Application of Critical Theory in Aristotle and Plato’s Work Essay
Posted by: Write My Essay on: July 29, 2019


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The history of critical theory can be interpreted on a broad spectrum of the disciplines of both philosophy and the history of social sciences (Hohendahl et.al, 37). Among one of the interpretations is the fact that critical theory influenced various generations of social theorists in Western European Marxist tradition as well as German philosophers. According to critical theorist, a “critical” theory distinguishes from a “traditional” theory based on a particular practical objective.

In general, critical theory is a Marxist-inspired movement in political and social philosophy, which was formerly associated with the Frankfurt school’s work (Hohendahl et.al, 57). Over the years, critical theories have been building on the thoughts of Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx in maintaining that the primary objective of philosophy is to help in understanding and overcoming the social structures through which human beings have not only dominated but also oppressed. In this way, by believing that like other forms and aspects of knowledge, science has been utilized as a tool of oppression, critical theorists caution against having blind faith in the scientific developments and progress (Hohendahl et.al, 65). On the same breath, these scholars argue that scientific knowledge should not be followed as an end in itself without referring to the objective of human emancipation.

Based on this argument, critical theory has been instrumental in the study of literature, history, law, as well as social sciences. Therefore, critical theory can be described as a sustained negotiation and conversation between the texts making up that history. On this premise, the following paper will discuss the works of Aristotle and Plato by showing how critical theory applies in Aristotle’s application of Plato’s work.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]


Overview of Critical Theory

Critical theory stresses the reflective critique and assessments of the society as well as culture through application of knowledge from the social humanities and sciences. Notably, as a term, critical theory has two meaning that have different histories and origins. The first meaning originated in political philosophy and sociology while the second meaning in literary theory and studies. Briefly, in political philosophy and sociology, “critical theory” refers to the neo-Marxist philosophy of the Frankfurt School that was developed in the 1930s in Germany.

According to Max Horkheimer the Frankfurt theorist, a theory can only be termed as “critical” if its objective is to liberate humanity from any circumstance that enslave them. Theorists in Frankfurt drew on the critical methods of Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx (Mayhew, 28). One of the aspects that are maintained by critical theory is that ideology is the primary obstacle to human liberation. Apparently, critical theory was established and developed as a school of thought by five theoreticians from the Frankfurt School who included Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Max Horkheimer, Erich Fromm, and Walter Benjamin. Accordingly, the modern critical theory has been additionally influenced by Antonio Gramsci and György Lukács including Jürgen Habermas, who is one of the second-generation Frankfurt School scholars. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In reference to the above brief definition, it would be prudent to note that in a broader approach, critical theory seeks to not only change but also destabilizing the contemporary or established knowledge (Sermon, 66). As one the key theories that were developed by the German philosophers, critical theory emphasizes that all knowledge is biased and historical and that ‘objective’ knowledge is illusory. The theory focuses on the aspect of knowledge transfer by understanding and criticizing the available information to provide a more advanced understanding. in itself, critical theory was started from the times of Freud and Marx  before enplaning through the twentieth century to cover different areas such as  linguistics, literary criticism, psychology, semiotics, screen theory, philosophy, feminism, and includes methods such as deconstruction,  post-structuralism, structuralism, and postmodernism. In this regard, one would be forgiven when arguing that the history of critical theory can be described as a sustained conversation and negotiation between the texts making up that history (Mayhew, 28). Through this argument, it is clear that philosophers have relied upon works that their seniors did before them to offer more knowledge on the same subjects or related fields. In this way, the society has been impacted by wider volumes of materials that cover different areas of information and thoughts.

Based on the above assertion, Plato and Aristotle are some of the earlier philosophers who transferred and shared knowledge to affect the societal thinking and understanding (Arabia & Mahdi, 91). In this respect, these two philosophers form one of the good examples that illustrate the practical application of critical theory. In this paper, the works of Plato and Aristotle will be discussed with that intention of showing knowledge transfer between the early philosophers. The following section will posit that through Plato’s work, Aristotle was able to provide a different perspective of knowledge on the same subjects that were advanced by his teacher Plato. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


A Brief Overview of the Works of Aristotle and Plato

Although some of the works that Plato and Aristotle did are slowly disappearing in modern philosophy, importantly, they laid the foundation through which modem understanding of different aspects that relate to critical thinking on different issues in life (Serkman, 68). Study shows that currently. only thirty one treaties of Aristotle’s work are remaining , having written more than two hundred treaties. At the same time, most of the Aristotle’s works are primarily teaching aids and lecture notes. Besides few ethics of Aristotle’s works remaining of relevant to the application in different areas of studies,  it is prudent to underscore the fact that his philosophy contributed immensely on many issues such as physics, biology, medicine, religion, and politics for many years. most of Aristotle’s important works which was copied hundreds of times throughout hand in medieval and ancient times  included the Physics, Metaphysics, Poetics, Politics, and  De Anima (On the Soul) (Morgan, 55). Accordingly, these together with other treaties would be collected in what would later be called the Corpus Aristotelicum which is always serve as the basis for hundreds of teaching and private libraries in the ninetieth century.

On his side Plato’s work can be roughly be divided into three periods (Farabi & Mahdi, 91). First is his early period that featured much about Socrates, whereby Plato has taken the role of a dutiful student who was ensuring that his tutor’s ideas continued to be alive. Evidently, of Plato’s work during this period were being written in form of dialogue , by applying the Socratic method which included asking questions in order to explore knowledge and concepts as the basis for his teaching (Barker,66). Particularly, “the apology”, which is one of the Plato’s famous works and which entails the trial of his teacher and execution, is included in this period.

The second period, which also considered as the middle period of Plato has included works that explores morality as well as virtue in the society and at an individual level (Reale et al., 66). In these presentations, Plato presents lengthy and detailed discussions on wisdom, justice, courage, as well as the duality of responsibility and power. Under this period, one of his most famous works is “the republic”, which explains the vision of the utopian society.

The third and final period of his writings, mostly discuss the role of art, in relation to ethics and morality (Reale et al., 26). In these works, Plato challenges his ideas and he including exploring his own conclusion with self-debates. At the end, he comes up with the philosophy of idealism whereby instead of reality, the truest essence of things occurs in thought. for example, under the “The Theory of Forms” as well as other works, Plato argues that since it is only ideas that are constant, the world is perceived by senses is considered as changeable and deceptive.

Analysis of Aristotle and Plato Works In Relation to Critical Theory

As noted above, critical theory emphasizes on the transfer of knowledge by not only criticizing the available knowledge but also providing a different outlook. Notably, Plato influenced Aristotle, just as Socrates influenced Plato (Serkman, 58). In this way, Aristotle was able to buy many ideas from Plato, which would form the basis of his argument. The following section seeks to outline different subjects that both philosophers covered and how Aristotle used the previous works of his teacher to build on his own work.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Firstly, it would be prudent to underscore the contributions that the works of Aristotle and Plato affected to the society, even after their death (Herman, 80). As a teacher and a student, their work’s influences would however go different directions. Notably, Plato became the main Greek philosopher due to his with Socrates and Aristotle. The presence of his work would later be used until his academy was closed in the 529 A.D. thereafter, Plato’s work would be copied throughout Europe. In many centuries, classical form of education would assign the works of Plato as readings whereby until nineteenth century, “the republic” was the premier work on political theory, which was being admired due to its views as well as its elegant prose.

On the other hand, Aristotle and his works were considered as the basis for both science and religion specifically in the middle Ages (Serkman, 61). For example, in religion, Aristotelian ethics were the basis for the works of St. Thomas Aquinas’, which would forge Christian thought on the role of virtue and free will. The scientific observations of Aristotle were regarded as the last word when it came to knowledge until around the sixteenth century after the Renaissance thought eventually replaced and strongly challenged much of it (Schofield, 37). Despite the replacement and negative criticisms of Aristotle’s work, his empirical approach based on observation, direct experience (experimentation), and hypothesis has been the basis for scientific activity in almost all fields of study.

Philosophically, Plato believed that concepts took a universal form, which he described as an ideal form, which informed his idealistic philosophy (Herman, 86). Building on this argument, Aristotle observed that universal forms were not really attached to each concept or object. Further, Aristotle argued that for each instance of a concept or an object, one must analyze them on their own, which informed the Aristotelian Empiricism. On the same breath, according to Plato, through reasoning and experiments would be enough to provide proof of a concept or establish the qualities attributed to an object. However, Aristotle dismissed this argument, but instead favored experience and direct observation. In such arguments, Aristotle was able to give a counter perspective of the works and beliefs of Plato, thus emphasizes the assertions in the critical theory.

In political theory, Plato was of the view that one should subsume his political interests to that of the society, which would achieve a perfect form of government (Herman, 69). Through his work, “the republic”, Plato described a utopian society by noting that the three classes, which included the philosophers, warriors, and workers, together with the society’s responsibility and governance were given to those were seem to be the best qualified under, “Philosopher Rulers.”

In this way, the elite were taking care of the less capable in the society. On his part, Aristotle considered the basic political unit as the “polis”, which ensured that it took precedence over family unit that in turn took precedence over individuals (Price, 59). Aristotle observed that since man is an animal in nature, politics would functions not as a machine but as an organism. Although Aristotle eschewed a large-scale construct such as empires and nations as well as utopian solution, he was able to move beyond political theory to become the first political scientist when he observed political processes for the formulation of improvements.

In ethics, the connection between Plato and Aristotle is most obvious especially when referring to the views morality (Kavanaugh, 42). On his part, Plato supported Socrates observation that knowledge is virtue in itself, which means that by knowing the right thing is not enough until the good is done. In other words, if one knows the right thing to do, he will automatically be led into doing the right thing. Therefore, it is possible to teach virtue by learning right from wrong and good from evil. On the other hand, Aristotle argued that knowing what the right thing was not enough (Kavanaugh, 45). In this way, he believed that one had to choose to act in the proper way by creating the essence of doing well. Therefore, Aristotle’s definition put the Aristotelian ethics on a practical plane instead of theoretical one that was supported by Plato and Socrates. Consequently, Aristotle was able to make his arguments on ethics from the earlier definitions of Plato, further cementing the critical theory on this illustration.



In conclusion, it is concretively clear that the influence of Plato on Aristotle’s works contributed immensely to the field of philosophy and laid the foundation of not only ancient society but also the modern understanding of the different issues in life, including science. In  regard to critical theory, which emphasis that a theory is only critical if its objective is to change the lives of people, both works helped to provide the basis for critical thinking and critiquing. The brought forward different ways of critics and sought to improve people’s lives. Science heavily borrows from their principles and the world shall thus remember them for more years to come as the greatest philosophers of all time who influenced nearly all aspects of life. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


Works Cited

Barker, E. Political Thought of Plato and Aristotle. Dover Publications, 2012. Internet resource.

Farabi, and Muhsin Mahdi. Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. Ithaca (N.Y.: Cornell University

Press, 2012. Print.

Herman, Arthur. The Cave and the Light: Plato Versus Aristotle and the Struggle for the Soul of

Western Civilization. New York: Random House, 2013. Print.

Kavanaugh, Leslie J. The Architectonic of Philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, Leibniz. Amsterdam:

Amsterdam University Press, 2007. Print.

Mayhew, Robert. The critical theory. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012. Print.

Morgan, Millan. Classics of Aristotle and Plato. Indianapolis, (2011). Hackett Pub. Co.

Price, A W. Love and Friendship in Plato and Aristotle. New York: Oxford University Press,

  1. Internet resource.

Reale, Giovanni, and John R. Catan. A History of Ancient Philosophy. Albany: State University

of New York Press, 2015. Print.

Schofield, Malcolm. Aristotle, Plato and Pythagoreanism in the First Century Bc: New

Directions for Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Print.

Serkman, Rietry. The Cave and the Light: Plato Versus Aristotle and the Struggle for the Soul of

Western Civilization. New York: Random House, 2013. Print.


Lawrence Heights Essay
Posted by: Write My Essay on: July 19, 2019


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Lawrence Heights is a low income neighborhood in Toronto. This community is located in north-west of central Toronto and is bordered by Lawrence Avenue and Highway 401 and Dufferin Street to the south, north and west respectively. Lawrence Heights is known for its old buildings that date back to the early 1960 when they were fast put up by Metropolitan Toronto. The picture on the cover page gives an insight on how the buildings look like. This paper therefore outlines the description, strengths and weakness of the Lawrence Heights and how they could be improved (Toronto Public Library, 2016).

Lawrence Heights is known for several reasons. To start with, Lawrence Heights is known for leading in crime and murder cases in Toronto. It also comprises of post-World War II storey dwellings and bungalows. From the image, one can appreciate that this is an image of a storey-and-a-half dwelling more than 50 years of age. For quite some time, there have been proposals and activities to bring down majority of the older houses and bring up modern ones. However, efforts from heritage communities have seen revitalization of most of the buildings in order to preserve the communities long known character (Toronto Neighborhoods, 2016).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Most of the buildings in Lawrence Heights are more than five decades and in need of major repairs. Most of the streets are not connected to other communities and so residents lack the sense of belonging and feel isolated. The need for revitalization is among the priorities in developmental plans in Lawrence Heights. Lawrence Heights attracted many real estate business businessmen and builders based on the area’s proximity to downtown and city outlets (Toronto Neighborhoods, 2016). Many older houses have been demolished and replaced with ultramodern ones. It started in 2007 when Howard Moscoe, the then city councilor, came up with the plan of revitalization of Lawrence Heights. The plan would then see demolition of all the 1,208 households and be replaced by modern and affordable ones. At the end of 2015, the project had kicked with demolition still taking place at Ranee Avenue and Flemington Road (Pathways to Education, 2016).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Lawrence Heights is known for being more active in youth and senior development programs. Such programs have been aimed at reducing crime and murder rates in the community. For instance, Lawrence Heights Community Centers program offers various recreational activities for its populations. The program is inclusive of sports like basketball and various activities that range from newborns to adults. At some point in time, Lawrence Heights was designated to be among the top communities in Toronto that required initiation of development and other programs. The youth were the most targeted group in these programs that were aimed at reducing the prevalence of crime and murder cases.

Despite all these, Lawrence Heights also has its other side of the story. To start with, Lawrence Heights is a vibrant community that comprise of diverse population that originated from all over the world (Caribbean, parts of Africa and even the Maritimes). The result of this is partnerships and lasting friendships something that created a strong sense of community pride. Concerns have therefore been raised on whether embracing change inform of revitalization would still allow for the Lawrence Heights community to exist. However, there have been tensions and culture clashes among the different populations.


Being a middle class neighborhood that has been in existence for more than 50 years, Lawrence Heights needs elaborate plans to see its transformation into a modern but still affordable neighborhood. Such plans already in progress include revitalization and other programs such as Lawrence Heights Community Center programs. These programs are aimed at improving the general outlook of Lawrence Heights while at the same time maintaining the existing good relationship among its residents.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]


Toronto Public Library. (2016). Historical Walking Tour of Lawrence Park. Toronto Public Library.

Pathways to Education. (2016). Toronto – Lawrence Heights. (2016). Pathways to Education.

Toronto Neighborhoods. (2016). Toronto Neighbourhood Guide. Toronto Neighborhoods


Lighting in Theater Essay
Posted by: Write My Essay on: July 19, 2019


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Lighting is a very important aspect of live theater and perhaps the most valuable technical facet of theatrical performances. Lighting was accommodated into the theater from the 1400 AD when dramatics desired to have night performances with candles lighting up the first theater (The Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston 11). Having thousands of candles as a source of lighting for a performance, it must have been very essential for the theatrics to have light.  Lighting in theaters not only needs to be clear, it should also be decorative to bring the audience to the experience of good plays and operas. The dramatics of all time understood this and Sebastiano Serlio perfected the decorative lighting in 1500AD by placing candles behind colored bottles as cited by the Edison Electric Illuminating Company OF Boston (15).

Footlights were developed in the seventeenth century and are credited to Nicola Sabbatini. They were placed on the floor all through the performance. Candles within lanterns were also established in the eighteenth century. This was the century that marked the greatest change in the theatrical world as we know it. Theatrics in this era, like Gian Battista Piranesi, understood the value of realism to the audience. Gian found that darkening the stage brought a sense of reality to the audience and the only way he could do this was to have the candles inside the lanterns. After the candles, the kerosene lamps followed that were hung from the ceilings. They were crucial during performances as they required human aid to control the brightness while certain changes of performance took place, for example, turning from day to night. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The next development was gas lighting. It was developed in 1803 and was much better than candle and kerosene. It was taken into consideration by the Opera house in Philadelphia; the Opera house manufactured its own gas from the basement of the theater. An interesting light was developed by Henry Drummond. He discovered that if one burnt a piece of lime a spot of light was formed. Dramatists of the time took up this “limelight” and made great acts with it. However, this marked the end of candles, gas lamps, and kerosene lamps. A far more advanced technology had set in (The Edison Electric Illuminating Company OF Boston 25).

In 1846, electricity came into being; the future of theatrics. The Paris Opera performed an act in which Moses appeared in dazzling white in a dark background. It was spectacular. With that theater was never the same again. To date, many changes have taken place and theater lighting has grown better from the first candle lighting (The Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston 30). One of these many changes is The Source ETC. This is a fixture “that changed the lighting industry as attested to by the Visual Environment Technologies (Para 1). It has a remarkable lighting and an excellent ‘zoom in’ property which highlights its specializations as “Source Four’s revolutionary technology gives you a clean white beam for unequaled imaging, crisp pattern projection, and a bright, even field” (Visual Environment Technologies Para 2).

The types of light required in a theater are floods, soft spots, profile Spots, and beam lights which comprise the latest advancement in lighting that has given birth to the Source Four lighting. The Source Four has brought theater experience straight from our dreams with the technology of clear lighting, the clean white beam for unequaled imaging and “ETC’s patented one-handed zoom operation makes adjustments quick, simple and safe. Technicians can focus with one hand and hold the ladder with the other (Vincent Lighting Systems Para 3).

Lighting is formulated through a process that entails the roles of many people. The director should have a lighting that creates realism for the audience. It should, therefore, be comfortable. Lighting should aim to enhance the scene and it should be proportional to the size of the theater. Salzberg and Kupferman (5) explain on how to light different types of theaters. Proscenium Stages, as elaborated by Salzberg and Kupferman (6) normally have lighting around the positions that run across the stage and are downstage or upstage of the proscenium are lighted. The authors explain that also the balcony can be used to hang the lighting fixtures. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The Royal Court Theater uses bright lights during its performances. The bright lights are comfortable for the audience and dramatists. In the recent past, the Royal Court Theater has embraced LED lighting. The theatrics here chose the white color that would suit their change of venue as attested to by the White Light (Para 3). The lighting in Romeo and Juliet, showcased in Branagh theater, was clear and in tune with the storyline. It was a bright yet comfortable shade of yellow. This ensured a clear view of the dramatists as well as the creation of realism.

With the new technology in lighting, in order to have great lighting, various lighting fixtures are used in theater to adequately light the stage.  Such are Fresnel and Ellipsoidal.   Fresnel spotlights pairs or floods to create washes or soft area light. The Fresnel is quite similar to ellipsoidal but has a softer edge to the light beams. Ellipsoidal (ERS) allows precise placement of bright and directional light. It is commonly used for accenting. The ellipsoidal can adjust from a sharp-edged, focused beam to a soft, diffused light. This is a function the Fraser cannot perform (Vincent Lighting Systems Para 2)

With this great achievement comes equally great risk; a risk of fire. From the time dramatists accommodated artificial light, it has been a danger to contend with. Advancement in fire prevention has not changed a lot as “fire protection measures, details differing from one region to another, have been established, codified and enforced throughout the world and have changed little over the past 100 years” (Ove Arup & Partners PC 7). For instance, the Brooklyn Theatre caught fire on December 5, 1876 (Flynn 4). This can be attributed to the fact that many people show up for theatrical performances and the theaters are mostly overcrowded. One way to control fires is to have many theaters so that people do not overcrowd in those available. The people who attend these events are different. Some of them are handicapped (maybe on wheelchairs). For this group, there should be an exit erected close to where they are supposed to sit. Protection devices should be activated in case of a fire. For example, sprinklers and curtains to accommodate fires on the stage.  Ventilation should also be well incorporated in theatrical edifices. In addition to ventilation, mechanical means of exhaustion should be established (Ove Arup & Partners PC 12).  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Work Cited

Flynn, John. Theatre Fires Political and Legal Foundations of Fire Protection. University of Cincinnati, 2012,

Kupferman, Judy and Salzberg Jeffrey E. “Stage Lighting For Students”. Stagelightingprimer.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Dec. 2016.

Vincent Lighting Systems. The Differences between Fixtures. Vincent Lighting Systems, 2016,

The Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston. The History of Stage and Theatre Lighting.  The Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston, 2016. Print.

Ove Arup & Partners PC. Fire Safety in Theatres – A New Design Approach Final Report. The Fire Protection Research Foundation, 2009.

White Light. Royal Court Theatre Goes LED With New Profiles. White Light, 2016,

Visual Environment Technologies. Source Four: the Fixture that changed the Lighting





Write My Essay Sample: Cyber Safety
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 26, 2019

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Student 1

The Denial of Service wars will continue until technology is able to properly defend against them. Because of the nature of the attacks, it is difficult to recognize them, let alone stop them before they happen. If it was just a matter of losing Facebook for a few hours, it wouldn’t be a big deal. However, the Internet is ubiquitous. We use the internet for nearly all business transactions; it is a primary tool for communication; many machines are online and use online tools to operate; I don’t know a single person without an email address. The big problem is that just a few keystrokes can take down a website, turn off the power in large regions or even gain control of automated military weapons remotely. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Now that the ability to use such a tricky method to fool a server into accepting malicious requests is out there, there will always be someone who wants to use it nefariously. The important thing, as you mentioned, is that we open lines of communication and try to further diplomacy – particularly with countries with whom we don’t have a particularly good relationship. This threat of retaliation is not going to improve the situation. It’s easy to point a finger at Russia and blame them, but you can’t blame an entire country. Just like you can’t blame an entire religion based on a few radicals. We are doing a better job of locking things down and someone will eventually figure out a way to thwart this new form of DDos. Our political situation is precarious enough at the moment, we need to be careful about throwing stones when we’re not even sure what or who we’re trying to hit.

Student 2

It has been clear for some time now that an international set of laws need to be put in place regarding the internet. The problem is, the people who are the most threatening are often the least likely to follow regulations. That being said, the media has been using the internet to scare people for 20 years. The media calls this a cyber “war” and they use the word “attack” constantly. It’s true that an attack could take down all or any part of our electrical grid. It’s also true that “no cyber attack is known to have provoked death or physical damage to human beings.” (Cirlig, 2014). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

This is not to minimize the emotional, physical and economic toll taken on those who are affected by a cyber attack. Whether someone steals your identity or locks up bank servers to bring business to a halt, they are committing a criminal act. And they should be punished accordingly. If we can even find them. We know the name Assange these days, but you can bet there are thousands of others out there who fully support what he did and are planning to do something similar. So the type of attacks going on – regardless of how many people they affect – are most definitely serious crimes. They are done distantly, virtually and that makes it very hard to catch the perpetrators, let alone punish them. At this point, the EU, US, UN and NATO (among others) are still arguing over the correct words and definitions regarding cyber crimes. I just don’t see a consensus that can be made law happening any time soon.

Student 3

The need to protect critical infrastructures globally is very evident at this moment in history. When we are on the internet, we are part of a global community. However, there is no effective global governing in place. I do not believe that the content of the internet should be limited or censored in any way, but I think anyone who uses the internet to commit a crime should be punished in the extreme. Not only are they a criminal, they’re not even brave enough to show their face. Though we are referring to these incidents as a “cyber war,” we can’t actually fight this war in the same way we’ve fought any other. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

President Obama met with Chinese President Jinping in 2015 to discuss cyber arms treaties. (Litwak & King, 2015). Of course, these treaties won’t bear much resemblance to the traditional treaties between nations. They will, however, attempt to bring some control to the chaos that could be created by DDos and cyber attacks. Cyber war is obviously inherently different from nuclear war, but Obama believes that it is important to work with other countries to try to draft treaties and agreements regarding activity in cyberspace. Obama and Jinping are negotiating an “agreement to ban peacetime attacks on critical infrastructure.” This might be enough to keep some people from committing cyber crime. Obama also pointed out that no agreement could ever completely solve an issue like cyber attacks because there are always those who have no respect for any law, let alone an international treaty.


Cirlig, Carmen-Cristina. (2014) Cyber Defence in the EU: Preparing for Cyber Warfare? European Parliamentary Research Service

Litwak, R., & King, M. (2015). Cybersecurity treaties may be nice, but it’s really every country for itself. Reuters.

Write My Essay Sample: Renaissance in Italy
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 20, 2019

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Renaissance in Italy

The Renaissance is one of the major historical periods in European history. It refers to a time of hastened cultural, intellectual, and scientific changes that marked the transition between the ancient medieval world and the modern enlightened world (Lockard, 2014). During the great Renaissance, achievements were made in the fields of education, arts, literature, philosophy, and exploration. Italy occupies a central place in the Renaissance history. The Renaissance started in Italy, with religious influence and the strategic positioning of Italy being the main contributing factors.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

There are several reasons why the Renaissance is believed to have started in Italy and spread across Europe. One of these reasons was the influence of the church. According to Malanima (2008), the high concentration of wealth, intellect, and power in the church are the best reasons why the Renaissance began in Italy. In the early 15th century when the Renaissance began, the Catholic Church controlled much of the economic, political, and intellectual activities in continental Europe as well as Britain.

At that time, the Catholic Church gathered the wealthiest merchants, artists, scholars, and politicians from across Europe and brought them to Rome where the church was headquartered (Lockard, 2014). With this much control, the Catholic Church had the power to patronize the politics and arts of Italy at any time. The church was very instrumental in supporting the rebirth of the Greek and Roman thinking styles. These techniques, in the view of the church, were Mediterranean culture just like the church itself (Lockard, 2014).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In the 16th century when Renaissance is considered to have been at its peak in Italy, the church further contributed to its spread, but in a negative way. The church was losing its influence due to divisions within its top leaders. Also, the previous decade of change due to Renaissance was loosening the tight grip of political affairs the church had boasted in the previous century (Lockhard, 2014). As such, it encouraged the rise of secularism and free thought. Scholars, artists, and merchants were free to question dogma and think independently, which facilitated the Renaissance in Italy.

Another reason that greatly favored Italy as the starting point of the Renaissance is its prime location. Italy was strategically placed on the Mediterranean Sea, and its city-states including Tuscany were prime centers for commerce and trade (Malanima, 2008). Italy had numerous ports including Venice that were entry points for both goods and artistic ideas.

Additionally, the Renaissance started in Italy due to Italy’s high concentration of intellectuals. Italy had been a core administrative center in the former Roman Empire and was well established regarding academics (Sider, 2005). When the Byzantine Empire collapsed, many of the Constantinople intellectuals moved to Italy. They brought with them the great ancient Roman and Greek works which would otherwise have been lost to the West. Before then, intellectuals did not have an accurate view and clear understanding of the doctrines of humanism which were driving forces for the Renaissance (Sider, 2005). It thus fast-tracked the cultural change.

The leadership vacuum that occurred when the Roman Empire lost power in Italy also triggered the Italian Renaissance (Bartlett, 2005). Wealthy families from different regions in the North took over leadership of various regions after the Roman Empire lost control. The city of Naples, on the other hand, controlled much of the South (Bartlett, 2005). When these wealthy merchant families took over leadership, they revised existing laws, breaking down the rigid command structure that had been established by the Roman Empire. Laws regarding banking, shipping, trade, and commerce were the first targets by these merchant families. The free environment that these amendments created facilitated the cultural transformation that characterized the Renaissance (Bartlett, 2005).

The other factor that triggered the Renaissance in Italy was increased exploration of the world and improved trade. Exploration of the world brought new ideas, cultures, thoughts, and activities into Italy. Christopher Columbus, for example, discovered America during this period (Lockard, 2014). These explorations led to the discovery of ancient texts, philosophy, literature, and music which were brought to Italy. Increased trade activities brought new wealth into cities, consequently creating an opportunity for businesspeople to move away from business and explore art (Lockard, 2014). These two factors triggered a cultural change in Italy.

Why the Renaissance Is Referred to as the Early Modern Period

The Italian Renaissance is at times referred to as the early modern period because it coincided with the transition between the cultural changes from the medieval scholastic thought that formed the foundation for modernity (Sider, 2005). The cultural, scholarly, and artistic changes occurring in Greece signified the beginning of the modern era. Technologies such as the printing press which is still in use today were developed during this period (Sider, 2005).

In conclusion, the Renaissance traces its roots back to Italy in the city of Florence. Influence of the church was the greatest factor that influenced the Renaissance in Europe. The prime location of Italy coupled with a large concentration of intellects, merchants, and artists also contributed significantly to the Renaissance.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]



Bartlett, K. R. (2005). The Italian Renaissance: Part I. Personal Collection of K. Bartlett, University of Toronto, Toronto, OT.

Lockard, C. (2014). Societies, networks, and transitions: A global history (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Malanima, P. (2008, May 10-12). The Italian Renaissance economy (1250-1600). In Europe in the late Middle Ages: Patterns of economic growth and crisis (pp. 1-25). Villa La Pietra: Paolo Malanima.

Sider, S. (2005). Handbook to life in Renaissance Europe. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Write My Essay Sample: Down’s Syndrome
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 18, 2019

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Down’s Syndrome Genes and Its Inheritance

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an additional copy of the chromosome 21 in the cells. The parents of individuals are usually genetically normal and the extra chromosome occurs randomly. Researchers have put effort in understanding the disorder and the conditions leading to its manifestation to well manage and possibly treat the disorder.

Asim A., Kumar A., Muthuswamy S., Jain S., & Agarwal S., (2015) Down syndrome: an insight of the disease.  Journal of Biomedical Sciences 22:41

Asim, Kumar, Muthuswamy, Jain, and Agarwal discuss the overview of Down syndrome, its phenotypic diagnosis, and management of the disorder. They also discuss its association with other diseases that manifest alongside DS and various prenatal diagnosis methods. Asim et al. identified Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes (separation of two long arms) as other causes of the syndrome apart from the presence of an additional chromosome 21 in infants. The abnormal chromosomal numbers result in overexpression of genes based on the gene-dosage-imbalance theory. Other theories related to the disorder include the amplified developmental instability hypothesis, which is similar to the gene-dosage-imbalance theory, and critical region hypothesis that identifies the Down syndrome critical regions as responsible for the phenotypic manifestation of the disorder. Diagnostic methods discussed include karyotyping and rapid aneuploidy testing methods for diagnosis prenatal samples. The team makes recommendations for management of the disease emphasizing on an organized multidisciplinary approach where multiple specialists work together to monitor and manage the patients.

Letourneau A., et al. (2014) Domains of genome-wide gene expression dysregulation in Down’s syndrome. Nature 508, 345-350

Letourneau et al. studied the transcriptome (all messenger RNA molecules) of fetal fibroblasts from maternal twins to assess the extent of gene expression in Down’s syndrome. The group showed the difference in expression in the domains as either up-regulated (excess) or down-regulated (insufficient) which were preserved in the stem cell line from the twins’ fibroblast. These gene expression dysregulation domains (GEDDs) associate with lamina-associated domains (LADs) and replications domains but only the GEDs underwent modification similar to that of the H3K4me3 profile the affected fibroblasts. The results show that the chromatin environment in the nucleus is subject to change affecting the messenger RNA, which are responsible for cell activities, and thus GEDs affect some of the disorder phenotypes.

Kirsammer G. & Crispino D. J. (2016). Signaling a link between interferon and the traits of Down syndrome. eLife insight 1-3

Kirsammer and Crispino claim that Down’s syndrome is among the most complex genetic disorders that affect humans. It occurs averagely in 1 out of 700 infants in North America and Alexander et al. suggest that it presents with heart defects, Alzheimer’s disease, receptiveness to leukemia, intellectual disability, and a reduced possibility of developing additional tumors. Down’s is the result of the presence of an additional copy of chromosome 21 in several or all cells. Sullivan et al., through the sequencing RNA from human fibroblast tissue taken from individuals who have Down’s, demonstrate that the cells have 50 percent more genetic product of chromosome 21 than normal tissue. In addition, they revealed that the pattern of gene expression was consistent in affected cells associating with interferon-stimulation for a transcriptional response. From their study, Sullivan was able to demonstrate that affected cells active interferon pathways, the gene that becomes active is specific to cell types allowing them to determine that the traits of the syndrome are a result of the additional chromosome. The study allowed the team to provide useful data regarding the contribution of interferons in the manifestation of clinical characteristics of Down’s and how targeting these interferons can develop treatment solutions.

Jiang J et al. (2013) Translating dosage compensation to trisomy 21. Nature 500, 296-300

Jiang and her colleges, using the concept of Barr bodies found in female cells, attempted to inactivate the additional chromosome 21 in stem cells and succeeded. Through gene splicing and editing, they inserted an inducible transgene, XIST (the X-inactivation gene), on the arm of the additional chromosome. The transgene resulted in the stable modification, transcription, and DNA methylization to form a ‘chromosome 21 Barr body’. In addition, they were able to control the expression of individual genes including chromosome 21 by inserting a genetic switch that they manipulated using doxycycline. The study is a step in identifying the cellular processes necessary for auto correction of the disorder and development of target-specific treatments for the disorder.

Rezayat A. A., Nazarabadi M.H., Arabili M. H., Shokri M, Mirzae S, et al. (2013) Down Syndrome and Consanguinity. Journal of Research Medical Sciences. 995-997

Rezayat AA et al. conducted a study to investigate the frequency of maternal kinship and age and its correlation with Down syndrome as a previous study suggested there is no association of Down syndrome with consanguinity. The study of amniotic fluid of a pregnant woman has been the primary criteria for prenatal identification of chromosomal defects, but other diagnosis methods were introduced leading to the emergence of screening markers. There were 38 patients involved in the study and parental details and familial relationships recorded resulting in two groups: Consanguine and non-consanguine marriages. The study revealed a range of chromosomal defects such as trisomy and double aneuploidy among others. The consanguine marriage group demonstrated complete trisomy status while the non-consanguine marriage group had 88.9 percent. The use of Fisher’s Exact test showed that the chromosomal status of the subject was not dependent on consanguine marriage as well as the age of the mother.


Essay Writing Service Sample: The Medieval Period
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 17, 2019

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King Charlemagne had a very huge impact on the early medieval period. Today he is referred to by many as the father of Europe. Charlemagne ruled a huge chunk of western Europe between the years 769 to 814 AD. Williams (2010), argues that through encouraging education, arts and culture, he turned on the light of Europe that would shine for thousands of years after his rule. He went on to be the first Holy Roman Emperor due to his outstanding leadership skills.

During the 5th century, the Roman Empire disintegrated, the eastern half of the former empire, flourished while the western side broke up into many kingdoms without any central authority. After becoming one of the rulers of the many kingdoms he immediately set his eyes on expanding his territory in which he was able to conquer almost all of the Europe. He ensured his kingdom remained united by instituting major reforms and ensuring that all of Europe had a common identity. He abolished the gold standard and replaced it with the silver currency. This helped boost commerce as trade became easier. He also took away powers from the nobles and ensured peasants had the same rights as the nobles. He was also a staunch believer of education and he encouraged schooling throughout his kingdom (Williams, 2010). By doing so he was able to unite Europe and boost trade. He also helped spread Christianity. Under his role as emperor, he encouraged the Carolingian Renaissance and was the driving force for the Carolingian miniscule.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

After the fall of the roman empire, there were many changes that took place and these changes influenced architecture in the middle ages. The rise of Christianity and the frequent wars helped architecture evolve. Since Christianity experienced tremendous growth during these times, Christians built very big churches whose design consisted transepts, alters and a nave. This architectural design was known as basilica. Kings and lords during this time also built large castles which were fortified by a wall for protection. Architecture under the middle ages can be categorized into pre-Romanesque, Romanesque and Gothic architecture (Harvey, 1971). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

According to Harvey (1971), Romanesque architecture was highly influenced by Roman architecture and was prevalent during the years 800-1100 AD. It was characterized by vaults and round arches and the building stones were usually cut to precision. Years later the Romanesque architecture would lose its appeal and would give way to the gothic architecture. This type of architecture was prevalent during the years 1200-1500 AD. The structures were lighter, had proper light and were airy and spacious. The buildings had large windows and doors and used flying buttress. The buildings were also taller and they were highly decorated using gargoyles (Harvey, 1971).

Christianity and visual art helped shape the architectural designs of the medieval ages. Stained glass art, carvings on columns and buildings, domed ceilings and large murals are some of the architectural details influenced by Christianity and visual art (Onians, 1988). Very few people could read and write in the middle ages. The urban population would read and listen for entertainment purposes as well as for education. The books told of love stories, adventures, ancient battles and noble men and women. The appetite to read and the availability of books improved the literacy levels especially among the nobles. Music was part of the spiritual and secular cultures. During this time people developed ways to write down music.

The 1300 century saw a series of famines, plagues among other calamities that reduced the population by almost half. Endemic warfare, peasant uprising coupled with the lack of unity in the catholic church were the highlights of the late medieval ages (Onians, 1988). The invention of printing, the fall of the Constantinople in 1453 and the rise of the Ottoman Empire are some of the developments that lead to the Renaissance period.  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Illuminated manuscripts, mosaics and sculptures were the most important arts which were influential in the middle ages. Sculptures were largely used in many buildings to beautify them during the Romanesque architecture era (Harvey, 1971). Illuminated manuscripts and mosaics on the other hand were used to spread Christianity, which was a highlight of the medieval ages.


Harvey, J. H. (1971). The master builders: architecture in the Middle Ages. McGraw-Hi

Onians, J. (1988). Bearers of Meaning: The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance (p. 271). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Williams, H. (2010). Emperor of the West: Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire. Quercus

Write My Essay Sample: Importation of Food
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 16, 2019

Write My Essay Sample: Importation of Food

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Overview of Imported Fruits and Vegetables

At a person level, I enjoy taking different types of fruits and vegetables. Some of The common fruits that make include mangoes, oranges, and apples. On the other hands, the kind of vegetables that I take includes cabbage, onions, lettuce, celery, spinach among others. In most cases, I prefer buying imported fruits and vegetables since I am of the opinion that testing an imported type of food makes one understand and have a realistic feeling of the kind of food found in different parts of the world. Based on the research, most of the fruits and vegetables I have been taking are imported from Mexico (Brody et.al, 2011).  Therefore, the average distance that these fruits and vegetables travel from Mexico to America is approximately 1886 miles or 3034 km (Brody et.al, 2011).

Benefits to Developing and Developed Nations

Critically to note is that Mexico is one of the developing nations across the globe. The trade between developed and developing countries is usually for the developed countries. However, both developed and developing countries benefit from the importation and exportation of food in different ways.  Firstly, the developing countries can get revenue from the exports. The business people who export their products to developing countries are not only able to earn income but are in a position to sustain their businesses for the long time (Brody et.al, 2011). The governments of the developing nations, in turn, get income through taxation for both importers and exporters. Consequently, the revenue is used in the development initiatives among other economic activities. On the other hand, the developed nations also get revenue from taxation from the importers, while their citizens get the food they need. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Using Locally Sourced Fruits and Vegetables

Although I rarely buy local products, I understand the benefits of using locally sourced food materials.  Firstly, the fruits and vegetables contain essential nutrients that are beneficial for the human body (Admont et al., 2014). However, according to scientific studies, the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables is easily destroyed in different ways. For example, one of these ways is that the longer the fruits and vegetables take to be consumed after being harvests, the faster they lose their nutrients. Therefore, by eating local food, one can get most nutrients unlike when imported (Admont et.al, 2014).  At the same time, the local business people especially farmers are motivated when their products are bought locally which reduces competition from the importers. However, one of the drawbacks is that since some local fruits are not enough to [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]meet the demand, thus they are sold at high prices compared to the imported ones.

Importance of Fruits and Vegetables

Unfortunately, I cannot live without taking fruits and vegetables since I know how important they are in one’s body (Brody et.al, 2011).  Most of the fruits and vegetables that I take are also locally available. The general nutritional value of fresh fruit and vegetables is that they help in boosting the immunity in the body systems (Admont et.al, 2014). On the other hand, unlike other food items such as red meat and junk food, which includes one’s calories leading to weight gain and lifestyles diseases, experts encourage people to consume a lot of fruits and vegetables to keep their body healthy and out of danger of lifestyle body complications. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]



Although global trade is for developed countries, I will continue buying imported food but use local fruits and vegetable as well. The bottom line is that the individual business people are also benefiting in countries abroad.


Admont, S., Goyal, S., & Sakhuja, S. (2014). I love to eat fruits and vegetables. Halifax, Nova Scotia:  Shelley Admont Publishing.

Brody, A. L., Zhuang, H., Han, J. H., & Wiley InterScience (Online service). (2011). Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.


Essay Writing Sample: Online and Blending Learning Environments for Nursing: Effective or Not?
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 14, 2019


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Literature Review

The increasing number of healthcare issues has necessitated the growth of healthcare nurses. The recent technological advancements have introduced online learning, which is much different from the traditional learning environment. It has been widely accepted that online learning has brought convenience, an aspect that has been lacking in the traditional learning environment. Given the pivotal role that nursing plays in public health, it is important to weigh the options between the traditional learning environment and the online learning environment.

Online learning has been one of the major aspects that have influenced academic progress in various fields. According to Riley and Schmidt (2015), online work does work for nurses if the management supported them through their learning and understood their busy schedules. Riley and Schmidt (2015) further note that health care cases have become rampant, which has consequently led to an increase in the demand for public hospital beds and an increase in the number of nurses. With the growing needs in public health, it is important that nurses develop professionally in ensuring that their operations are in line with the needs of their patients. Through a randomized control methodology, Riley and Schmidt (2015) found out that continued professional development among the nurses was inevitable, and it necessitated the need for the online learning environment. However, Riley and Schmidt (2015) observe that if such programs are to succeed, all stakeholders should take part in ensuring the provision of quality education.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Enhancing knowledge in the clinical sector has proved to be a challenging course for continuing nurses. In their literature, Dalhem and Saleh (2014) observe that online education has been one of the technological advancements that have impacted learning. In their analysis, Dalhem and Saleh (2014) studied the impact of online education in Hamad Medical Corporation, specifically in ICT, which had been promoted by the Qatar government. The aim of the program was to train and improve the ICT skills of the nurses working in public schools. Through a descriptive study design, the results indicated that e-learning was not a useful tool in learning for the nurses as it had been expected (Dalhem & Saleh, 2014). Through the surveys conducted, all the respondents were eager in the enrollment of the studies, but the results were not as per the set expectations. The study, however, found out that e-learning has a positive learning tool which was useful in the busy schedules for the nurses, and it allowed convenience and effectiveness in the provision of the standard services by the nurses (Dalhem & Saleh, 2014). The study, therefore, implies that e-learning can be a useful tool in learning, which could consequently be used in the professional development of the nurses.

There have been shortages of nurses in the healthcare industry. These changes have called for the introduction of innovative educational models that will prepare nurses within the healthcare system. Lowery and Spector (2014) note that there will be a demand of more than 50% of nurses both at the bachelor’s or doctoral levels by 2020. Such demand has led to a proliferation of technology use in nursing education. Similarly, Lowery and Spector (2014) continue to write that many boards of nursing have recommended the use of online and distance learning in the professional development of nurses. The boards of nursing have encouraged the use of technology, which according to them, addresses the increasing need for nurses across the board. However, through a reference from other relevant articles, Lowery and Spector (2014) have indicated that online education has met more challenges that seem to jeopardize the health care sector. Lowery and Spector (2014) have however noted that there is a need for the implementation of a regulatory model that copes with the challenges that face the implementation of online learning among nurses in the healthcare sector.   [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In order to understand the impact of the online learning, it is important to conduct a comparative analysis of the traditional form of learning that involved face-to-face. In the traditional learning environment, students used to meet with their lecturers physically and learning used to take place in a formal environment such as a classroom, library, or laboratory. McCutcheon, Lohan, Traynor and Martin (2014) compare an online learning environment with the traditional system of face-to-face and their effectiveness in enhancing learning in the nursing sector. Through mixed methods systematic review, the McCutcheon et al. (2014) were able to research and analyze the online teaching methods that were being practiced by clinical students. Through the evidence that the authors gathered, online teaching is quite similar to the traditional learning environment. According to McCutcheon et al. (2014), the information provided in both learning environments is similar, and it is not possible to underrate any system of learning merely due to location or availability of facilities. However, McCutcheon et al. (2014) are not thorough in their analysis as they only compare the environment. McCutcheon et al. (2014) have affirmed that more research is required to evaluate the effectiveness of the various models of learning.

Student learning is a process that is guided by learning objectives. In nursing, attaining these goals determines the training that a nurse has accomplished during their course. Attaining course objectives is independent of whether the student is an ongoing professional nurse or a new student. It is important to ensure that an educational program produces a competent practitioner who maintains professional standards and protects the public from incompetence (Edwards, Chapman, & Nash, 2001). Edwards et al. (2001) also define the purpose of effective learning in nursing, which relates to the quality of education offered in online learning. Based on the evaluation methods that have been stated in the article, online education in the nursing practice does not attain the required levels in ensuring competency for the students (Edwards et al., 2001). Such a checklist means that regulatory measures will have to be implemented in online nursing for students.

The literature analysis has provided insight into online learning in the healthcare industry among nurses. The growing need of health services has necessitated a larger number of nurses, which has called for new models of learning among the nurses. Online learning has been considered as an efficient model although it requires reevaluation and introduction of regulatory measures in maintaining competency. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Dalhem, W. A., & Saleh, N. (2014). The impact of eLearning on nurses’ professional knowledge and practice in HMC. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, 9(3).

Edwards, H. E., Chapman, H., & Nash, R. E. (2001). Evaluating student learning: An Australian case study. Nursing and Health Sciences, 3(4), 197-203. Lowery, B. & Spector, N. (2014). Regulatory implications and recommendations for distance education in prelicensure nursing programs. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 5(3), 24-33.

McCutcheon, K., Lohan, M., Traynor, M., & Martin, D. (2014). A systematic review evaluating the impact of online or blended learning vs. face-to-face learning of clinical skills in undergraduate nurse education. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(2), 255-270.

Riley, K., & Schmidt, D. (2015). Does online learning click with rural nurses? A qualitative study. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 24(4), 265-270.

Write My Essay Sample: German Versus Irish
Posted by: Write My Essay on: June 12, 2019

Write My Essay Sample: German Versus Irish

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German Vs Irish Reception into the US in the 1850s

More than three million people of Irish and German origin immigrated to the US in the period between 1830 and 1860 (Ayers et al. 266). They found an America that was already filling up with immigrants from other regions including Africa, Britain, Scandinavian countries, and Asia. The native whites who mere the dominant race had a well-established way of life and saw the Irish and German immigrants as a threat.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]  The Native Americans, in adherence to the normative standard of fairness to natives, were more welcoming and receptive of the Germans due to their modest way of life and less interference with American internal affairs as compared to Irish Immigrants who were overtly encroaching.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The initial view of Native Americans towards the Irish and Germans was the same because they were driven by almost similar forces to move into the US (Ayers et al. 266). One of the factors that necessitated the immigration was famine and crop failures. The Irish and Germans moved to America to escape hunger and exploit the agricultural potential in America. Another factor that prompted the immigration was the rising incidence of war and conflict across Europe. The immigrants saw America as a haven where they could hide from this conflict. Overpopulation in most parts of Europe also forced the Germans and Irish to immigrate to the United States. The two groups of immigrants also moved to the US in search of religious freedom.  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Works Cited

Ayers, Edward L. et al. American Passages: A History of the United States, Brief. 4th ed., Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2011.

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