to life, a right that one gets deprived off through execution. Ending one’s life is against the universal declaration of human rights. Also, the methods used in carrying out these executions have been found out to be very inhuman something that has resulted into some of these methods being reviewed or substituted with others.

In ancient times death execution of law offenders was through crude methods such hanging, burning and even use of wild animals such as lions to devour the criminal. However, with time new methods of executions have been invented, just to kill other people. Currently, the use of lethal injection is the most used method of execution in the states that still practice it in America. Other states like Albania and Florida use both the lethal injection and electrocution. On the other hand, California and Idaho use both lethal injection or gas and firing squad, respectively.

Firing squad, electrocution, use of gas such as cyanide lethal injection are currently the most preferred methods of execution. However, these methods have been found to cause severe pain to the person being executed before he or she dies. Cyanide is known for depriving body tissues the ability to utilize oxygen, something that results into intense pain before dying. Electrocution is the most feared method by prisoners. This is attributed to the suffering it causes someone before he or she dies. Use of lethal injection is not only inhuman but also goes against medical ethics since it is involving medical personnel in killing rather than preserving life.

Death penalty has been found to be discriminatory in terms of social classes and race. Most of those executed are mostly from lower or middle social classes. For instance, cases about execution of prominent people in the society would end up becoming either life sentence or even shorter sentences. For instance, Egyptian ex-president Muhammad Morsi was given death sentence in April 2014 among many other criminals, but his sentence was overturned recently and he is now to serve a 20 year sentence in prison. It is rare for those from the lower social classes to receive such treatment.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In the United States, African Americans constitute the majority of inmates on death row. For instance in 2005 out of the 37 inmates that were on death row, African Americans constituted about 54.1 % as opposed to the 43.2% by whites. This is ironical given that African Americans are minorities when it comes to the total United States population and yet they constitute the majority of prisoner on death row (Muhlhausen, 2007). From this statistics, one can easily point out signs of racial discrimination when it comes to capital charges and death penalty, however majority members of the society would dispute this.

The issue of death penalty has led to so many cases where innocent people are tried and wrongly executed for crimes not committed by then or that were committed under certain circumstances. It has been established that in 2015, most of the executions were based on uncertain guilt and to some extend disabilities. In this same year alone, of the 28 who faced death penalty about three quarters had mental problems. Some of these prisoners like Warren Hill were suffering from a serious brain impairment condition which had even been confirmed by state doctors. Yet he was killed without considerations. Andrew Brannan was also among those that faced death penalty despite confirmation of mental illnesses resulting from post-traumatic stress syndrome (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016).

Some people have been falsely accused and even sentenced to face death penalties only for their cases to be overruled while on death row in light of new evidence. From 1973, more than 150 people were exonerated. The average number of years from the time of this sentence to exoneration stands at 11.3 years something that means although there is justice after all, it is always too long (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016).  Recent cases of exoneration are those of Henry McCollum and Leon Brown who were arrested in 1984 and had to serve for thirty years before being exonerated (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016).

In conclusion t is clear that there are many limitations as compared to advantages of death penalty. On would therefore advocate for the abolishment of death penalty as it is inhuman, has no impact on deterring crime and lastly because it is something of the past, of which the current civilized society does not need.

References

Death Penalty Information Center. (2016). Deterrence: States Without the Death Penalty Have Had Consistently Lower Murder Rates. Death Penalty Information Center.

Galliher, J. M., & Galliher, J. F. (2001). A” commonsense” theory of deterrence and the” ideology” of science: The New York State death penalty debate. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-), 92(1/2), 307-334.

Death Penalty Information Center. (2016).Innocence: List of Those Freed From Death Row.Death Penalty Information Center.

Muhlhausen, D. B. (2007, August 28). The Death Penalty Deters Crime and Saves Lives. Retrieved November 17, 2016, from

Death Penalty Information Center. (2016). News. Death Penalty Information Center.

News. (n.d.). Retrieved

Radelet, M. L., & Lacock, T. L. (2008). Do Executions Lower Homicide Rates: The Views of Leading Criminologists’. J. Crim. L. & Criminology, 99, 489.

Write My Essay Sample: Emotional Appeal: I Have a Dream
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 26, 2018

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Emotional appeal is an aspect of rhetoric that reinforces the feeling component in the listeners. Many speakers and writers tend to emphasize emotional appeal in disseminating the contents of their work. To create an emotional appeal to the audience, it is necessary that the speaker determines the features of the audience. This should then be followed by the employ of words, which instigate emotions over reason. The speech “I have a dream” is an example of a speech that effectively creates an emotional appeal to the listeners. Delivered by Martin Luther King Jr., the speech addresses the prevailing tribulations of the black man in America and the need for the emancipation of the main subject. In delivering the speech, Luther King employed several linguistic elements to appeal to the emotions of the audience.

To begin with, in the speech Martin Luther King begins by alluding to the tribulations that he and the rest of the black people face. Essentially, he prevails that “some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecutions and staggered by the winds of police brutality.” In stating these words, Dr. King was essentially indicating that he was aware and was part of the tribulations that the audience was going through. Thus, he was not just an external observer or analyst but rather a part of the entire melee.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Dr. King further alluded to children in his speech, which acts as a major element of emotional appeal that secured him more audience. Within the speech, he states “one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join bands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.” The mention of children immediately inspires emotions in the audience given that those present wanted to secure the futures of their children. By alluding to the children, Dr. King was able to show that he cared for the future generations. Essentially, just like every other parent, he felt an obligation to speak on behalf of the children whose future has had not yet been manifested.

The speech “I have a dream” further employs repetition to create an emotional appeal to the audience. In the speech, Dr. King declares “Free at last! Free at last!” with an intention to inspire the audience. This, in turn, inspires feelings of resilience and the spirit of resilience in the audience. Repetition further serves to show the audience the most significant elements of the speech. Repetition reinforces the addressed components into the mind and consciousness of the audience. These comprise some of the major linguistic tools in King’s speech that creates an emotional appeal to the audience.  [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In delivering the speech, Dr. King employed body movement to inspire the emotions of the audience. When he mentions the tribulations that the Black man has had to endure, he looks from one direction of the audience to the other. He does this with the bid to indicate that everyone present has been the victim of the tribulations being addressed. He also stands erect in delivering the speech, which reinforces stoicism and courage in the face of perils. By standing erect, he inspires feelings of resilience in the audience and the will to fight back against injustice. The speech “I have a dream” further entailed the use of tonal variation. Dr. King employs a mild tone when he recalls the history of black man’s tribulations from a hundred years before. He employs a sober tone that immediately arouses feelings of sympathy and relatability in the audience. These comprise the use of vocalic to create an emotional appeal. Lastly, the “I have a dream” speech entails the use of several anecdotes which reinforce identity and belonging in the society. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Essay Writing Sample: Abnormal Psychology: Social Phobias
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 22, 2018

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Abstract

This research paper highlights abnormal behavior, specifically social phobia, as a common yet less understood phenomenon. Generally, there are many types of abnormal behaviors, but this paper provides in-depth information on social phobias. It highlights some of the major symptoms of this complication and the main reasons as to why it is classified as an abnormal behavior. To improve the legitimacy of the arguments, the paper brings in the biopsychosocial understanding of the condition to show how the human genes and the environment can sometimes bring about various conditions that can be classified as abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, the paper provides empirical and theoretical evidence to supports its arguments on this particular psychological complication. It does so, by highlighting some of the primary causes of social phobia and the possible treatments for the given complications. Finally, it incorporates a recent research study conducted on individuals with such tendencies.

Girls standing apart from others in school — Image by © Heide Benser/Corbis

Abnormal Psychology: Phobias

Abnormal psychology primarily deals with the study of unusual patterns of behavior, tendencies, and emotions, which cannot easily be classified as a mental disorder. One of the most common forms of abnormal behavior is known as phobia. Simply put, this refers to a unique anxiety disorder that is physically exhibited by a constant irrational fear of objects or a particular situation. This type of abnormal behavior will often occur based on an almost instantaneous response to the above triggers, and it might persist for more than six months. In most cases, the individual is unable to contain the situation or set of events that usually leads to the actual phobia (Hersen & Ammerman, 2000). This behavior is usually classified as abnormal since the sufferer often has an unusual reaction as when compared to other individuals in the same situation. In other words, while some individuals might not suffer from any fear-related responses to a particular situation, the individual with this kind of phobia suffers from increased levels of stress in a similar setting. In an instance where the sufferer is unable to avoid the setting or situation, he/she often experiences significant amounts of stress, which can be uncomfortable. This paper explores social phobia based on empirical and theoretical evidence. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Phobias can be categorized into three main groups. This includes social phobias, specific phobias, and agoraphobias. Some of the common symptoms of such an abnormal social responses include fainting, panic attacks, stomachaches and increased blood pressure.  Common among these is social phobia. According to Heinberg (1995), social phobia can persist for several years if left untreated. Heinberg (1995) further argues that this type of abnormal behavior often occurs based on a series of assumptions that makes the individual to be afraid being in certain social settings. Once an individual perceives any social setting in this manner, his/her anxiety system is automatically triggered. In the physical sense, this is exhibited by increased production of adrenaline and stress hormones such as cortisol. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Social phobias are part of a series of cognitive and instinctual behaviors that are deemed to be hereditary. ` This phobia was supposed to be some form of survival mechanism to a perceived danger or threat. Heimberg (1995) asserts that when the fear of the social setting is more imagined than real, “this makes it a rather redundant response for survival.” A significant portion of individuals with social phobia will often complain that the fear in a social situation is often exacerbated when they feel as if they are at the center of attention. This is often caused by the unusual perception that everyone is watching them, which they find rather aversive. Worth noting is the fact that an individual with normal responses would in such a setting never demonstrate any form of fear response at all.

There are various causes of social phobia. The first notable cause is the physical and hormonal changes in the body. To be specific, the affected individual might often perceive blushing as making a fool of themselves, or they might perhaps perceive an increased heartbeat rate as a direct indication of an impending danger. More so, these individuals will often be preoccupied with unnecessary thoughts or their physical responses, such that they fail to recognize social cues from their counterparts. This often leads to increased sense of abnormal fear response since they interpret the lack of reaction from their counterparts or social peers as an impending danger.

Several psychological research methods have been used to show that individuals with social phobia will often have a fixation on a material that corresponds to their abnormal behavior. One such study demonstrated that individuals with social phobia will selectively process social stimulus that they perceive as a danger (Asmundson & Stein, 1994). The study involved twenty-four persons who had social phobia and twenty normal individuals who were engaged in computer tests to determine their visual responses to particular stimuli. It was established that when there was more activity in the spatial brain, the individuals with social phobia would respond more to social threats than to physical threats (Asmundson & Stein, 1994). This was immediately pointed out as an unusual response or pattern of behavior in indi viduals. On the contrary, this pattern was not seen in people with normal behavior patterns. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Although these figures are notable, they also play a major role in underscoring the importance of non-genetic factors when it comes to the variations in abnormal behaviors such as phobias. In fact, various other studies have shown that people-specific experiences serve as the primary factors when it comes to developing phobias to events such as being bitten by a dog. Based on such information, it is important to note that the ‘nature versus nurture’ theory plays a major role in social anxiety (Benson & Haith, 2009). Additionally, some medical practitioners might be quick to highlight that this scenario is more complex that it seems- this ‘nature versus nurture’ theory is just but an understatement of the complexity of this unusual complication. They usually argue that individuals are different when it comes to responding to stressful situations and fear as well. This is because, while some people might be unmoved by any given situation or event, the social-phobic person might develop an abnormal response to the situation (Hersen & Ammerman, 2000).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

From the above analysis it is apparent that there is no explanation for an individual’s abnormal behavior that is concretely right or accurate – it is just right based on certain scenarios. As a result, an individual’s’ fear of social settings might arise from a frightening encounter that occurred even from childhood. However, it should also be noted that the abnormal behavior might be increased by an individual’s susceptibility to develop fears in response to certain situations. In some aspects, this response might be, in part, caused by inconsistencies in the human genes (Schmidt & Schulkin, 1999).

Recent advancements in the medical field have increased the chances of recovery from such a complication. Some of the notable methods used in the medical context today include psychotherapy, exposure therapy, and Neuro-Linguistic Programming techniques. Psychotherapy often involves several counseling sessions attended by the client with a certified psychologist to determine the best medical approach for the complication. Exposure therapy involves placing the client in situations that often lead to phobia in the first place and using techniques such as positive reinforcement to eliminate these fears. Finally, Neuro-Linguistic Programming involves the use of special hypnosis techniques and special language to reprogram the individual’s responses to the phobia. The levels of the effectiveness of any given treatment are also subject to various factors. For instance, the competence of the medical practitioner, the patient and the duration of time required to administer the treatment as well.

References

Asmundson, G. & Stein, M. (1994). Selective processing of social threat in patients with generalized social phobia: Evaluation using a dot-probe paradigm. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8(2), 107-117.

Benson, J. & Haith, M. (2009). Social and emotional development in infancy and early childhood (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Academic.

Heimberg, R. (1995). Social phobia (1st ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Hersen, M. & Ammerman, R. (2000). Advanced abnormal child psychology (1st ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schmidt, L. & Schulkin, J. (1999). Extreme fear, shyness, and social phobia (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Essay Writing Service Sample: My Addiction: Working Out
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 22, 2018

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Addiction is the engagement of a given behavior repeatedly even despite its positive or negative implications. When an individual is addicted, they find it hard to overcome their behavioral inclinations. They become dependent on the objects that reinforce their addictions and spend most of their time engaging in single behavior. When people hear the word addiction, the first thing that comes to their minds is drug addiction or alcohol addiction. Nonetheless, addiction is not always negative. Addiction can be positive and be channeled towards furthering one’s successes.

I am addicted to working out, as I tend to engage in physical exercises more than most people do. Working out involves the use of body building tools and other gym equipment to enhance the muscle and physical well-being. I started working out when I was 12 where I would engage in mild forms of practice such as jogging and wrestling. Over time, such actions formed an important part of me in a way that made me feel inadequate when not exercising. Therefore, I increased my exercising frequency and intensity of the workout schedule. I enjoy the process of growth and have been able to appreciate every step I engaged to become disciplined in my workout initiatives.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Before my addiction, I used to weigh 140 pounds, but with my workout schedules, I have managed to shed off some weight as I am now skinnier. This current situation has given me confidence in my daily activities. This addiction has enabled me to overcome paranoia and feelings of inadequacy that initially marred my peace. I am now able to speak more confidently in public. The progress I have had in the bodybuilding process has given me the morale on overcoming any challenges in life. I am more optimistic about life because of my addictive tendency. Based on my experience, I believe that life will always work out for the best as long as we extend the utmost effort.

I go to the gym five or six times a week. While at the gym, I often engage other bodybuilders and establish friendships, and this shows how my addiction has positively influenced my relationships with people. A gym is a social place that has provided me with a platform through which I met different people and established friendships. I also noticed that most people within the gym have a positive attitude towards life, a situation that has helped me avoid detrimental relationships. I work out around respectful and disciplined persons who have made the addiction a good thing in shaping my life. Since people tend to be influenced by the persons around them, this has placed me in the right environment.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

I feel healthier because of my addiction as I have experienced a feeling of being physically fit. Maintaining the workouts requires people to engage in healthy behavioral practices as well. The best health practices are required for one to manage to lift heavy weights among other activities within the gym. Such practices include the avoidance of fatty foods and intake of healthier foods. Bodybuilding affects the human mind in different ways. Popular effects include boosting mental stability and striking a balance of the mind. I can admit these effects as I can now control my temperament and emotions better than I did prior to the body building exercises. Before, I had a bad temper, and that always resulted in conflict with family members and friends. However, with the practice of pragmatism and self-control I have been able to make my situation better by establishing good relations.

I also consider working out to be a source of entertainment as it leaves me fulfilled at the end of the exercises. Even though one gets tired, there is a feeling of greatness that follows when one knows they have accomplished all goals for the day. In addition to this, the workout sessions are accompanied with jokes and jibes at each other, a process that makes lifting weights simpler. With this entertainment also comes educational moments within the gyms. People share ideas on the best ways of working out and ideal diets depending on the involved goals. When people are at the gym, they also share their life experiences, which can help people avoid common mistakes whether during working out or even in society.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Conclusively, addiction is not always associated with negativity when that is not the case. In my case, it becomes a good thing as it has managed to change my life positively. There are indeed negative addictions, which entail the use of drugs such as cocaine. Such addictions negatively affect the physical and mental health of the subjects. They limit the efficiencies of the addicted parties and create a sense of unfruitful dependence. As a workout enthusiast, I can employ my time positively to better my health and social relationships. Therefore, exercising should be an addiction that people seek to make their lives better.

 

Write My Essay Sample: Role of aging on the LGBT community
Posted by: Write My Essay on: November 20, 2018

 

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This paper contains an analysis of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Community, specifically, the effect aging has on adult members of the community. The paper examines the challenges they face, how they deal with them and the various organization that has been established to assist them to embrace this stage of their lives. This paper also contains the experience of some of the members of the community who have experienced the effect of aging while being part of an exclusive community.

The term LGBT stands for some distinct groups within the gay community. This community comprises of Lesbians, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people. More widely it includes organizations and individuals who support the rights of these people. In this paper, we narrow down to the LGBT people only. Minority groups always face challenges in various aspects of life and aging is no exception. Although there have been problems in obtaining statistics on the size of the community, it is a fast growing one. As the proportion of America’s older population is growing, so is the number of (LGBT) adults who are going into their earlier years. In some decades, the number of LGBT adults of 65 years and above is expected to double and reach more than 3 million by 2030 (Adams, 2011).

The experience of aging in the LGBT community as described by a member of this community highlights various challenges they face. In a letter to Steven Petrow, the author of “Steven Petrows Complete Gay & Lesbian Manners”  and a columnist for the New York Times,  a 59-year-old male decries being friendless having lost almost all his friends to death and retirement. He feels like an outsider despite living in an area with a relatively large gay community and finds no connection on social media either. Despite his urge to go out dancing from time to time, he feels uncomfortable because he would not fit in and spends most of his time at home (Petrow, 2013). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Obviously, access to health care is a major challenge. While their heterosexual counterparts receive care from their families, gay people may face hostility from not only family members but also health care providers. The fear of discrimination also makes them shy away from seeking proper health care (Adams, 2011).  This coupled up with the high rate of HIV/AIDS infection in this community means not many members survive to old age, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The situation is made worse by the fact that some LGBT unions are not recognized by law in some states meaning partners cannot be granted leave to take care of their ailing partners. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Financial insecurity is worse for homosexual adults than heterosexual adults, not only is there a possibility of employment discrimination which hinders their saving capacity for old age, but also state laws may shut one out of access to their partner’s inheritance or require them to pay very high taxes (Adams, 2011).

Finally, social isolation, which is a challenge faced by all aging populations, is worse for members of the LGBT community because more often than not they do not feel welcome in many places where older people socialize such as religious centers. The effects of this isolation include depression, poor nutrition, delayed care-seeking and premature mortality (Adams, 2011).

While some are dealing with these challenges by complete avoidance of the underlying issues, others are making an effort at coping while others are successfully coping with aging by building close-knit social support systems.  Efforts are being made to address these challenges. Resources such as the federally funded  National Resource Center on LGBT Aging has been created to enable training of aging care providers to allow them to care for elderly LGBT people. The LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN) is has been established as a subdivision of the American Society on Aging and raises awareness on the unique experiences of the elderly LGBT community members regarding access to healthcare and other services.  Other examples of organizations addressing the issue of aging in the LGBT community are FORGE Transgender aging network and several LGBT rights activists. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

References

Adams, M. (2011). AARP Pride: The Biggest Issues Facing Older LGBT Americans — AARP.

 

Petrow, S. (2013, March 19). A Gay Man at Midlife Ponders Being Lonely and Invisible

 

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