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Essay Writing Sample: Annotated Bibliography: HIV/AID
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 19, 2018

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Annotated Bibliography: HIV/AID

Levy, J. A. (2009). HIV pathogenesis: 25 years of progress and persistent challenges. Aids,

23(2), 147-160.

This is a journal article by Levy (2009) outlining pathogenesis of HIV and the challenges encountered over a prognosis period of 25 years. Levy explores the differences in pathogenesis between the two HIV strains (HIV-1 and HIV-2). The first HIV strain is the most prevalent and most transmitted as compared to its counterpart (HIV-2). The article clearly outlines the different events that take place during the different stages of HIV infection. It is observed that early HIV infection is characterized by the presence of other virus subtypes such as R5 viruses and X4 virus which is more cytopathic and occurs in about half of the cases. This article goes further to outline the factors influencing the course of HIV pathogenesis; CD4+ cell count, immune activation and intrinsic intracellular factors. It also highlights on host and anti-immune responses during HIV prognosis in terms of humoral and cellular immunity response and anti-HIV antibody production.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Marks, G., Crepaz, N., & Janssen, R. S. (2006). Estimating sexual transmission of HIV from

persons aware and unaware that they are infected with the virus in the USA. Aids, 20(10), 1447-1450.

The following is an article by Marks and his colleagues examining HIV transmission among people either aware of or unaware that they are HIV positive in the United States of America. Through this article, Marks and his colleagues give detailed information and percentages of those individuals at high and low risks of transmitting the virus to others. We learn that the aware group is made up of 33% and are at lower risks of passing the infection to others due to lower viral loads. The article also gives a brief on estimates on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about individuals infected with HIV in the U.S.A. it also draws associations between awareness about HIV status and transmission rates among the two populations.

 

Krentz, H. B., Auld, M. C., & Gill, M. J. (2004). The high cost of medical care for patients who present late (CD4< 200 cells/?L) with HIV infection. HIV medicine, 5(2), 93-98.

This is an article written by Krentz and his colleagues about a study on costs incurred on healthcare for patients presenting with low CD4+ cell count. This article well researched and outlines methodology and findings obtained in a research done on patients that had with low CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/?L and direct costs involved with their healthcare over a period of 12 months. Direct costs for patients with low CD4 counts that presented late were almost twice as high as those for patients that presented earlier. Those who came to the hospital during the late stages were also more likely to be the elderly, men and African-Americans. The higher costs encountered are attributed to the expensive costs incurred in hospitalization of these patients and the immediate antiretroviral therapy initiation.

 

Park, B. J., Wannemuehler, K. A., Marston, B. J., Govender, N., Pappas, P. G., & Chiller, T. M.

(2009). Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS. Aids, 23(4), 525-530.

In this article, Park and colleagues provide vital information on current burden of Cryptococcal meningitis, a common and severe opportunistic disease observed in HIV patients, in the world. Through the article, we come to understand the need to estimate and know the burden brought about by Cryptococcal meningitis so as to come up with better strategies for its treatment and prevention in the world. This article is about a study that took place in developing countries of Africa, given the fact that this infection is predominant in most of the developing countries in this region, and so the need to know the scope of the burden, track of epidemiology and coming up with strategic plans for addressing it.   [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

 

Clavel, F., & Hance, A. J. (2004). HIV drug resistance. New England Journal of Medicine,

350(10), 1023-1035.

This is an article written by Clavel and colleagues is an outline of drug resistance in antiretroviral therapy offered to HIV patients. In this article Clavel and colleagues give a clear illustration on principles of drug therapy for antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients, development of resistance (both induced and primary resistance) and mechanisms of drug resistance. It also outlines cross-resistance, evolution of resistance, effects of resistance on viral pathogenicity and replication rates, minority virus populations that exhibit drug resistance and procedures involved when testing for drug resistance in patients. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

 

References

Levy, J. A. (2009). HIV pathogenesis: 25 years of progress and persistent challenges. Aids,23(2), 147-160.

Marks, G., Crepaz, N., & Janssen, R. S. (2006). Estimating sexual transmission of HIV from persons aware and unaware that they are infected with the virus in the USA. Aids, 20(10), 1447-1450.

Krentz, H. B., Auld, M. C., & Gill, M. J. (2004). The high cost of medical care for patients whopresent late (CD4< 200 cells/?L) with HIV infection. HIV medicine, 5(2), 93-98.

Park, B. J., Wannemuehler, K. A., Marston, B. J., Govender, N., Pappas, P. G., & Chiller, T. M.(2009). Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS. Aids, 23(4), 525-530.

Clavel, F., & Hance, A. J. (2004). HIV drug resistance. New England Journal of Medicine,

350(10), 1023-1035.

Essay Writing Service Sample: A Shift in the Treatment of the Cold War
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 18, 2018

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The two films, The Spy Who Came in From the Cold, and Russia House, are both on the subject of the Cold War.  A comparison of these two films shows a shift, over time and geographically, in the treatment of the Cold War as a subject.  In particular, a shift in views in regards to moral issues can be observed in the two films.

The Spy Who Came in From the Cold makes a strong point that the espionage communities of both sides of the Cold War were equally, brutally ruthless, more so than ordinary people imagined, while Russia House shows a shift towards the moral point that pro-Western writers, as artists, will rescue Russia from itself.  The factors influencing the difference between the two films include the disparate time periods (1960’s vs late 1980’s), the settings (East and West Germany and Britain, as opposed to Russia and the Anglosphere), and the social roles played by the characters involved (Simply the world of spies, as opposed to writers and scientists). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In The Spy Who Came in From the Cold, the main character, a spy named Leamas, is seemingly drummed out of the British spy agency, which leads him to alcoholism and to a brief stint in prison for assaulting a store clerk.  He is then approached by East German operatives, who view him as a likely defector.  Not long afterwards, he is approached again by his own agency, who instruct him to “keep drinking” and to pretend to be an embittered defector, while working undercover for the West in order to take down an East German spy named Mundt.  He is instructed to work with a Jewish East German agent named Fiedler who wants to destroy Mundt for reasons related to his own ambition.

In Russia House, the Western writer Bartholomew “Barley” Scott-Blair attends a writers’ retreat in Russia during glasnost, where a man called “Dante” is quietly listening in to the conversations.  A woman named Katya Orlova later tries to give him a manuscript, which is intercepted and given over to Western authorities. The manuscript exposes the Soviet Union as being completely behind in the arms race.  The Soviet Union apparently “can’t hit Nevada on a clear day”.  Barley is then recruited as a spy by the West in order to find out more about this manuscript and its significance. It turns out that this manuscript was written by “Dante”, who is actually a renowned Russian scientist, Yakov Savelyev.

The greatest shift in the treatment of the theme of morality in the context of the Cold War stems simply from the difference in the historical periods being portrayed in the two films.  The Spy Who Came in From The Cold is set approximately in the 1960’s.  In the 1960’s, it was believed that the West and the Soviet Union had similar military capabilities, and the dominant theory was the one of “mutually assured destruction”.  By 1990, it was apparent that in fact the Soviet Union was far behind militarily, and was on the brink of either collapse or complete transformation.  Reflecting this, glasnost is major factor in the atmosphere of Russia House. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Because of the difference in historical periods, in The Spy Who Came in From the Cold, the West is portrayed as fighting a dirty fight, while in Russia House, the West is on a moral high ground in relation to Russia.  For example, Barley asks Savelyev rhetorically if Boris Pasternak knows that people are allowed to read him again.  In contrast, one could even perhaps argue that the USSR even comes off as morally superior to the West in The Spy Who Came in From the Cold, given that Nan the “peacenik” is a pro-Soviet communist and given that it is the West that kills Fiedler, a character who has committed no wrong.  However, the real point of The Spy Who Came in From the Cold is that the two espionage teams are equally ruthless: Near the end of the film, Leamas says to Nan, “What the hell do you think spies are?  Moral philosophers measuring everything they do against the word of God or Karl Marx?  They’re not, they’re just a bunch of seedy, squalid bastards like me.”

A motif in The Spy Who Came in From the Cold is the reference to things one “believes” in – “Karl Marx, God, or Father Christmas”.  Nan declares that she is an atheist before revealing that she is a communist.  In contrast, Katya is of course disillusioned with communism, and tells Barley about a Russian custom where you sit on your luggage and cross yourself before journey.  It’s uncertain whether she believes in God, but she doesn’t quite believe in the Soviet version of Karl Marx either.  She believes in something that gives her hope for the future.

In The Spy Who Came in From the Cold, Leamas explains that all the ruthless, nearly amoral, espionage is done for the sake of the ordinary people.  In Russia House, it is ordinary people who wish to see the dissolution of the Soviet Union, in part out of moral or idealistic reasons.  While the point of The Spy Who Came in From the Cold is that the West has to do “very wicked things indeed”, the point of Russia House is that the USSR will inevitably collapse and should be viewed sympathetically, indeed that the people of the USSR are not its government, or military, or system.

Geographical setting, just like time-period setting, plays a role in the two films’ treatment of moral issues in the Cold War.  The Spy Who Came in From the Cold is set in East and West Germany. Mundt’s Nazi past is mentioned, despite the fact that he is a communist.  The setting of the two Germanies emphasizes that the difference between the Soviets and the West is ideological as opposed to cultural.  The killing of Fiedler is the ultimate symbol of the West’s lack of moral high ground in The Spy Who Came in From the Cold.  Leamas says to Nan near the end that London made them, “Kill Fiedler.  Kill the Jew”.  Fiedler, for the most part, was only doing his job.   Fiedler being a Jew is symbolic of the blurred lines between Nazi Germany, Soviet East Germany, West Germany, and the West itself:  All of these people are somehow willing to kill “the Jew” for the sake of expediency, none are morally above doing so.

Savelyev, like both Fiedler and Nan (who is also killed by the West), is in some ways a character who is in between the two worlds of the West and Soviet Union.  The West in Russia House does not kill anybody.  Indeed, the West is such a “good guy” in Russia House that when Savelyev says to Barley, “You’ve betrayed me” (to the West), Barley responds, “Nobody has betrayed you.  The authorities admire your work”.

While in The Spy Who Came in From the Cold the geographical settings help to emphasize the ruthlessness and lack of black-and-white morality of the spy world, in Russia House, the settings – Russia, a writer’s retreat in Russia, and so on – emphasize the resistance of artists and ordinary Russians to the Soviet government.  When asked why he keeps going to Russia, Barley says “I love the place”.  Earlier, Katya says that she makes a distinction between her country and “the system” that her country is under.  The Spy Who Came in From the Cold is about the amoral side of the Cold War, and being set in Germany, which is still sometimes associated with its Nazi past – helps highlight that.  However, Russia House is a bit more on the subject of the ambiguities of Russian culture or values, in relation to Western culture and values.  For example, in Russian culture there is both a tradition of socially critical literature, and a historical tendency towards authoritarian government.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Overall, the Western public’s views of the Cold War, ideological communism, and the people of the Soviet Union shifted over time as they were presented with new information.  In the 1960’s, there was little information available to the West on life behind the iron curtain – and thus the association on most people’s minds was a war-like one, while by the late 1980’s there was an increase of curiosity in particular about Russian culture and literature on the part of Westerners, as well as a more pro-Western attitude among Russians.  Thus, a shift towards a more hopeful view of the Cold War is evident within these two films.

Essay Writing Service Sample: Compassionate Empathy and Forgiveness
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 17, 2018

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Forgiveness is a systematic and focused process through which a person foregoes the feelings of resentment and revenge. It is not easy to forgive, and at times, it takes the intervention of a third party to influence forgiveness. However, true forgiveness is a personal decision that comes from within and cannot be brought about by a third party (Enright, 2015). In order to be able to forgive, one has to indulge in a process referred to as compassionate empathy. Compassionate empathy is the process of gaining a better understanding of the offender and trying to identify factors that might have pushed them to offend you.

I have had a hard time forgiving my mother. She abandoned me at my grandparents’ home when I was very young. She went back to town and started an affair with another man, only to break up with him a decade later and come back home. I suffered a lot due to her absence and behavior since my grandparents were elderly and unable to offer me the best care.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

By carefully looking at the life that my mom had lived from her childhood to her relationship with my dad, it reveals crucial experiences that might have led her to offend me. As a child, my mother and her siblings were abandoned by my grandfather. Her parents (my grandparents) were in constant conflict, and she witnessed much violence in her formative years.

During her twelve years of staying with my father, violence was part of her daily life. My dad was an aggressive individual who at times came home drunk and criticized my mother for being lazy. As such, I feel that this violence during mom’s formative years and the failure to get love and care both as a child and an adult could have led her to abandon me.

Replies

Reply 1

Hello, thank you for your post. You stated in your post that your offender who was a close friend was pushed by childhood experiences to offend you. She was a person who went through repetitive hurt and got used to it. It is possible, just like you stated in your post, that it is this pain that pushed them to offend you. They might not have meant to, or it might not have occurred to them that they were hurting you. According to Enright (2015), gaining an in-depth understanding of your offender and the context under which the offense occurred is a precursor to genuine forgiveness. After seeing the need to forgive a person, taking the time to identify possible forces that might have pushed them to offend justifies the need to forgive them. Without gaining this understanding and justifications for the offensive behavior of the offender, victims of injustices remain resistant to forgive, and they are unable to let go of feelings of anger (Chapman, 2008).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here

Reply 2

Hello, it is nice sharing your personal experience relating to hurt. Compassionate empathy is the deliberate attempt to gaining insight as to why an offender might have decided to offend. In order to gain such an understanding, it is important that a person digs deep into the offender’s life and focuses on life experiences in their lives that might have pushed them to offend. Enright (2015) writes that most of the offensive people in the world are driven by various factors or prior experiences. It becomes difficult for people to forgive if they do not indulge in compassionate empathy. Failure to look at the offense from the offender’s perspective reduces the need to forgive.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

References

Chapman, G. (2008). Anger: Handling a powerful emotion in a healthy way. Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers.

Enright, R. D. (2015). The forgiving life: A pathway to overcoming resentment and creating a legacy of love. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Essay Writing Sample: Aggression and Violence on the Media
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 17, 2018

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Question 1

Violence is a major theme in many television films, documentaries, and durational TV shows. The TV show “Preacher” is one of the modern day moving film thrillers, and like most contemporary films, it entails several instances of violence. In episode six of season 1, the main character, Preacher, is forced into a violent tussle with a demon that is out to kill him. Essentially, the violent scene in episode 6 involves more than two individuals as the Preacher, together with two other angels, engage in a series of violent acts that span hours and culminates in the demon’s death (Dibdin, 2016). They fight with household objects such as chairs, chainsaws, guns, and even cupboards. The scene involves a lot of blood and aggression from the actors, and at the end of the scene, the setting is in disarray and both the angels and the preacher appear tired and bleeding. The demon is left in the bathtub with chopped hands and feet to prevent it from resurrecting. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Question 2

The characters, which comprised three men and two angels, were middle-aged. In addition to this, the demon was a female character. The angels were fighting to protect the life of the Preacher, as he possessed the object they needed to secure (Dibdin, 2016). The Preacher was fighting to save his life against the enraged demon that sought the object as well but with the intent to manipulate it for evil purposes. The culture of the characters was one that reinforced violence. Before the episode, all the characters involved in the scene had been in some violent situations prior to the prevailing violent scenes. The demon had repeatedly attacked the angels while the Preacher had also been in a tussle with the Angels. Essentially, the culture in the TV show is one that advocates and reinforces violence as a means of settle disputes. Violence in the scene is employed to assert one’s dominance or authority over the next individual.

Question 3

The episode 6 of “the Preacher” television was intended to show to the audience the nature of the prevailing conflicts within the television shows. It is an extension of the dilemma that is seen throughout the television show in addition to documenting the tussle between good and bad. In this case, the Preacher and the angels represent good while the demon represented bad. The duration of the violent scene was intended to communicate the challenges that are faced in fighting evil. It is further intended to display the character and intrinsic features of the actors involved. Through the violence, the Preacher is shown to be courageous, brave, and tenacious as he seeks to protect his life. The angels are further shown to be resilient, a factor that serves as an indication of their characters throughout the television show (Dibdin, 2016). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The use of violence in the film further serves to enhance the continuity of the television show. The struggle establishes the nature and degree of conflict between the protagonists and antagonists in the television show as it underlines the main theme in the series. Through the violence, the audience can determine the intentions of each character. The audience is further empowered to determine the end outcomes of the television through violence because the angels have victory over the demons. In society, people have always believed that good overcomes evil and that is what is reflected in this TV series. The use of violence is a reflection of the prevailing societal inclinations. The 21st century has been the subject of increased violence, a factor that makes this film a reflection of the prevailing circumstances.

Question 4

Violence in media cause desensitization in the community as this promotion of aggression in the television shows normalizes violence in the society. However, violence is not a regular phenomenon and ought to be shunned by the society. Repeated violence in the media understates the implications of aggression and the repercussions that the society is likely to experience with the increased vice. When violence is normalized, it becomes part of everyday society, thereby making it shift from being a problem to a habitual normality and the shift results in increased violence in the overall society. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The media promotion of violence further creates a need for increased stimulation among individuals in the society. Repeated scenes of violence in television shows and films create an interdependence of violence in the society. Essentially, when many violent scenes are shown, the public appears to demand more of the same. This makes it vital that the media reduce violence in TV series to make it an unwanted vice in society.

References

Dibdin, E. (2016, August 3). Preacher full season review.

Write My Essay Sample: Common Levels of Research
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 13, 2018

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Post 1

The article “Target Blood Pressure for Treatment of Isolated Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly, Valsartan in Elderly Isolated Systolic Hypertension (S-HTN) Study” successfully addressed the need to identify the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The identification of the null hypothesis as a systolic blood pressure of less than 140mmHg suffices the demands of the instructor. Furthermore, the first post further establishes an alternative of systolic blood pressure, which is above 140mmHg. However, the first post does not define the term significance nor explain its employ in the research process. Lastly, the article successfully addresses the p-value. In the post, the p-value is defined as the probability of obtaining a result that mirrors the extremity of the prevailing research. The essay clearly determines how the p-value is employed in the research by indicating its value. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Post 2

The second post does not engage an article as had been pre-determined in the research. It overlooks the need to create a co-relation between an external article and the formulation of hypotheses. Despite the mention of the term significance, and its definition, the article does not show how the element is used in an external article. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] Therefore, it is more theoretical than applicable. The second post further fails to document the sources of information that it employs to explore the instructions extended. According to the author, significance refers to the likelihood of a relationship between two variables. The P-value is correctly defined by the author as the likelihood of getting a particular result from the available null and alternative hypotheses. Despite the absence of a relatable article, the author succeeds in defining the terms that were determined by the instructor.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Essay Writing Service Sample: Juvenile Treatment and Intervention
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 13, 2018

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Introduction

Juvenile treatment refers to the correctional programs set in place to deal with offenders under the age of 18. This is a very recent system that is being adopted by different nations. It exists in different places but still has a unique history that influenced its application in different countries and states. The primary objective of juvenile treatment and intervention is the rehabilitation of the affected persons. However, this program does not work in all cases as some offenders fail to rehabilitate. This is mainly associated with the failure of such programs to consider the underlying reasons behind the crime offenders. It also fails to fix the issues associated with the offenders. Most of these offenders are triggered by psychological, biological, and social factors.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Smith, C. (2013).  Nothing about us without us! The failure of the modern juvenile justice system and a call for Community-Based Justice. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 4(1).

In 1899, the first Juvenile court was established in Chicago with an aim to rehabilitate the youth away from any unlawful or incorrigible behavior. They were supposed to be associated with development by ways such as training and helping the children change their morals to become law abiding citizens. However, this system has failed America as it affected by other factors that impede its effectiveness in rehabilitating the youth. These factors include racial disparities, cultural differences, and human right violations.

The juvenile system approaches are system driven as they rely mainly on the enforcement controls, court processes, medical facilities, and medical programs, which shatter instead of creating bonds between the offenders and the government. In comparison, such a system is considered the opposite of the Community-Based Approaches. With Community Based Approaches, the strengths and assets owned by the community members provide the primary focus for which the programs are run. This makes them quite effective in reducing crime and making the involved youth more socially responsible. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Watson, L., & Edelman, P. (2012). Improving the juvenile system for girls. Georgetown Center on Poverty.

The juvenile system exposes people to different challenges regardless of social differences such as Gender. Watson and Edelman show how young female offenders are faced with challenges posed by the juvenile system. They go ahead to identify the different challenges faced by the young female offenders and make recommendations that could improve the situation at both the state and federal levels.

The challenges include truancy, failing to meet the correctional officers and underage drinking among many others. When compared with the young male offenders, the female offenders are likely to get locked up for these reasons by 41 percent while boys at 25 percent. While considering this difference in the application of the juvenile system based on gender differences, the recommendations made include making the programs all female whenever possible, treating the female offenders in the least restrictive environments, ensuring the programs are consistent with development while stressing the roles of relationships between the staff members and girls.

Holman, B., & Ziedenberg, J. (2011). The dangers of detention: The impact of incarcerating youth in detention and other secure facilities. A Justice Policy Institute Report.

Holman and Ziedenberg state that youth crime rates have reduced in the past 20 years, a change that can be attributed to the juvenile treatment and intervention programs. They claim that this statistic is primarily the fact that program involves locking up many youths with different issues. For instance, some people are locked for reasons such as failing to meet their probation requirements or awaiting trial. This means that the juvenile program is similar to what people consider jail among adults. There has been an increase in the use of this program with more youth being introduced to the system. Therefore, this reduces the crime rates in society without necessarily rehabilitating the involved youth offenders. Common effects of the detention associated with juvenile systems include separation of the youth with their families, interruption of education programs, and health issues. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Essay Writing Sample Book Review : Hiroshima
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 11, 2018

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Book Review:Hiroshima,” by John Hersey

The Hersey recounts occurrences during the Hiroshima bombings and its aftermath through highlighting six individuals whose lives have been followed by the author, John Hersey. On August 6, 1945, at around 8 am, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the first atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima (Hersey, 2010). Consequently, the explosion wiped over ninety per cent of the city by immediately killing more than one hundred thousand people while tens of thousands more would later die due to exposure to radiant (Hersey, 2010). After three days, the same bomber dropped another on Nagasaki, which led to the death of approximately forty thousand people (Hersey, 2010). Based on these events, Hirohito, Japan’s Emperor announced that Japan had surrendered from the World War II unconditionally due to the devastating effects that the “new and most cruel bomb” had caused. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In his book, Hersey has traced the lives of six survivors, who included two women, two doctors, and two religious men, from the time the bomb was dropped until a few months later. Further, in 1985, Hersey decided to add a postscript, which formed the “Hiroshima’s” fifth chapter. In this chapter, Hersey has reexamined the lives of the six individuals in the forty since the bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In the book, Hersey utilized the experiences of the six characters to amplify themes such as community survival in the face of mass destruction, Japanese stoicism and personal submission, the incredible power of the bomb, among others. The following paper seeks to provide a review of the book “Hiroshima” including a critical analysis of its content. It shall scrutinize all aspects presented in the book and enlighten the readers on what they should expect from the book. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Reference
Hersey, J. (2010). Hiroshima. LaVergne, TN: Hesperides Press.
Write My Essay Sample: Which is a more sustainable source of energy, coal or nuclear power plants?
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 10, 2018

Write My Essay Sample: Which is a more sustainable source of energy, coal or nuclear power plants?

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A journal article titled “Environmental impact and cost analysis of coal versus nuclear power: The U.S. case” published by Elsevier in Science direct in 2012 concluded that both nuclear and coal power plants have major sustainability challenges. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions (direct and indirect from life cycle), the high estimate for coal power generation with flue gas desulphurization is about 1025 tonnes CO2 eq./GWh and the low estimate is 860 tonnes CO2 eq./GWh (Vujic, Antic, & Vukmirovic, 2012). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from coal power plants with carbon capture and storage is 190 tonnes CO2 eq./GWh. The CO2 emissions from nuclear power is a high of 45 tonnes CO2 eq./GWH and a low of 0 tonnes CO2 eq./GWh (Vujic, Antic, & Vukmirovic, 2012). So in regards to CO2 emissions, nuclear power is more sustainable than coal power. Another important aspect of comparison is the amount of fuel consumed and waste generated per unit of energy produced by each power plant. Coal-burning plants generate millions of tonnes of waste per year and the same amount of power from nuclear plants would only generate 30 tonnes or less per year (Vujic, Antic, & Vukmirovic, 2012). Coal power is responsible for the emission of over 50% mercury, 50% acid gases, 60% arsenic, 60% SO2, 13% NOx, 30% nickel, and 20% chromium in USA, all harmful chemicals (Vujic, Antic, & Vukmirovic, 2012). The main concern for nuclear electricity generation is the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Currently, there is no functioning program that can adequately dispose of this waste and it is a major environmental concern, especially for future generations. Nuclear power generation faces challenges in the areas of spent fuel disposition, proliferation of nuclear technologies and materials, fuel resource management, and fuel cycle economics (Vujic, Antic, & Vukmirovic, 2012). The coal-burning industry faces challenges in carbon capture and sequestrations and in hazardous pollutant reductions. The ability for either power source to sustainably meet long-term energy needs will depend on the development of new technologies as well as in the policies and regulations around environmental impacts or concerns (Vujic, Antic, & Vukmirovic, 2012). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

References

Vujic, J., Antic, D. P., & Vukmirovic, Z. (2012, September). Environmental impact and cost analysis of coal versus nuclear power: The U.S. case. Science Direct, 45(1), 31-42.

Essay Writing Service Sample: Case Study: Edward Jones Communicates Caring
Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 6, 2018

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Question 1

To enhance the effectiveness of communication, Edward Jones should determine multiple channels for organizational communication. These should be aligned towards the use of all means of communication available to communicate to the employees. The company should desist from engaging only one channel of communication as this may lead to distortion of information. Some of the channels that should be engaged include faxes, bulletins, and memos among many other mediums.

The company should further use repetitiveness in its communication initiatives. The company should always apply this to the important messages to the organization. Edward Jones should ensure that all vital information is shared and communicated among all relevant persons. The organization should further engage their staff in seminars and courses that reinforce the need for communication in the organization. Within these seminars, the staff will be exposed to ways by which they can enhance their communication effectiveness.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

With the aim to boost communication effectiveness, Edward Johns should establish communication goals within the organization. These communication goals should be etched in the vision statements and mission statements of the organization. This is to ensure that every hired employee into the organization understands the significance of communication to the corporation. The organization should further create policies that address communication conflicts. Essentially, there should be guiding frameworks that serve metrics to determine whether the communication is being employed efficiently in the organization. This will allow constant review, which further enables the determination of communication loopholes in the organization. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Question 2

In hiring financial advisors, Edward Jones should assess its honesty and communication skills. Furthermore, it assesses their abilities to work in a team environment. Honest financial advisors will always give a true picture of the factors on the ground. This ensures that Edward Jones can succinctly influence the outcomes of their financial initiatives. Furthermore, the company will align itself towards the hiring of financial advisors who are responsible. In their positions as financial advisors, they are expected to determine the best ways through which the company can move forward. This entails openness that is reinforced only when one has a sense of responsibility towards their engagements.

Teamwork also comprises one of the metrics that is engaged by Edward Jones in hiring financial advisors. Given the need for constant communication, the financial advisors will be forced to engage repeatedly with investors. The success of these interactions is largely influenced by how well the advisor can work in a team. Overtime, this reinforces the culture of cooperation, open communication, and efficiency through responsibility.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Posted by: Write My Essay on: December 6, 2018

Essay Writing Sample: Nursing Scenario Discussion Boards

 

Nursing Scenario Discussion Boards: Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Sample by My Essay Writer

 

Introduction:

The Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a drug-addiction medical condition occurring after in utero subjection to opioids. The syndrome commonly present itself at the beginning as mild tonicity, irritability, poor feeding habit and mottled skin color accompanied with seizure. From the early 2000s to 2012, the NAS condition in America has doubled whereby numerous states have recorded increased rates. The rise is due to increased use of opioids by expectant women. It can also be attributed to the lack of uniform evidence-based research and pharmacological protocols that should review and improve any NAS case.  This paper, thus, clarifies the need for an integrated evidence-based practice care for treatment and management of NAS patients.

Discussion:

  1. Asking a clinical question

The length of hospitalization for patients with the NAS condition varies greatly depending on the amount of drug taken, socioeconomic factors and withdrawal symptoms. Recent research shows that pharmacological factors play an insignificant role in managing the NAS condition in infants such as BammBamm. Thus, it is considered professional to offer an extended therapy services to BammBamm when administering medication.  However, mothers receiving methadone dose of more than 20mg/24h are advised not to breastfeed since they are prone to fluoxetine which is responsible for the production of a significant amount of plasma concentration especially if the exposure began in utero (Chau et al., 2016). Also, methadone-exposed infants have been observed to exhibit increased development complications such as motor rigidity, decreased activity, and deregulated motor patterns. However, despite this fact, it should be noted that breastfeeding boosts the immune system of infants and has also been proven to increase parent-infant bonding. Since, through various studies, it is a small amount of methadone that is present in the breast milk, it is always advisable to breastfeed the child.

  1. Searching for the Best Evidence

Non-pharmacological supervision of the opioids subjected to infants should be done under careful assessment of the child and the mother (in this case Pebble and his son BammBamm). It also calls for nurses’ participation and modifications of the surroundings and social interactions affecting the infant’s neurodevelopment and physiological stability. Traditional-based care tends to offer uniform attention to all children affected by the NAS conditions since few NAS-focused nursing interventions are scientific-based (Schaffer et al, 2013). Most essential components of the traditional-based care are instructional and aim at facilitating parental engagement with the child. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Every newborn baby has different styles of processing and reacting to environmental factors and nurses’ cues. Mostly, children display diverse NAS symptoms with varying magnitude and severity over time. According to Schaffer et al. (2013), suitable supportive environment of the in utero opioid-subjected-child, such as BammBamm, calls for a thorough assessment and accurate analysis of physiological and observable expressions of the NAS condition – ranging from the actual cause of the condition to individualized plan for treatment and adjustment to the environmental and nurse interactions. Sometimes it is hard to analyze the condition in suffering infants. For instance, when BammBamm was crying out loudly, it was advisable for Nurse Stone to adjust/decrease environmental stimuli since the baby had just breastfed. What is more, despite the fact that Pebble wanted to tolerate and help her child, she lacked the required expertise and emotional awareness to recognize the observable traits and support to make BammBamm stable. This challenge calls for Nurse Stone (and nurses in general) to provide a pacifier for non-nutritive sucking and swaddle BammBamm as she makes Pebble aware of the prevailing situation.

  1. Critically Appraising The Evidence

The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependency conducted a research in the United States and estimated that about 9% of infants born per year get subjected to harmful substances in utero (Pryor et al, 2017). On the other hand, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published a report in which it estimated that almost 48% of infants are exposed to opioids such as methadone and heroin, and thus are susceptible to develop the NAS condition. Additionally, the AAP noted that optimal care of NAS populace in the United States is affected by the deficiency of evidence-based revised guidelines and procedures for pharmacological organizations and care that promotes improved results for NAS victims.

According to Pryor et al. (2017), there is a growing need for development and implementation of evidence-based medical practice guidelines, protocols and education schedule on NAS and the Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Scoring Tool (FNAST), to facilitate the assessment and management of NAS infants and the scoring accuracy of the FNAST.  Evidence-based practices on NAS and FNAST equip caregivers such as Nurse Stone with the required tool to invariably and accurately evaluate the infants with NAS while using the FNAST.  Current research shows that offering education to the nurse result to skill gain and promotes patient care goals (Pryor et al., 2017). Consequently, education equips nurses with the required skills to manage complex NAS conditions. For instance, it could have been easier for Nurse Stone to manage BammBamm without making calls to Dr. Slate.

  1. Integrating the Evidence

The use of NAS clinical practice guidelines and protocols have shown to result into increased identification of infants with NAS, lessened NAS severity, and decreased length of hospitalization. These guidelines include: Firstly, a pharmacological algorithm such as combining inpatient and outpatient care in treatment programs to reduce the length of hospitalization and reduction on inpatient cost should be employed. Notably, outpatient needs to be for mothers who enroll in a program on methadone.  Secondly, mother rooming-in with the infant should be permitted to allow for breastfeeding bonding when the baby is hungry. However, after allowing mother rooming-in with the child, it is wise to incorporate into the discharging plan a social work assessment, discuss community resources for the mother, and create a plan for how the home environment will support the mother and the baby. According to Hoagwood et al. (2014) argue that until the specific discharge guidelines for the NAS condition  have not been developed and the incorporation of these components into the release plan, the mother and the child ought to receive the continued care  that they need.  For instance, when Pebble is scheduled to leave the hospital for home, the healthcare system needs to have a mechanism in place to make a follow up of her progress with the child. The grandmother should also be made to understand the situation so as to facilitate Pebble and BammBamm with quality integrated care as required. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

  1. Evaluating the Outcome of an EBP Change

The evaluation of evidence based practice (EBP) change is conducted by comparing the length of hospitalization for neonates with NAS that sought treatment under the protocol to a group of NAS newborns treated before the protocol implementation. Currently, evidence-based programs are in place for some health conditions such as kidney failure, diabetes, and to lesser extent NAS patients. Most importantly, the methods rarely manifest in the health facility management practices and service delivery. Habitually, consumer safety research is based on data analysis to establish patient safety problems and demonstrate that a modern rationale will create better quality and patient safety. However, little research has been done to establish full implementation of these protocols in the healthcare system.

EBP is the platform for critical analysis and use of modern best evidence in line with clinical expertise and consumer values to mentor health care decisions. Perfect examples include empirical exhibit from randomized controlled trials (RCT), scientific-based methods; such as qualitative evidence and the inclusion of information from research reports. Currently, EBP on the length of hospitalization for neonates treated under the NAS protocol implementation shows a decrease in the severity as contradicted to infants treated before the implementation of the protocol (Hoagwood et al., 2014). The improvement is due to an integrated care between caregivers, patients, and family thus ensuring availability of quality care as required. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Conclusion

Although much has been researched on opioid dependence in pregnant women, little research has been done to adequately provide quality care in fair and complex medical conditions such as NAS. Private and public hospital in partnership with the state health agencies have a unique contribution to make to the broad knowledge base and support of best practices in caring for women and infants affected by NAS. Also, it is worth noting that optimal treatment and management of the NAS patient is affected by the deficiency of evidence-based revised manuals and protocols for traditional and scientific based healthcare that promotes improved results for NAS patient. Thus, the situation can be enhanced with practice guidelines and education on NAS and FNAST-the required equipment to accurately evaluate children with NAS.

 

Part 7

  Date  Hours Knowledge

What knowledge from the course did you apply? How did you learn more about this content?  Use words like: Describe, Discuss, Explain, Identify, Recognize, Review

Behaviors

What actions/behaviors did you observe in stakeholders/staff? How did they explain their role in patient outcomes? What values did they demonstrate/express?

Reflection

What do these actions/behaviors reflect about how this organization values EBP?

What did you learn about the staff’s role in EBP?

How you will apply EBP in clinical practice?

Complete Simulation Case Scenario     Evidence-based practice.

Personally, I researched on the internet and interacted more with people who are familiar with NAS symptoms.

At home I had the chance to interact with a friend whose aunt had a NAS child. Identification was not enough for my research so I opted to have an interview with the aunt and I came to recognize that she resorted to drug and substance abuse due to financial constrains such as unemployment and bills to be paid.

The behavior of the staff is well described as ambitious owing to the fact that most nurses were eager to learn new technology to help them deliver quality services to NAS patients.

During the presentations and learning of new technologies through videos and powerpoint slides, nurses and the healthcare staff demonstrated patience and humility. Whenever they could not understand the functioning of any medical equipment such as the FNAST, most of them did not shy away from being taught over and over again.

The staffing behavior explains the uptake of EBP in the healthcare system as optimistic to helping most NAS patients. Evidence-based practice according to the staff describes and addresses all aspects of the healthcare through an integrated approach.

The staff was determined to mobilize NAS patients and families to seek counseling and be in the look out for NAS symptoms

In a clinical set up and practice EBP is applied through guidance and counseling sessions. Advising both the patient and the family on the effects of NAS and the importance of living a NAS-free life

 

References

Chau, K. T., Nguyen, J., Miladinovic, B., Lilly, C. M., Ashmeade, T. L., & Balakrishnan, M.

2016). Outpatient Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Quality Improvement Project. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 42(11), 506-515.

Hoagwood,, K. E., Olin, S. S., Horwitz, S., McKay, M., Cleek, A., Gleacher, A., … & Kuppinger,

  1. (2014). Scaling up evidence-based practices for children and families in New York State: toward evidence-based policies on implementation for state mental health systems. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(2), 145-157.

Pryor, J. R., Maalouf, F. I., Krans, E. E., Schumacher, R. E., Cooper, W. O., & Patrick, S. W.

(2017). The opioid epidemic and neonatal abstinence syndrome in the USA: a review of the continuum of care. Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition, fetalneonatal-2015.

Schaffer, M. A., Sandau, K. E., & Diedrick, L. (2013). Evidence?based practice models for organizational change: overview and practical applications. Journal of advanced nursing,             69(5), 1197-1209.

 

 

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