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Write My Essay Sample: Learning Theory

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Learning Theory: Cognitive, Behaviorist, and Social Paradigms of Learning

Learning is one of the most crucial human engagements. It is the essence of education, although much of human learning occurs outside the school system. For many years, psychologists and philosophers have attempted to understand the learning process, how it progresses, and how one party can influence the learning of another party through teaching. Consequently, a number of theories have been fronted in an effort to explain these processes. Some of the most common theories of learning include behaviorist, cognitive, and social theories. While these theories of learning largely look into the change in the knowledge of an individual and their ability to gain skills, there are still considerable differences regarding these changes. More importantly, it must be understood that there are different forms of learning which are better explained through various theories. The theories of learning, therefore, complement each other to offer different perspectives on the learning processes and situations.

Behaviorist Theory

The theory of behaviorism works on the principle of stimulus-response. In the theory, human behavior is caused by external factors in a process known as operant conditioning and not inner consciousness (Gordon, 2009). In this respect, behaviorism is essentially a theory that assumes the learner is passive in the learning process and only responds to external stimuli. The learner begins at a state where they have no knowledge, and their behavior is gradually defined through positive or negative reinforcements. These two reinforcements create a greater chance that the antecedent behavior will reoccur. On the other hand, when the learner is punished, it is unlikely that the antecedent behavior will occur again. Learning in this regard occurs through the change in the behavior of the learner. The behaviorist theory of learning assumes that free will is an illusionary aspect and that all human behavior is modeled through the environment either using reinforcement or association (Gordon, 2009). This school of thought began gaining popularity in the 20th century mainly influenced by John Watson and Ivan Pavlov (Good & Schubert, 2001). According to the behaviorist theory, the most efficient way to understand psychological and mental functioning of an individual is by studying their behavior patterns (Good & Schubert, 2001).  Within the behaviorist model of learning, the instructor is the primary player in the classroom who controls the process and decides what behavior is acceptable or not. The learner (student) does not have an intuitive ability to reflect during the learning process. Rather, they are simply directed to what is right or wrong. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Cognitive Theory

The cognitive theory assumes that learning is a process arising from biological maturation and environmental experience (Clapton & Cree, 2004). The theory argues that the manner in which the learner thinks affects their behavior and therefore underscores the importance of thinking. Cognitive development is the process of increasing the intellectual capability of an individual (Clapton & Cree, 2004). Learning in this regard is about the ability of the learner to acquire new knowledge and process it. The acquisition of knowledge involves internal codification mechanisms in the mind of the student. Both the environmental and the mode of instruction are vital to the cognitive development of the learner. Learning through cognition is aimed at coding, rehearsing, storing, and retrieving information (Clapton & Cree, 2004). The information defines the learner’s beliefs, thoughts, values, and attitudes. Memory plays a significant role in the learning process since information is stored in an organized format in the mind. Teachers should, therefore, use techniques like analogies to help the students in memory. In cognitive learning, knowledge transfer occurs when the learner understands how to apply the knowledge within a different context. Therefore, while the knowledge stored in the mind is important, the ability to implement that knowledge is equally important as part of the learning process. Jean Piaget opined that intellectual growth of an individual occurs through the processes of assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration (Good & Schubert, 2001). Assimilation involves using existing knowledge to deal with a new situation while accommodation includes changing the existing knowledge to deal with an emerging situation. Equilibration occurs when the learner can comfortably deal with new knowledge.

Social Learning Theory

Albert Bandura’s social learning theory states that people learn from each other by either imitating, modelling, or observing behavior. The theory involves the use of memory, attention, and motivation and therefore acts as the connection between behaviorist and cognitive theories (Wrenn & Wrenn, 2009). The social theory of learning posits that humans learn by observing the behavior and attitudes of others. By looking at other people, an individual gains a perception of how new behavior is done and that information serves as a guide to future action. In order to realize modeling, there should be special attention to detail (Wrenn & Wrenn, 2009). Therefore, the learner must be distinctive and pay attention in the observation process. The learner should also have an ability to retain information so as to remember through mental images, motor rehearsal, and cognitive organization. The learner should then be able to reproduce the behavior by keenly organizing the response to the memory. More importantly, social learning through modeling is facilitated by a sound motivation to imitate the learner. The concept of reciprocal determinism is critical to social learning, and it argues that the environment is influenced by human behavior in the same manner that the environment influences human behavior (Wrenn & Wrenn, 2009). Consequently, the environment, human behavior, and personal attributes all affect each other reciprocally. In a classroom environment, social learning can be achieved through guided participation. The teacher can also act as the role model and motivate the learners to conduct themselves in a similar way. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Scenario

As an observing supervisor watching an instructor carrying out a class exercise, it is possible to tell the mode of learning occurring in the class environment. In the case of behavioral learning, I would look at how the students respond to the instructions of the teacher since the teacher should play the dominant part while the students remain passive. In a behavioral learning environment, the supervisor would simply be directing the students on what is supposed to be done and expecting them to learn from that. In this case, the students would be limited to the direction of the teacher. In the cognitive theory, I would look at the thinking of the learners through the questions they ask and their body language with respect to the learning process. Additionally, I would seek to understand how the students answer the questions posed by the teacher in order to gauge their ability to apply the knowledge gained. In the case of social learning, I would look at the behavior of the students with respect to how they practice what the teacher tells them. I would also look at how they conduct the class discussions since social learning theory relies on interaction. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In conclusion, it is seen that the learning process in humans is a component of a different mechanism. The theories of learning all attempt to provide an insight into how people gain knowledge, store its, retrieve it, and apply it to solve issues encountered in life. The theories work in tandem since no single theory can adequately explain all the realms of the human learning process. Additionally, in a typical learning environment such as a school, learning occurs through various ways which complement each other. The role of the environment in the learning process cannot be overemphasized.

 

References

Clapton, G. & Cree, V. (2004). Learning for effective and ethical practice: Integration of learning for practice. Edinburgh, Scotland: Scottish Institute for Excellence in Social Work Education.

Good, D. M., & Schubert, C. R. (2001). Faculty practice: How it enhances teaching. Journal of Nursing Education, 40(9), 389-396.

Gordon, M. (2009). Toward a pragmatic discourse of constructivism: Reflections on lessons from practice. Educational Studies, 45(1), 39-58.

Wrenn, J. & Wrenn, B. (2009). Enhancing learning by integrating theory and practice. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21(2), 258-265.

 

Essay Writing Service Sample: Urban Ministry

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Christianity tends towards three aspects in the human life. It aims at nourishing one’s Spirit, Spreading the Gospel and Performing Godly services to the people (Gooding & Lennox 69). In order to make the congregation experience a sense of belonging which everyone requires, all these should be involved. Everyone should feel like a part of the church through certain experiences or missions. As a pastor, I would ensure my congregation is well prepared spiritually. Thus, I would make them involved in the following three activities, as explored below.

Bible study. This aims at taking care of one’s soul. In order to give, one must have plenty in the inside. Bible study is a great way to grow one’s Spirituality. Reading the Bible alone can be one of the most difficult things to do in Christianity if at all one is not yet ingrained in the religion. My aim would be encouraging the new believers to read the Bible. I would buy necessary materials for this purpose. For example, small books with short verses, hymn books and also Sunday school books. I would establish tents close to the church and invite everyone. This would take five days. On the first day, children would be separated from the rest of the group. I would assign a teacher for them so as to ensure that they are not left behind. On the second day, I would divide the adults into small manageable groups .The tents would be movable so that each group can settle at a place of their liking. On the third day, I would separate the youths from the rest of the Church. The youths love dancing and music; therefore, I would encourage them to show up for Bible study by creating a platform for music and dance. On the fourth day, I will have the clergy separated from the church. We will discuss about the church and also pray for it. During this Bible study sessions, I will provide food and soft drinks. There will also be continuous breaks so as to avoid boredom. During the breaks exciting games will be played and people will know each other as a form of socializing. Every other evening, we will all meet and pray for the church and the coming missions. We will also have a reading and finally break. On the fifth day, which will be the last day, we will all meet, worship together and look into what we have learnt. With that, the whole congregation will have grown spiritually in fun-filled way.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Video watching. Everyone loves a good movie especially in the urban areas. These areas consist of mainly the youth. They visit night clubs, which sadly is not biblical. On the sixth day, I would invite the church to a crusade in the evening where a large part of the time is focused on the movie and music. The choice of the movie would be “Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ.” I would encourage the church to show up in large numbers so that we can stand out, I would have ushers standing strategically to invite any willing person to the event. After the movie, when some people have given their lives to Christ, there will be a worship session to thank the Lord. With that aspect number two of Christianity will have been taken of.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Visiting the Orphans. On the seventh day, which would be on a Sunday, I would talk with the church members and agree on what to do so as we can give back to the community. This might range from, cleaning the compound to visiting the Orphans; I would put more emphasize on visiting the orphans. We would schedule the date and time for the visit which would probably be on the Saturday of the following week. I would give the Church members sometime to seek out what to give to the orphans. If the journey from the church would be short, I would encourage the available people to walk with the clergy and I to the place, so as we not only provide material aid but also emotional support. With the above, I would have accommodated the main aspects of Christianity.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Works Cited

Gooding, David & Lennox, John. The Definition of Christianity. Myrtlefield Encounters,

Essay Writing Sample: How to Teach Math to Toddlers

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Introduction

The heavy emphasis placed upon math within the primary and secondary school systems is ever increasing. In this, it is important for toddlers to understand and grasp early math concepts, such as number recognition or counting, early so that they can keep up in primary school. Within a child’s toddler years, they may begin learning these basic concepts both at home, as well as in preschool, so it’s important that both preschool teachers and parents understand how to relay these concepts clearly and concisely. Young children best grasp onto new concepts through encouragement, as well as with hands-on games, projects, and activities, to help them better engage with and explore the concepts themselves.

Learning Through Encouragement

The emotions of young children are heavily dependant upon what they feel from those around them. To encourage better learning environments for children, it is necessary to create a calm, cheerful, and encouraging learning environment within homes and classrooms. This is explored by Sandra Peterson, a 40-year veteran in childhood education, in her article “School readiness for infants and toddlers? Really? Yes, Really!” (Peterson, 2012). Within her article, Peterson discusses how children are born with innate senses of curiosity, and how adults should attempt to encourage this curiosity, rather than contain it. Peterson suggests using encouraging words and phrases, rather than just saying “no”, to redirect children’s curiosity instead of halting it. These concepts are further explored by Ginsburg, Lee, and Boyd, who suggest creating learning environments with lots to safely explore, such as toys, furniture, and hand-held objects that children can handle themselves easily (Ginsburg, Lee, & Boyd, 2008). Further, they discuss the usefulness of talking actions through with toddlers, to help them remember facts and pay attention to details (Ginsburg, Lee, & Boyd, 2008). These topics are important for teaching core math skills to toddlers, as they suggest simple and day-to-day ways to encourage learning, without forcing the concepts upon them.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Learning Through Activities

Children typically learn best through engagement and hands-on activities. These settings do not feel strictly like learning, so they are easier to get children to engross themselves in. The Canadian Child Care Federation’s factsheet on “Ages & Stages of Numeracy Development” states that when children are toddlers, they are able to tell the difference between amounts of objects, can learn to recite numbers, can do basic calculations on objects, and can begin to recognize what numbers look like (Canadian Child Care Federation, 2009). This means that children can begin to play games and activities to better grasp these numbers. Several games and activities are listed out by the Norwood Education District for learning numbers such as through matching and comparing, ordering, sequencing, sorting, measuring, and free play (Norwood Education, 2004). This “number sense” is explored by Sharon Griffin, and outlines how children move through stages of learning, and which games are best at each (Griffin, 2004). These methods help to encourage hands-on learning with children, preventing them from becoming bored or frustrated.

Teaching Through Prediction

If teachers and parents of young children can predict what areas of math they might find confusing, or what areas may not be understood, then they can better develop curriculums to focus on these areas. This is discussed by Levenson and Tabach from Tel Aviv University in their article “Developing preschool teachers’ knowledge of students’ number conceptions” (Levenson & Tabach, 2014). To do this, it is useful to create activities to both teach, as well as assess children’s understanding of simple concepts. In this way, teachers and parents can ensure that core concepts in a child’s education are not missed. For instance, if a child learns to count from 1 to 10 by rote memory, they may be unable to start counting from a different number, because they no longer understand the sequence (Levenson & Tabach, 2014). This would indicate extra counting activities might be needed for the child so they can better understand the meaning behind the numbers. These simple facts and activities are essential to keep in mind while teaching young children, as they can help aid understanding and prevent gaps from filling as the children grow and move into primary school.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here

Conclusion

Through creating encouraging learning environments, having fun with learning activities, and understanding how children learn and where they might get stuck, we can better teach core math concepts at earlier ages. This can help children in their entry to primary school, and give them a good foundation for math throughout their lives.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

References

Canadian Child Care Federation. (2009). Ages & Stages of Numeracy Development. Retrieved from Canadian Child Care Federation

Ginsburg, H. P., Lee, J. S., & Boyd, J. S. (2008). Mathematics Education for Young Children: What It Is and How to Promote It. Social Policy Report. Volume 22, Number 1. Retrieved from ERIC:

Griffin, S. (2004, January 12). Building number sense with Number Worlds: a mathematics program for young children.

Levenson, E., & Tabach, M. (2014, February). Developing preschool teachers knowledge of students’ number conceptions. Retrieved from Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education:

Norwood Education. (2004). Children’s Development of Mathematical Concepts: Ages 0-4.

Peterson, S. (2012, September). School Readiness for Infants and Toddlers? Really? Yes,Really!

 

Essay Writing Service Sample: Application Of Demand And Supply By Health Economists

 

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Application of the supply and demand theory by health economists

Law of demand states that all factors being held constant, as the price of a good or service increases, the demand for the good or service will decrease that is the higher the price, the lower the demand and vice versa (Bowling, 2014). This law of demand will affect the market for health insurance in the way that if the insurance increases its rate, then few people will go for the insurance policy but if the insurance coverage reduces its rates, then many people will embrace the insurance policies.

Lowering the price at which clients can access medical cover will see to it that many citizens will be able to adopt the policy as it becomes affordable to all. The primary focus of the of the ObamaCare is to make health care affordable and accessible to all, and this significantly affects the law of demand.  The need for the service that is the demand for health care service will increase since the price will be low and the service will be affordable and accessible to all citizens of all walks of life thus meeting the goal of the Affordable Care Act (Bowling, 2014).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The law will also affect the average of health insurance in such a way that for the insurance policy to be favorable to all people that are affordable, it has to be small enough so that all people can access and afford it (Falconi & Roe, 2013).This will bring about a change in the average pricing of the health insurance cover because it has to be lowered so that the Affordable Care Act goals can be met by making health insurance affordable and accessible to all.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Pricing of any commodity or service is determined by the demand of the good or service.  That is thus the aim of the Affordable Care Act is to increase the demand for the service then the price of the service has to be lowered as the law of demand states thus affecting the average price of the health insurance by the law of demand.

The law of supply states that all other factors being held constant, as the price of a good or service increases; the quantity of the good or service that the suppliers offer will increase.  This means that the higher the price the vendors tend to maximize the profits by increasing the amount of the good or the service they provide and vice versa (Falconi & Roe, 2013). This law would affect the supply of the health insurance in such a way that since the Affordable Care Act aims at making the health insurance policy favorable. It will reduce the price of the service which in return will lower the supply as the suppliers will not tend to offer their products or services as there is no profit maximization since the prices are not favorable by the law of supply.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

It can be noted that prices favorable will run many suppliers to venture into the industry with the aim of offering the service since the returns will be high and they will be making profits. On the other hand,  when the prices are unfavorable fewer suppliers will be willing to venture into the business as the returns they gain law and improper to them and in accordance with the law of supply (Falconi & Roe, 2013). The Affordable Care Act has its goals set at affordability and accessibility of the health insurance and thus the demanding law favors it as price will reduce then many citizens will afford it becoming affordable and accessible but the law of supply is unfavorable as the suppliers will be less.

References

Bowling, A. (2014). Research methods in health: Investigating health and health services.

Falconi, C., & Roe, T. L. (2013). Economics of food safety: Risk, information, and the demand and supply of health. Minneapolis: Economic Development Center, Dept. of Economics, University of Minnesota.

Write My Essay Sample: Democracy in Presidential and Parliamentary Government

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Democracy is subject to approved elucidation, and a number of nations utilize both Presidential and Parliamentary structures to support this cause. Hence, a nation’s capacity to move towards majority rule government based on the Presidential or Parliamentary form of government has to some degree do with the mental condition of the people in power, not the frameworks being referred to. Let us take the case of Guatemala and Belize, which are both South American coastal nations sharing the same topographical locale. These two nations are also similar in land mass and similar objectives of democracy. Despite the fact that they have been having boundary dispute with Guatemala asserting Belize to be its own, they are governed contrastingly by the law based system. Which framework has moved their individual nations towards democratization or against it is a practical question. However, what I propose is that there are no critical contrasts in the adequacy between the Presidential type of government and the Parliamentary, as both frameworks are extensively the same in establishment and strategy.

The land in which Guatemala and Belize are set up upon had previous ancient governments with civic establishments based upon the Mayans, the Incans, and the Aztec people groups. In spite of the fact that they worked well for the most part, autocracy styles of government, at different points in history leaned towards the business-based voting system. On the off chance that the holders of government office have thankfulness for the past civilities that were supplanted with the current Presidential and Parliamentary frameworks and held a direct level of sensibility for the root philosophy of Democracy, and if that ideology is offered and practiced outside of national borders as well as inside, then they have the fundamental application to at least operate their Democratic foundation.

Governments in simple terms refer to the rule of law. The government basically comprises of individuals that exercise the rule of law over a nation, city state or any political unit.  It is, as it relates to this subject matter a specific arrangement of dealing with a nation, state, city and any political unit. . Governments also set up rules and regulations to be followed by its citizens and at the same time what is expected of the citizens including their rights and freedoms. All this are contained in a special document called the constitution. It should also be noted that governments are formed due to various reasons. The United States government, for instance, was built up for six particular purposes, according to the constitution.  These rationales include unity, justice, residential peacefulness, defense, promotion of the general welfare of the citizens and securing freedom for all. It is clear that individuals would be more averse to regard contracts and concurrences with each other because of the absence of an objective way to settle disputes. Economics is at the very center of Presidential and Parliamentary Democracies as it was during the pre-established Central America, and general government as per the definition just noted.

Democracy, as far as anyone knows, is established on man’s intrinsic limit with respect to self-government, or in the Christian moral or Teutonic lawful custom, as it is further examined in Rustow’s “Transitions to Democracy” (Rustow et al. 1970). This rule originated in Athenian Greek and through time developed into an auxiliary political framework that extended all through the western countries. Christian Hernán Cortés from Spain, who conquered Mesoamerica in 1521, exposed the gospel to different Indian rulers, asking them to supplant their golden calves with a Christian holy place, cross, and pictures of the Virgin Mary, before proceeding to crush what he translated as icons. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Some of the people with long histories of rebellion against foreign rule are the Yaqui Indians of Sonora (in Mexico). They are known to have been occupying banks of River Yaqui during the pre-Hispanic periods. They savagely opposed occupation by the Spaniards, and stayed outside pioneer control until willfully submitting to the power of liberal Jesuit ministers earlier in the 17th century. For a long time, the Yaquis lived calmly in model towns set up by the Jesuits and administered by their own local powers. With the expanding infringement of Spanish, Creole, and Mestizo excavators and farmers into their domain, in any case, in1740, the Yaquis joined with the neighboring Mayo Indians in rough and grisly uprising against the Spaniards. The result of this was that they drew Indian administration into a hostile place based on the religious standards. They mercilessly aggressed and oppressed their subjects (Carmack, 2016). With the diplomacy of religious principles, they were able to draw Indian leadership into extinction. Today’s heroic and champion views of those conquerors are relative. What was a declared a natural right by them, the benefit of the land, unfortunately was at the expense of the natural inhabitants of their claim. By their very faith that they were to be a government of themselves, they aggressively and mercilessly applied their power against the majority rule. It is true that even Cortés himself was an outlaw of Spain since Cuban Governor Velázquez actually forbade him to lead his expedition into Mexico. Throughout these historic events, the more developed and powerful governments or commanders that dared to successfully operate independently, made its actions appear justifiable through their application of central government principles.

The following 350 years saw a rule, a limitless realm in light of the work and misuse of the Indian population Conquistadors descended on America keeping in mind the desire of conveying Catholicism to new terrains while amassing incredible wealth. Religion and self-interest joined to make a strong blend that drew a huge number of Spaniards over the sea bearing in mind the end goal of discovering wealth and winning souls for God.  Religion blended with legislative matters  to make a hybrid framework in what might turn into the American Southwest: Dominican, Franciscan and Jesuit teachers were regularly left accountable for huge zones in what is presently Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and, later, California. With its objective of conveying the Catholic religion to the New World, Spain was likewise ready to utilize the current church governments for its own political deployments. Today, religion and governmental issues keep on mixing in Latin America (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008).

Each individual is affected and has the privilege of self-governing. All through recent history, many people have surpassed these rights and figured out how to mark those essential human standards for denying others of these rights. Benefitting from seizing and occupying the land that is known for others is the adequate confidence of the individuals who abuse the confidence, rights, customs, and arrangement of representing others. One method for investigating the genuine goals of past outreaching powered campaigns that would vanquish local resistance is to take after the tax collection strategies of the vanquishers. It has often appeared that profit has always been the genuine mission over practicing characteristic rights and proliferating religion, to the point of military compel. In real sencedemocracy, has worn many appearances, painted many hues, and has been given many names, for the most part to legitimize triumph and material pick up. American sociologists and political researchers recommend that with the end goal for there to be a steady vote based system there must firstly be “certain economic and social background conditions, such as high per capita income”, before coming up with central standards of social understanding, for instance, literacy. Just like other people would claim in simple terms, “the ends justify the means” (Rise & Fall of Democratic Society). The need for accord stands out to be the basis of democracy by a logline of authors, not really as regular faith in specific basics, yet procedural accord on the standards of the amusement called “the Agreement to Differ.” obviously, no majority rule nation can reasonably send their military upon another unless that nation has a definitive assent of their citizenry. The larger part of sentiments control in a general public where the people groups’ privilege and ability to vary is complimented. In this manner in advanced majority rule governments, consistent promulgation and success of the republic to the detriment of opponent sovereign states, alongside the guarantee of budgetary strength for administration men and ladies, are the standard. The bottom line is that, Democracy is a “framework” made and worked as framework seems to be. It is a plan, a strategy, a system, an operation, a game plan for the reason sorting out accessible assets for at any rate those in control of its administration. Its prosperity or disappointment to a great extent relies on upon the nature of the administrators of it, and the voters who choose them (Rise & Fall of Democratic Society).

Many attempts to apply a single world-wide perspective to democracy have been there but have had their limitations in terms of either, a strategy, a system, an operation, a game plan for the reason sorting out accessible assets for at any rate those in control of its control. Its prosperity or disappointment to a great extent relies on upon the nature of the administrators of it, and the voters who choose them.

The category of statistics was no doubt economics. For instance, during the 1950s stable democracy states experienced a higher per capita salaries and education acquisistion rates as compared to those states with unstable democratic rule. Unstable and stable dictatorships also missed these benefits enjoyed by stable the stable democracies (Waterbury et el. 1994).  Significantly, on each one of those events monetary and social conditions turn into the free, and vote based system the needy, variable. Generally speaking, our top sociologists seem to miss or overlook one root factor throughout process of analyzing democratic relationships and causes, its imperatives and preconditions, its causalities and probabilities, and its connected winding speculations and the idea of a limit.  They more likely than not ignored one of the most basic traits of all men with their designs, which is, the characteristic of desire. Highly needed and averagely needed longings, particular longings, and especially, the yearning for power. To add on the excluded the confirmation of justly planned governments which worked from either a sound or unreasonable yearning for power? It is the purpose behind the ascent and fall of any state or any empire. Neither a Presidential nor Parliamentary government can support an establishment of ineffectively connected majority rules system. The odds of a thriving society are therefore better when the said center standards of popular government are maintained. That is whether we underestimate that the equitable framework was realized for the genuine province of the land and its neighbors. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

What condition was the world in before there were set up governments as we probably am aware them? Let us have the two countries that form our subject, Guatemala and Belize. The two countries are of the region called “Mesoamerica”. Before Spanish investigation and the campaign of Christopher Columbus, these two nations and the neighboring grounds seem to have had set up human advancements and societies that flourished with unprecedented improvements in progress and culture, as it peruses in the Encyclopedia Britannica, positioning with the early civic establishments of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China. Through historical records and artifacts we find that the farmlands and towns were in actuality monetarily independent and politically self-sufficient, with a populist social request. Archeological signs do derive that a class-organized and politically concentrated society created there and in neighboring locales. At that point as the social modernity extended and the magnificent figures of what are ventured to be delineations of the individuals who ruled were raised, the straightforwardness of the social and political requests started to change. A class-organized and politically brought together society created and progressed similarly as taking part in household contending groups from that point, around 1200 BCE, through 1521 when the land was vanquished by Hernán Cortés and the Spaniar(Reynods,1970). Among these Pre-columbian civilizations spoken of here are the well-known Maya, Zapotec, Totonac, and Teotihuacán civilizations of what is now known as Mexico. Today, Mexico,  however once independently formed into an incorporated type of self-government taking after that of an unspecified Presidential Democracy, is as of now a built up Presidency, but then moderately immature in the realm of Democracy. Before being colonized by an extremely self-serving foreign government with superior military might, the people of native Belize and El Salvador resided in their own particular type of an unspecified Democracy many allude to just as “tribalism.” But, in the event that Democracy is (tribalism closeness) on a fundamental level, then (Mesoamerica as of now had popular government and a routine of religious standards as sovereign nations). the names of Presidency and Parliamentary are only that; marks used to constitute and control the privileges of the natives in the nations that utilization them, now and again over the privileges of different nations and their citizenry.

Many answers can be obtained on theconditions that make Democracy possible and thrive, according to an article written by Dankwart A. Rustow titled “Transitions to Democracy”. These “many answers” are indicative of the substantial amount of variables and contingencies involving the functionality between the two systems, Presidential and Parliamentary. The irregularities of Presidential and Parliamentary governments all through history make figuring out if one has been more effective than the other misty. A similar irregularity is found in some completely figured Democracies also. In 1787, Alexander Tyler, a Scottishhistory professor at the University of Edinburgh illustrated in his book  “The Decline and Fall of the Athenian Republic”:

Democratic governmrnts are  always temporary in nature; they simply cannot exist as a changeless type of government.  Democracy in most cases only exists for that while when before realizes that can vote themselves liberal blessings from the general population treasury. From that minute on, the dominant part dependably vote in favor of the hopefuls who guarantee the most advantages from the general population treasury, with the outcome that each popular government will at long last fall because of free monetary approach, which is constantly trailed by an autocracy. The normal age of the world’s most noteworthy developments from the earliest starting point of history, has been around for many years.  Tyler in his statement, not only does he proclaimthat is not as strong of a stage that many accept but  he additionally refers to a hidden motivation behind why vote based systems at last go into decay, which we will investigate later in this written work. Suffice it to state, vote based system is constrained in its duration to compose the occupants of a nation. This framework may in reality rise again somehow, shape, or mold, yet notwithstanding as indicated by early prominent authors, it surely conveys a characteristic of unsteadiness, and the Presidential or Parliamentary structures are not to blame. They are unstable for the most part because of causes individuals rarely consider. . For a government set up to administer balance in power, Tyler attributes an average lifespan of only 200 years to it before it turns in on itself due to the imbalance of those who govern it. He further states that as soon as the people discover that the national treasury can be manipulated with the vote, most of the general population will dependably vote in favor of the candidates who guarantee the most advantages from the general treasury, with the outcome that each democratic government will at last crumple over free financial strategy. The shift of power, the tug-of-war, the snatch and grab attitude of those in power happens broadly unbeknownst to the agents of this high-situated challenge, the taxpaying subjects who think they are voting themselves the advantage of the duty treasury. At the Center for Global Development‘s Views from the Center blog, Ethan Kapstein gives his explored evaluation about the shaky courses of majority rule government. He says holds that Democracies do not fail for the reasons commonly assumed. They don’t for the most part flop, for instance, on account of poor financial execution. Popular governments also do not turn around while experiencing the procedure of monetary change. He concludes by highlighting that majority rule governments are not any more liable to be supported by embracing parliamentary rather than presidential establishment. Kapstein further goes ahead to hand-off his discoveries regarding why majority rules systems come up short.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

There are several reasons that could lead to the downfall of a democracy. In our review we were able to distinguish a few normal variables. To begin with, youthful democracy systems are regularly debilitated by extraordinary levels of pay disparity. Rising salary disparity demonstrates a useless vote based state in which financial power is moved in the hands of the few, instead of one in which monetary open doors are broadly shared and diffused. Second, these governments cannot oblige the official branch of force, whether presidential or parliamentary, hence end up thinking that it is hard to support participatory types of government.

Social researchers acknowledge that, through the acquisition of facts and proof through verified research, that Presidential and Parliamentary forms of governments are merely a change of clothes for a democratic governing body. This article points out what it meant to govern with this system of democracy in its premature state.

“To further increase royal control, Charles organized audencias, or judicial courts of appeal throughout the New World. Royally appointed judges dispensed justice throughout the New World, making sure that the rights of the king were upheld, and—most importantly—that taxes were collected.” (Shmoop.com)

Modern day governments also act as mass Certified Public Accountants for the citizens of their land. American government for example has gone from a sufficient tariff policy before 1913, to then ratifying the policy of Income Tax and a multiple set of other federal dues along the way, to currently being the owner of near 30 trillion dollars in debt, all the while borrowing money from its very citizens by way of programs such as Social Security and Medicare. U.S. federal practices are not unusual in the global scheme of things, and it is safe to say that it, and government bodies of many other countries, is deeply entrenched in institutionalizing the economies of commonwealth (Przeworski, 2000).The land where Guatemala is today was effectively conquered and colonized by Spanish explorer Pedro de Alvarado. It was at the center of Mayan Mesoamerica.

Despite much misconception, the aftereffect of Spain’s underlying purposeful publicity constraint which demanded that the locals of the land were savage, ruthless, and did not have the knowledge to represent their own particular society, the indigenous individuals then were exceptionally best in class in all angles human progress. I the eyes of the  the natives were unworthy of the territory they had inhabited for centuries.  However, Live Science Contributor Owen Jarus, holds that; this development ‘achieved scholarly and creative statures which no other in the New World, and few in Europe, could coordinate at the time. Large populations, a prospering economy, and across the board exchange were however ordinary. These are clear indications of a high human progress that needed to have been scoured by the excessively entitled Spanish Europeans. John S. Henderson, in his book, ‘The World of Ancient Maya’, he discusses how in the Mayan culture there were great researchers, and how they grew extremely modern arithmetic. He discusses a mind boggling and exact timetable framework and how their general public was one of only a handful couple of complex social orders to rise in and to adjust effectively to a tropical woods environment. Their architecture, sculpture, and painting were sophisticated and compellingly beautiful. These are more strong signs of a genuine respectfulness on a stupendous level. A portion of the momentous structures worked by them and other encompassing occupants around then are still viewed as “Wonders of the World”. The people of Mayan engaged in fighting among themselves as some strategy for convention was framed and tested among them evidently, yet it was nothing to with stand the overwhelming hand of constrain and aspiration they would come confront in the 1500s. The Conquistadors saw to it to criticize the way of life and confidence practices of the Mayan world keeping in mind the end goal to approve themselves leaders of their property. during this particular time Spanish Inquisition considered religion to be a method for gaining influence, riches and property. As the Pope of Spain belittled and removed the Spanish Muslims and carried on their war against them up into the 1400s, Christian Spaniards had a perspective of non-Christians as “detestable”. They considered religious practices other than their own particular to be “devil worship”.   The arrival of  Christopher Columbus on the island of Hispaniola in 1492, resulted into declaration by Queen Isabella of Spain, who was the financier of his voyage, that that the locals were her subjects and equivalent to all her different subjects.  They were to be treated humanely and not to be enslaved, , but rather Christianized and Europeanized. Columbus opposed the part of the declaration which requested that the purported Indians were not to be abused and continued to brutalized and oppress them. As the locals revolted and were stifled by Columbus’ men, the individuals who survived were compelled to function as detainees of war. A portion of the monstrosities submitted by Christopher Columbus incorporated the act of a framework called Tribute where the guys of the indigenous populace were required to assemble and turn in a specific measure of gold like clockwork. On the off chance that any of the men fizzled he was liable to a capital punishment. This enslavement was carried on for the following a quarter century Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, which were all established societies that exercised their right to self-governing. Those natives who survived the virtual genocide of the region were made slaves. The Encomienda system was devised and and implemented for the resistance that the wayfarers met. The pioneers that made land allows under this framework were ensured the responsibility for locals who occupied the land. These people could be compelled to work without incompliance to the declaration, as the interest for Christian believers was being met through neighborhood evangelists. Clerics and Conquistadors worked as one in the success of the freshly discovered mainland, frequently with the Priests going about as Conquistadors by themselves. With the exception of two sympathizing missionaries by the names of Bartolome de Las Casas, who was appointed “Protector of the Indians” to soften the tyrannical methods of the Spanish regiments, and Antonio de Montesinos, who made demands on the Spanish government that resulted in the Laws of Burgos in 1512 (Reynods, 1970). These laws, when really did, demanded that the locals were to be free and treated accommodatingly, put into towns under supervision and urged to wed, they were just made to work for the Spaniards 9 months a year, and obviously they were to be immersed and given religious guideline. In general, his endeavors to remedy the ethical infringement of Columbus and his raiders obviously ended up encouraging the move of force from one individual to another over another by government strategies. Efforts.  of Las Casas were unrecognized altogether by the settlers and locals kept on being looted of their territory and brutalized to death. By 1517, the Spaniards had discarded almost all the indigenous individuals. Accordingly, they ended up in a slave work shortfall and started bringing in African slaves. The methods they turned into the new legislature of an old land were totally pulverizing and recorded as legitimate ever. justifiable in history. Majority considered their activities in Central and South American to be their own privilege and made it advantageous with governmental issues and religion. Colonials, similar to their antecedent Columbus, had no hindrances or rebuke about disappointing the supposed Indians. Their heartless reiteration is notable and reported, in any event the Conquistadors who succeeded Christopher Columbus. What is all the time shaded over is the level of inclusion that the Catholic ministers, otherwise called the Jesuit Missionaries, had in the enslavement of the Mesoamerican development. Pablo Piccato, an educator of history at Columbia University had this to state in a June 25, 2013 New York Times article. We see that while some Jesuit missions gave indigenous populaces a level of insurance, the primary purpose behind the crown’s choice was the development of the Jesuit request as a state inside the state. While Bartolomé de las Casas, a Dominican cleric and the most persuasive commentator of the Spanish treatment of indigenous populaces in America, assumed a compelling part in the Spanish crown’s appropriation of laws that would secure these populaces, he and the Jesuits did not test Spain’s entitlement to force its pioneer control over those populaces, utilizing war and coercive movement if essential, yet rather promoted it on philosophical grounds. They likewise conceded to the estimation of slave work to supplement indigenous work in mines and estates. Indeed, the Jesuits possessed a significant number of African slaves. The attitudes of the Jesuits towards their victimized human interests were that they were philanthropy cases. They held preference inclinations against the indigenous and they showed a barbarous aura. They conferred perverted acts against the powerless individuals they asserted to be the guardians of Numerous Jesuit religious communities in the new world from the earliest starting point had been utilizing African and local slave work to run and make benefit off their extensive land possessions inside the new world. To legitimize this offense they took after the lead of the Catholic Church and government, guaranteeing it true blue in light of the fact that the slaves were accumulated in a “simply war.” The demonstrations of Jesuit devout individuals fluctuated from area to district, however it is anything but difficult to see why religious and political civil argument changed so broadly on the subject of slaves  There was no easy answer on what was right or wrong, but the overall actions of Jesuit members still had a deep impact on the lives of the African and native slaves.” It is safe to say that the democratic governments of Central America, including those which bind the laws of society in the two countries Guatemala and Belize, are rooted in inequality, and the evidence is in their past and present instabilities. The purpose of a system defines its inherit nature. The reason for establishing what we know of“Slavery was thus part of the ruling ideology of American society until the 19th century. The parasitical connection was secured, legitimated, and “changed into an institutional procedure in parasitic inclusion with the financial and social segments of the aggregate social framework.” Slavery was seen as a characteristic part of the social scene. The possibility of verifiable reality and a given social plan had been changed into a constant or “common” arrangement of social, monetary, and social relations. The absolute most viable operators of this change were the Christian places of worship (Beckett, 2013).The Spanish also brought disease in which there was no immunity for the natives to the “New World” that really helped in the catching of the district by debilitating the resistance they were confronted with from the source proprietors. Infection Native religion of revering the sun, as it is deciphered from old remnants and ancient rarities, prompted to their end in the 1500s. Spain did not offer a superior way but rather their own particular manner with the end goal of control. Their path happened to be the love of gold, silver, power, and material pick up. In the long run, when there was the Aztec human progress that had warrior animosity towards neighboring individuals, assuming control domain and following up on quarrels, the entryway was opened for an unrivaled forceful development that was more noteworthy in military quality to force their armed force and will on the land. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

With everything that has been expressed in this about what exposition, it is marginal silly to even, regardless of the possibility that we precluded the undeniable poor examination rate of its unique foundation. Regardless of the possibility that we forgot the dampening actuality that majority rule government is flawed at present, devastation and force shown similarities Presidential and Parliament even in their Dictatorships. It merits specifying that fascisms and rulers are comparative in nature and capacity, as the overcoming gathering were speaking to Queen Isabella the Catholic Monarch of that time.

References

Reynods, P. (1970). The Jesuits and Slavery in Colonial Brazil. Retrieved December 02, 2016,

Shmoop Editorial Team. (2008). Spanish Colonization Summary & Analysis.

Tait, E. A., Coffman, E., Olsen, T., Maust, J., III, J. D., Galli, M., & Tucker, R. A. (n.d.). The Christian Conquerors.

The Maya: History, Culture & Religion. (n.d.). Retrieved December 02, 2016,

Rustow, D. A. (1970). Transitions to democracy: Toward a dynamic model. Comparative politics, 2(3), 337-363.

Carmack, R. M., Gasco, J. L., & Gossen, G. H. (Eds.). (2016). The legacy of Mesoamerica: history and culture of a Native American civilization. Routledge.

Waterbury, J. (1994). Democracy without democrats? The potential for political liberalization in the Middle East. Democracy without democrats, 23-47.

Przeworski, A. (2000). Democracy and development: political institutions and well-being in the world, 1950-1990 (Vol. 3). Cambridge University Press.

Beckett, E. F. (2013). Listening to Our History Inculturation and Jesuit Slaveholding. Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits, 28(5).

Eddlem, T. R. (n.d.). Before the Income Tax.

Mayan Religion. (2016). Retrieved December 02, 2016,

Rise & Fall of Democratic Society. (n.d.).

 

Write My Essay Sample: SWOT Analysis for Disney Company

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Disney Analysis: Strengths

Disney Company is the leading global media enterprise and entertainment company in the United States. It is divided into various segments dealing with specific functions. Disney Company has a well-initiated strategy that propels it over other competitors. The following analysis will examine the strengths that have positively influenced the operations of the company

First, the Disney Company has numerous internal factors that positively influence its operations.

To begin with, the Company has a reputable brand that enjoys global recognition (Abubakar & Bello, 2013). This status promotes efficiency and reliability on its management operations (David & David, 2016). It is internationally known that the Disney parks are the best in the provision of entertainment settings.

Secondly, its popularity is boosted by the existence of many entertainment companies under its umbrella.

It also has many assets such as amusement parks, several channels, and stores in different parts of the world. This huge inventory enables the company to make several acquisitions whenever the management considers such ventures as potential for company growth.

Thirdly, another strength enjoyed by this company is its goodwill (David & David, 2016).

This refers to an intangible asset that generates revenue towards the company in different parts of the world. Its diversity of services also contributes towards its strong position in the world. Other than entertainment, it also provides clothes, toys, and plates among many others.

The strengths of Disney company rely on its strong products like television network Fourthly, ESPN is the leading cable network in the world.

It has approximately 300 million subscribers across the globe. These products portfolio gives the company a competitive advantage over other competitors in the same industry. The brands of Disney Company have been known in the United States and other parts of the world for more than 90 years (Abubakar & Bello, 2013). This has made it popular among people in the U.S[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Fifthly, Disney Company has remained strong and competitive in the market due to its strong policies against piracy.

The company has formulated strong policies to minimize and, if possible, eliminate piracy (Abubakar & Bello, 2013). There is little evidence pointing to piracy incidences regarding the company’s products and brands. Privacy cases result in recurring lawsuits that are quite costly to any firm. Therefore, it is a positive step that the company has taken to ensure that no incidents of piracy are reported on its products.

Additionally, enforcing laws and regulations touching on intellectual property rights have been a success in some countries, thus elevating costs for the Disney Company and enhancing profitability.

Unauthorized use of intellectual property not only has posed a challenge to many companies but the media industry at large. Intellectual property right holders suffer in the long run. Advancements in technology permitting faster transmission of copyrighted material, therefore the laws help the company to maximize its revenues. Technological advancements take place on the Internet as it serves as a platform where such exchanges occur. It thus becomes difficult for consumers to buy DVDs if they could easily watch their desired content online. To counter this problem, the company has ensured that intellectual property rights are necessary to its success (Gershon, 2013).

The seventh strength entails the company’s marketing strategy.

The Disney Company has ensured that it implements an effective marketing strategy that will enable it to control the North American markets. It depends on, to a large extent, the North American market that provides almost 70 of her revenue (David & David, 2016). In comparison to other media entertainment providers, their share of income from other countries balances with the proportion from the U.S markets. If there were to change in the North American market that disfavor economic gains, the Disney Company would be adversely affected. With this marketing plan, therefore, the company has been able to overcome unhealthy competition from competitors.

Next, to respond to the digital transformation, Disney Company has integrated digital advancement into their marketing strategies in dealing with business challenges.

The company has improved its customers’ experience through the use of digital transformation strategy (Abubakar & Bello, 2013). It is a significant boost to any company because it has enabled Disney Company to overrun its agile competitors.

The ninth strength entails the company’s organizational structure.

Initiating and implementing a digital transformation approach in a company is a complex task that needs resources. Many companies try to start the process but fail to integrate it through all departments because of poor planning and lack of enough resources (David & David, 2016). Therefore, Disney Company has incorporated all the hierarchical structures within the company ensuring that the company’s objectives are achieved. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The company’s eleventh strength lies in its diversification.

Through diversified businesses and localization of products, the Disney Company’s operations are not affected by both internal and external environmental changes. It has different segments that operate independently in the market (David & David, 2016). The localization of products enables the company to make products that match the demands and preferences of the local people. For instance, some movies are adapted for Asian market to attract more customers.

The company is financially strong. Apart from generating a huge and steady cash flow, Lastly, Disney Company has one of the strongest balance sheets in the corporate world.

As of 2nd April, 2016, it had an approximated $ 5 billion liquid cash and its debt ratio stood at only 30% of its operating capital. In short, the company’s financials are rated at A++ according to the latest Value Line Investment Survey (Dalavagas, 2016). These factors have enabled it to consistently acquire more assets and other smaller companies further enriching its financial base. This has also enabled it to pay an attractive dividend to its stakeholders. Further, this factor has enabled the company to expand globally, especially in Asia, over the years. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

References

Abubakar, N., & Bello, G. B. (2013). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis on globacom Ltd. Int. J. Inf. Technol. Bus. Manag, 16(1), 83-91.

Dalavagas, S. (2016, July 11). Disney: A Short SWOT Analysis. Value Line.

David, F., & David, F. R. (2016). Strategic Management: A Competitive Advantage Approach, Concepts and Cases. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Publishers

Gershon, R. A. (2013). Media, telecommunications, and business strategy. London: Routledge.

 

Essay Writing Service Sample: Analysis On Religion

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Abstract/Introduction

An Analysis of F. Schleiermacher & S. Kierkegaard on Religion

            Religion is a heated topic in society today. Debates about religious freedom, political correctness as it relates to religion, and the role of religion in morality are common topics in the media and in the literature. A difference in opinion about the linkages between religion and morality was present in the 20th century and continues today. Schleiermacher argues that religion is separate from morality, that it is an experience that can be conceived of by everyone, even in the absence of the concept of God (Gunton, 1997). In contrast, Kierkegaard argues that ethics, or morality, is intimately tied to religion and that one cannot truly exist without the other (Kierkegaard, Hong, & Hong, 1987).

Schleiermacher argues that religion is an immediate or original experience of self-consciousness in the form of a feeling and that consequently it can be conceived of without the concept of God (Cross, 1911). This description of religion is very different from what is it is generally understood to be. In most cases, religion is associated with institutions in which religion is practiced. For example, religion will be associated with a catholic or protestant Church, or with the individuals who practice this religion. Furthermore, religion is often thought to be a set of behaviours or beliefs. In this sense, religious people are people who ‘go to Church’ or ‘believe in Jesus Christ’ and consequently attempt to follow the moral code laid out by the Bible. Schleiermacher rejects these common notions of religion as dogmas and not as religion. Schleiermacher’s goal is to argue that religion is something much more primal, or to use his own words “immediate” (Cross, 1911). In Schleiermacher’s eyes, religion cannot come from the act of knowledge or from the process of ‘knowing.’ For Schleiermacher, the separation of religion from knowledge, from God even is essential because if he cannot argue in favour of this distinction, then the source of religion would come from human activities and therefore would be subject to the uncertainties of scientific investigation (Cross, 1911). If religion were subject to scientific investigation, then Schleiermacher could not argue that it is something that all humans experience, and this is essential to his work. Schleiermacher wants to argue that religion is an experience, and therefore something that cannot be acquired, possessed, and does not consist of action. This distinction is also important for Schleiermacher because it allows him to distinguish religion from morality. However, Schleiermacher still argues that moral conduct is designated by religion, but still separate from it (Cross, 1911). Schleiermacher argument for religion as an experience goes like this. First, he explains that consciousness has a double element; consciousness consists of self-consciousness or the ego and of determination of self-consciousness or our experience. Schleiermacher next point is that the only way for humans to become conscious of themselves is through our experiences. So, it follows that consciousness or self-consciousness is dependent upon experience of the world through our senses, Schleiermacher calls this a receptive state of being. Therefore, humans seek a common source of being and experience in an Other, this other is taken to be religion (Cross, 1911). Next, Schleiermacher argues that our experience of the world is one of absolute freedom and absolute dependence. Humans realize that they are completely dependent on the world around them for survival, pleasure, and all things in life. In this sense, our self-consciousness is dependent on our realization of our dependence on the world. Schleiermacher argues that this sense or experience of complete dependence on the world is religion (Cross, 1911). If religion is taken as such, it cannot then be derived from any other experience or exercise. That is, religion is a subjective experience and not an objective idea. Religion is the feeling produced with the realization into our consciousness that we are intimately connected to things larger than ourselves; for example, the feeling of being connected to nature, to mankind, to the world are all powerful sensations which Schleiermacher calls religion. Therefore, Schleiermacher argues that religion is identical with self-consciousness (Cross, 1911). In this way, dogmas or principles of ‘religion’ laid down by the Bible, God, or the Church are not part of religion, but derived from it. Schleiermacher interprets the concept of God as separate from religion. He argues that it is possible to conceive of religion without God (Cross, 1911). If religion is a feeling of connection with the world, then this argument holds true as many of us have felt this connection to the world that Schleiermacher is describing.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Schleiermacher’s work on morality was an attempt to solve issues that he saw in moral systems presented by other philosophers of his time. Schleiermacher thought that the other moral systems presented lacked a necessary basis for the regulation of thought or action in regards to moral action (Gunton, 1997). So, Schleiermacher created a moral system to try and solve these issues. Schleiermacher defined ethics as the theory of the description of human reason or the scientific dealing of the consequences produced by human logic in the world of nature and man (Gunton, 1997). Furthermore, Schleiermacher’s moral system argued that every moral decision or effect must consist of all four of the following characteristics (Gunton, 1997). The individual and universal, which functions as the rights of individual and community as well as organ and symbol of the reason which is the product of individual with relation to community and represents rules and nature. Schleiermacher approached morality systematically and religion as an experience. Overall, he presents an organized framework for understanding these concepts with a neutral or positive tone, Soren Kierkegaard takes different approach.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Soren Kierkegaard argues that religion and ethics are intimately connected and that divine commands from God transcends ethics. Furthermore, he argues that God does not create human morality, but that it is up to individuals to create their own moral codes and values (Kierkegaard, Hong, & Hong, 1987). However, a divine command from God will take preference over all moral and social responsibilities. To prove his point, Kierkegaard uses the biblical example of Abraham sacrificing his son to God. Kierkegaard argues that this act was ethical because Abraham was following a divine command from God, even though the act of sacrifice meant his son had to die and this would normally be considered wrong per moral codes and social obligations (Kierkegaard, Hong, & Hong, 1987). Kierkegaard sense of ethics and religion comes from his interpretation of life experience, broken down into three stages. The first stage is aesthetic; it is childlike in nature. The individual who is in this stage will live life in many ways, but all with the same underlying characteristics. This characteristic is that it is in a sense driven by pleasure. One who is living a life in the aesthetic stage might pursue intellectual enjoyment, sensuous desire, or an unreflective lifestyle as some examples. Kierkegaard argues that this sort of life style will inevitably lead to despair as at some point in the individual’s life they will look back and see that their life held no true meaning (Kierkegaard, Hong, & Hong, 1987). The next stage in life is the ethical stage. In this stage the individual will begin to take on true direction in their life. They will become aware of their personal responsibility for good and evil. Therefore, actions begin to have consistency and coherence that is lacked in the aesthetic stage. This leads to the individual assessing actions with absolute responsibility. With this responsibility and recognition of good and evil will come repentance to God. Kierkegaard argues that an individual cannot be ethically serious without also being religious (Kierkegaard, Hong, & Hong, 1987). Religion is the third stage of life per Kierkegaard. The religious phase involves a commitment and relationship to the Christian God. This stage represents the highest stage of human existence and begins with the individual awareness of sinfulness that begins in stage two (Kierkegaard, Hong, & Hong, 1987). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Though Kierkegaard and Schleiermacher present contrasting views on the connections between morality and religion, both present valid and thought provoking arguments. Schleiermacher argues that religion is an experience of feeling connected to something larger than ourselves (Cross, 1911). He relates it to our experiences of connection with nature and the rest of mankind. Since this feeling of connection to the world around us is something that everyone can conceive of, religion is possible to understand without a notion of God per Schleiermacher. Schleiermacher’s argument on religion as an experience is hard to refute, and yet it seems in harsh competition with common interpretations of religion. In contemporary society, most individuals would relate most to Kierkegaard’s interpretation of life stages (Kierkegaard, Hong, & Hong, 1987). Often, as humans go through life we move from a state in which our actions are largely dictated by our desires to a state in which we can contemplate the consequences of our actions. However, Kierkegaard’s linkage between morality and religion can be dangerous in a world where atheism is on the rise. Many people find it difficult to be moral without religion. In the modern world, it may not be a question of whether morality and religion are linked, but the real challenge will be developing a moral system that people from different religious and cultural backgrounds can related to, so that we may all function together in society.

References

Cross, G. (1911). The Theology of Schleiermacher. New York: The University of Chicago.

Gunton, C. E. (1997). The Cambridge companion to Christian doctrine. Cambridge University Press.

Kierkegaard, S., Hong, H. V., & Hong, E. H. (1987). Either/Or Part II. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

 

Essay Writing Sample: Group Dynamics

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Systems, Exchange and Balance Theories of Group Dynamics

Humans are social beings who seek to interact with each other in a bid to fulfill their various needs. A significant portion of human interactions occurs in a group setting. These groups may be formal such as groups at the workplace or informal such as peer groups. The processes and activities that occur between members of a group are referred to as group dynamics. Group dynamics are influenced by feelings, internal thoughts, communication, and the context within which members interact (Nazzaro & Strazzabosco, 2009). Group dynamics assist group members in understanding each other and making meaning from their interactions.

Overview of the Balance, Exchange, and Group Formation Theories of Group Dynamics

Several theories have been put forward to explain group dynamics. Theodore Newcomb’s Balance theory, Homan’s theory of group formation, and Emerson’s exchange theory are the major theories of group dynamics.

Newcomb’s balance theory states that people are attracted to each other based on similarity of attitudes towards common objects and goals. This similarity of goals influences the individuals to initiate a relationship after which they strive to maintain a balance between the attraction they have for one another and the common goals or attitudes (Forsyth, 2009). In case an imbalance occurs, the concerned parties strive to restore it, and in case their attempts are futile, the relationship is dissolved. A good example of Newcomb’s theory would be spouses that like each other but have different tastes for watching football. When one of them is watching football where the other spouse is not a fan, the relationship is in a state of imbalance. The partner who does not love watching football is forced to start enjoying football, or the relationship ends due to the imbalance.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Emerson’s exchange theory argues that interactions between two or more people are a form of social exchange that has rewards and costs (Shore, Tetrick, Lynch, & Barksdale, 2006). Rewards take various forms and lead to the gratification of needs. Costs, on the other hand, take the form of anxiety, embarrassment, and frustration. Group members in an organization may, for example, organize themselves into groups due to various social and economic reasons (Shore et al., 2006). Members join groups where they feel that they will get benefits. According to this theory, based on needs and rewards, there are different types of groups that include primary groups, coalitions, and reference groups (Shore et al., 2006).

Hoffman’s theory of group formation explains the forces behind the formation of groups. It is based on three elements: activities, interactions, and sentiments. Hoffman perceives these three aspects to be directly related to each other (Forsyth, 2009). Activities refer to tasks such as job responsibilities that are assigned to people. Sentiments are the feelings of people towards other people or work, and they are associated with approvals or disapprovals (Forsyth, 2009).

A good scenario that depicts Hoffman’s theory is a group of students queuing in a bank to deposit their school fees. These students cannot be considered to be a group because they are not bound to one another in each way. In case a student comes from somewhere and tries to break the line, resistance is expected from the other students who are behind the point at which the new student is breaking the queue. Disapproval will arise from the members behind, and they will gang up and join hands to eject the new student from the queue. When removing the new member based on majority disapproval, group behavior is seen.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Comparison of the Three Theoretical Approaches

Theodore Newcomb and the Balance Theory

The three theorists outlined above took on a very different approach towards group formation and the processes that sustain groups. Newcomb took on additive perspective into group dynamics in which he introduced (added) the factor of balance into interaction and propinquity. Newcomb argues that for a group to be successfully formed, there has to be balanced in their interactions (Forsyth, 2009). In case a state of imbalance occurs, the group members often strive to restore it with the attraction they have as the impetus. Without this balance, the group has no survival chances because members often dissolve it.

Newcomb’s approach to group dynamics is logical and practical in the real world. In most relationships, there is some form of attraction between the members that stands between them and the prevailing attitude (Grant & Dutton, 2012). To sustain this appeal, parties to the relationship often strive to strike a balance on the common goal.

Emerson and the Social Exchange Theory

Emerson takes on a different approach that has an economic dimension and does not focus on the attraction between parties or common goals (Moss, n.d.). Emerson argues that individuals enter into relationships with their eyes on the costs and reward outcomes of their interactions (Zafirovski, 2001). In this view, people are more likely to get into groups that are rewarding than those without rewards. Specifically, individuals will choose teams that have rewards that are most crucial to them. These are the groups that gratify their most pressing needs (Zafirovski, 2001).

Hoffman and the Group Formation Theory

Hoffman, on the other hand, focuses on the reason behind the formation of most groups. He postulates that interactions between people are aimed at achieving many different objectives which include solving problems, reducing tension, and achieving life balance (Luthans, 2002). Interactions thus occur due to the feelings or sentiments of people.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In conclusion, group dynamics are the forces acting within a group to influence group activity or behavior. Conventional theories that explain group dynamics are the exchange theory, balance theory, and the group formation theory. The balance theory focuses on the balancing act between attraction and goals in groups. The exchange theory concentrates on the economic perspective of group interactions such as rewards and costs associated with interactions. The group formation theory, on the other hand, focuses on the ideal reasons behind the formation of groups.

 

References

Forsyth, D. R. (2009). Group dynamics (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Grant, A. M., & Dutton, J. E. (2012). Beneficiary or benefactor: Are people more prosocial when they reflect on receiving or giving? Psychological Science, 23(9), 1033-1039.

Luthans, F. (2002). Organizational behavior. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Moss, S. (n.d.). Social exchange theory.

Nazzaro, A., & Strazzabosco, J. (2009). Group dynamics and team building (2nd ed.). Montreal, QC: World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH).

Shore, L. M., Tetrick, L. E., Lynch, P., & Barksdale, K. (2006). Social and economic exchange: Construct development and validation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(4), 837-867.

Zafirovski, M. (2001). The economic approach to human behavior under scrutiny: An overview of arguments for the autonomy of social action. Social Science Information, 40(2), 195-240.

Write My Essay Sample: Marketing Assignment I

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Introduction

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. henceforth, Walmart, is a US-based multinational retail corporation operating a chain of stores with a diverse product-line. Wal-Mart Stores Inc (2016) notes that the company was founded in 1962 by Sam Walton, and was later incorporated in 1969. It has its headquarters in Bentonville, Arkansas and has a robust market presence in Mexico, the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, India, China, Brazil, Argentina, and Canada. As of mid-2016, Walmart recorded 11, 570 stores and outlets in 28 countries across the world. By the current standards, Walmart is the world’s leading multinational corporation by revenue (Wal-Mart Stores Inc., 2016). Besides, the company is the leading global private employer with 2.5 million working under its management. It has a massive chain store dealing in entirely all the products in daily use. Walmart product-line are categorized as follows; electronics and office equipment, pharmacy, health and beauty, book, movie and music. Other product lines include sports, fitness and outdoor, toys and video games, home, furniture and patio, home improvements, food stuffs and toiletries, auto and tires, as well as photos and gifts gallery (The New York Times, 2016). This paper identifies apparel as the product-line that might increase Wal Mart’s growth potential if the company were to change its marketing strategy.

Why Walmart Must Focus on and Invest in food stuffs and toiletries to increase its Growth Potential

Being a chain store, Walmart deals in nearly every product that the consumer needs on a daily basis. Research holds that the company that deal in chain stores such as Walmart thrives adequately when they focus their sales on consumables such as food stuffs and toiletries. Walmart’s department of food stuffs and toiletries is diverse and incorporates a broad spectrum of merchandise from different manufacturers. According to Whalley (2010), food stuffs and toiletries are consumables required by customers almost on a daily basis, thus shifting greater focus and investing in this product-line would drastically scale up Walmart growth potentials. Even though there is a massive competition within the chosen product line, Walmart has to craft its projections within the department to entrench its roots in the market for greater consumer appeal. Using the available openings in the market, Walmart may consider undertaking a market research to ensure that it brings to the market some of the most spot-on products, which have irresistible appeal. With enhanced market appeal on food stuffs and toiletries, the company would effortless penetrate new markets while retaining new ones and in so doing, Wal Mart’s growth scale would be magnified (Sherlekar & Sherlekar, 2010). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

 

SWOT Analysis of Walmart’s Food Stuffs and Toiletries

The company’s SWOT analysis offers projections into the external and internal forces pertinent to Walmart’s strategy progression in the larger retail industry. Whilst these factors fluctuate over time, the company’s growth hinges on its ability to take advantage of its strengths. Besides, regardless of Walmart’s weaknesses in the retail industry, Nassauer (2015), argues that its strengths are enormous. Additionally, the company may use its strengths to maximize on the opportunities available to it in the retail industry (Hundekar, Appannaiah, Reddy, & Ramanath, 2010). Walmart may also use its market strengths to neutralize the threats it faces in the retail commerce. These market pointers are important elements in ensuring that the company’s food stuffs and toiletries department continues to expand its growth potentials.

(a) Strengths (Internal Forces)

Nassauer (2015) deliberated on Walmart’s commercial operations and noted that the company’s strengths are all linked to the dimensions of its business. Despite the prevailing weaknesses, these strengths enable Walmart to resist the threats it faces. The company’s strengths in the food stuffs and toiletries department are:

    1. Robust global supply chain
    2. Global organizational appeal and size
    3. High supply chain efficiency

The company’s global organizational appeal and size gives it a larger market share to fund its growth potentials preferentially (Panmore Institute, 2016). The massive global supply chain offers Walmart with the resilience to evade the numerous market risks in the retail industry. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

(b) Weaknesses (Internal Forces)

The company’s weaknesses sanction challenges on Wal Mart’s ability to resist the threats it faces in the market. According to Nassauer (2015), these market flaws are directly linked to Walmart’s generic strategy in the food stuffs and toiletries department. The department uses the cost leadership broad strategy, which has often led to these weaknesses:

    1. Easily imitated corporate model
    2. Thin profit margins in the food stuffs and toiletries department

Thin profit margins usually come about due to the food stuffs and toiletries department’s inclination to cost leadership strategy at Walmart (Panmore Institute, 2016). Because the company minimizes selling prices, Walmart must equally minimize its profit margins in the food stuffs and toiletries department and rely greatly on sales volume.

(c) Opportunities (External Forces)

The company’s opportunities in the food stuffs and toiletries department are mainly about improving business practices and global expansion. According to Nassauer (2015), these opportunities are connected to the prevailing global economic situation in the retail industry. Besides, the human resources capacity in the food stuffs and toiletries department presents greater opportunities for Wal Mart’s growth. Walmart’s has the following opportunities:

    1. Expansion in new markets
    2. Development in human resource involvements
    3. Improvement in quality standardization

The company’s capacity to expand in new markets is based on the food stuffs and toiletries department’s high-growth economic potentials. Conversely, its prospects on human resource practices are directly related to its employment practices’ criticism (Panmore Institute, 2016). Walmart’s capacity to addresses consumers’ concerns would be on providing low-cost products with greater health benefits.

(d) Threats (External Forces)

Wal-Mart’s food stuffs and toiletries department faces the threats which are generally connected to the larger retail industry. The threats prevailing in the department should compel the Wal-Mart Corporation to make drastic competitive strategic changes to enhance its growth scales. The threats Walmart faces are:

    1. Healthy lifestyle trends
    2. Aggressive market competition

As for Walmart’s food stuffs and toiletries department, the healthy lifestyle trend poses both an opportunity and a threat. On one hand, these pointers threaten the company’s business because the consumers perceive most of the department’s products are not being too healthful or natural. On the other hand, these pointers offer opportunity for the company to progress its quality standards and shine in the market (Panmore Institute, 2016). Notably, aggressive competition is stubborn threat to Walmart because other big retailers in the market could use more infinite marketing strategies to capture some of the company’s market niches.

Walmart’s SWOT analysis demonstrates that the firm can front a higher long-term growth potential through aggressive expansion of its food stuffs and toiletries department, especially in new markets.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Conclusion

To navigate the prevailing critical economic storms in the retail industry, Walmart must focus more on investing on consumables, which have higher and rapid market returns to drastically scale up its growth potentials. Wal-Mart’s approach to these projections must aim at addressing the concerns raised in the SWOT analysis to capture the aspirations of the consumers and deal its competitors a blow in the retail industry. Despite, the challenges raised by the SWOT analysis, Walmart stands a better chance of realizing its market projections by investing on food stuffs and toiletries department.

 

References

Hundekar, S. G., Appannaiah, H. R., Reddy, P. N., & Ramanath, H. R. (2010). Principles of marketing. Mumbai, India: Himalaya Publishing House.

Nassauer, S. (2015). Wal-Mart surprises market with dim outlook. The Wall Street Journal.

Panmore Institute. (2016). Walmart SWOT analysis & recommendations. Retrieved from Sherlekar, S. A., & Sherlekar, V. S. (2010). Global marketing management. Mumbai, India: Himalaya Publishing House.

The New York Times. (2016). Wal-Mart Stores Inc.

Wal-Mart Stores Inc. (2016). The Wall Street Journal.

Whalley, A. (2010). Strategic marketing.