Essay Writing Sample: Joint Commission’s National Patient Safety Goals

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The Joint Commission is a group that establishes best practices and standards for medical outcomes as they pertain to patient safety. One of the areas which The Joint Commission works to develop standards for is the in-patient setting. Among the different concerns that are being monitored by this organization are working to identify patients in a more effective manner, using medicines safely, and preventing infections in the in-patient setting.

The first concern that is being addressed by The Joint Commission for patient safety in the in-patient setting is defined as “Identify Patients Correctly” (Hospital National Patient, 2017). According to the outcomes that are established for this problem, one of the evidence-based practices that can be implemented is using a minimum of two different forms of identification each patient in the hospital setting (Hospital National Patient, 2017). This will prevent patients from being able to obtain the proper treatment and medication, which will ultimately cut down on malpractice. In addition, another evidence-based practice that is suggested by the Joint Commission is making sure that the correct patient gets the correct blood during a transfusion (Hospital National Patient, 2017). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The second major concern that is presently addressed by The Joint Commission with regards to patient safety is using medications more safely than before. The initial suggestion that was made with regards to evidence-based practices is to ensure that medications are labelled before a medical procedure is undertaken. All medications that are in cups, basins, or syringes should be properly labelled before the procedure begins (Hospital National Patient, 2017). This will ultimately ensure that patients are not exposed to medications that can cause them harm during a procedure or that medications are given based upon the memory of the medical professional. Another one of the evidence-based practices that are advocated with regards to

these outcomes is taking greater care to identify patients who are taking blood thinners so that the interactions with new medications are not as severe (Grissinger, Gaunt, & Rich, 2016). These outcomes for medication safety are important and could reduce the chances of patient exposure to medications that are otherwise harmful.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The final form of patient safety guidelines that are espoused by The Joint Commission for increased in-patient safety falls into the category of preventing infections. Infections in the hospital setting are very serious and account for many deaths that could have been potentially prevented. As such, there are many evidence-based practices in place to improve this situation. For example, the first outcome is defined as using the improved hand cleaning guidelines that were established by the Center for Disease Control (CDC). According to Patel et al (2016) the “wash, lather, scrub for twenty seconds, rinse, and dry” method of washing one’s hands can greatly reduce the spread of diseases within the inpatient setting (p. 273). Taking the time to wash one’s hands correctly can save medical professionals the time of treating patients who are exposed to new infections while also potentially saving the lives of immunocompromised patients.

There are many areas of patient care that have been examined by The Joint Commission including patient identification, medication safety, and the prevention of infections being spread in the inpatient setting. The Joint Commission has been effective at identifying relatively easy ways to improve safety and to establish new evidence-based practices to serve as guidelines for medical practitioners who need to improve their performance. Only by continuing to make strides in identifying such practices can patient safety be guaranteed in all medical settings. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Grissinger, M., Gaunt, M. J., & Rich, D. S. (2016). Avoiding Medication Errors: Reducing Harm             in Residents Using Oral Anticoagulants. The Consultant Pharmacist31(6), 294-303.

Hospital National Patient Safety Goals. (2017).

Patel, A., Kanwar, M., Rana, P., Thakur, S., & Jha, S. (2016). Effectiveness of Timing for Hand Washing With Soap and Water in Reducing the Germs among Nursing Students in   Selected Hospital at Jagdalpur, Bastar CG 2015. International Journal of Advances in  Nursing Management4(3), 273-276.


Write My Essay Sample: Ethical Theories

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Jill Jones can be said to be between a rock and a hard place as she is in a situation where she will have to make a decision that may not quite be pleasing to her. She is asked by William Potter, the firm’s head to objectively analyze the bosses’ son, Henry, for the CEO position since he cannot be objective about it for the conflict of interest. Jill in making the decision has to at one hand consider Henry’s good work with the Miami branch, but on the other, she still is concerned about her future with him as the boss because he once unsuccessfully propositioned her and made her life miserable.

William Potter’s request for her to analyze the son shows that he genuinely trusts her decision-making skills and it is even an honor for him to ask this of her. Jill has spent and dedicated most of her years in this company, and she fears that her reputation and years of dedication and commitment to earn the position she is in will be at stake if Henry becomes the company’s CEO. She is therefore faced with the dilemma on what to do.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The ethical dilemma for this scenario is for Jill Jones to decide on whether to make a genuine positive review on Henry or just put her interests first and give him a bad review. If she decides to be professional about the review she will end up working with a bad boss who could make the rest of her working years miserable. If she puts her interests first, she might end up putting the whole organization at jeopardy since clearly Henry is the best suit for the position. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Ethical Theories

I would have to look at the consequences of my each of the decisions before deciding on what to do. This is according to consequentialism theory which states that the wrongness and rightness of an action should be based on the important terms of the action. It also states that no rule is intrinsically right or wrong. According to the theory, morality is a matter of the immoral good produced which is as a result of moral norms and actions (Moreland, 2009). Morality is a means to an end of some other thing. Utilitarianism is by far the most common form of consequentialism that implies that someone should aim to have their actions have a positive impact and the greatest good for the greatest number (Vayrynen, 2016). If I abide by this theory, then I would put my interests aside and look at the bigger picture which is the organization. I would put the interests of the organization first and disregard my interests because that would be the professional way to handle the situation. The consequences of me giving a negative review could have greater repercussions on a bigger number of people compared to giving a positive review for Henry to take up the position.

The decision of putting other people’s interests first is also supported by the Deontological theory which suggests that any act that is performed should be characterized by universality meaning that it should be appropriate for everyone. It should also go hand in hand with the moral laws which are the formal rules that judge an act’s rightness or wrongness. It states that life choices should be made according to obligations and responsibility (Foot, 2013). In this case, it would be my responsibility to do an objective review regardless of my feelings and fears because it is a request from my boss who has put his trust that I will do a good job. Just like the previous employment reviews I have made that have helped me earn the good reputation I have so should I apply the same level of objectivity in this particular review.

According to the virtue theory, a person should be judged according to his or her character and not actions. When observing an unethical position, the theory considers a person’s purpose and reputation of acting in a certain way (Hamilton, 2015). This theory is practical in making the decision of objectively reviewing Henry because from his reputation from the Miami branch shows that he has good leadership skills and can be able to take up the whole organization.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


I consider reviewing him for the position to be the best decision because with that the organization will grow and Henry can apply the skills he used with the Miami branch of the whole company. This will also appease my boss because he had considered his son for the position. I would put my interests aside and think about what is best for everyone.


Foot, P. (2013). Theories of ethics. London: Oxford U.P.

Hamilton, V. (2015, April 17). Types of Ethical Theories | Our Everyday Life.

Moreland, J. P. (2009, April 17). Ethics Theories: Utilitarianism Vs. Deontological Ethics – Christian Research Institute.

VA?YRYNEN, P. E. K. K. A. (January 01, 2016). Ethical Theories and Moral Guidance. Utilitas, 18, 3, 291-309.


Essay Writing Sample: Health Informatics

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The advent of technology in the 21st century has seen an increase in the employ of the phenomenon in the healthcare setting. An increased number of healthcare institutions are aligning their operations to the principles set forth by health informatics. Health informatics predicates that healthcare institutions should store medical data on various databases. This serves to ease the access of medical record during treatment to streamline treatment initiatives.

Consequently, to reinforce the ease of access to medical records, many healthcare organizations are creating mobile platforms that give patients easy access to personal records. However, to successfully upgrade to the mobile initiative, healthcare institutions should engage several principles. Firstly, it is necessary that the healthcare settings determine departments within the operational framework that will be tasked with the management of the mobile database framework to enhance its efficiency (HealthIT, 2016). The creation of a department solely intended to address the mobile platform communicates the significance with which the institutions regard the initiative.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Likewise, hospitals should engage cyber security firms and other spy security programs to curtail the possibility of medical data theft. It is easier to access information on the mobile phone platform rather than in the computer databases. In addition, hackers will increasingly attempt to jeopardize the mobile platform. Therefore it is imperative that the hospitals determine strategies, which will be used to preempt the occurrence of such thefts. Some of the security strategies engaged will include the development of security teams within the organization (HealthIT, 2016). Also, it is vital that hospitals outsource the protection of mobile databases to outside companies so that security is guaranteed. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Lastly, the hospitals should determine the implementation process. The documentation of the implementation process should include the amount to be extended towards the upgrade, the schedule of the upgrade, the training of the hospital personnel and consider the alignment of the prevailing hospital operations to the mobile platforms to ensure continuity. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


HealthIT. (2016). How to Implement EHRs.

Write My Essay Sample: Genetic Disease: Sickle Cell Disease


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Overview: Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects millions of people across the world. For example in the United States, it is estimated that Sickle cell disease is affecting about one hundred thousand people (Bloom, 2014). To begin with, red blood cells have hemoglobin, which is a protein that carries oxygen in the blood. Normally, red blood cell are flexible and round, which makes them able to travel within small blood vessels to deliver oxygen in different parts of the human body (Jones, 2008). However, sickle cell disease causes the body’s red blood cells to form into crescent-shaped such as a sickle, hence the name Sickle cell disease. After creating a crescent-shaped, red blood cell break quickly apart thus leading to anemia. Notably, sickle red blood cells will only live for a maximum of twenty days instead of the typical one hundred and twenty days (Bloom, 2014). Consequently, the damaged red blood cells clump together while sticking to the blood vessels’ walls resulting in the blockage of blood flow. The following paper wishes to briefly discuss Sickle cell disease as one of the common genetically related disease across the world. The paper will highlight the cause, symptoms, and genetics of sickle cell disease. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Causes and Symptoms of Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is caused by the abnormality in the gene for hemoglobin that leads to the production of sickle hemoglobin discussed above (Bloom, 2014). After oxygen has been released from this cell, it sticks together to form long rods that lead to the damage of the red blood cells as well as a change in their shape. Consequently, the crescent-shaped red blood cells cause the symptoms of this disease (Bloom, 2014). Critically to note is that child are born with sickle cell disease, which makes the disease not contagious. Notably, sickle cell disease occurs after children inherit two sickle hemoglobin genes, whereby one comes from each parent (Bloom, 2014). It is estimated that in the United States, about 2,000 babies are born with this disease (Jones, 2008). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

On the other hand, some of the common symptoms of sickle cell disease include severe pain in different parts of the body as well as anemia (Bloom, 2014). A child or an individual with sickle cell disease may also have trouble in breathing and chest pain. Strokes, bone infarctions, and joint pains are also some of the common symptoms of sickle cell disease. In most cases, patients experience blockage of blood flow in both the liver and the spleen as well severe infections.

Affected Populations

Although any child can get sickle cell disease, it is mostly found in those people of African origin, residents of Caribbean Islands, Saudi Arabia, India, South or Central America, and Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Turkey, and Italy (Jones, 2008).

Genetics of Sickle Cell Disease

As described above the mutation of Sickle hemoglobin, is inherited from parents of a person in an autosomal recessive pattern (Bloom, 2014). The autosomal recessive pattern is the transfer of hemoglobin S gene, which alters hemoglobin as well as the red blood cells, from the parents to the baby (Bloom, 2014). However, both parents must be carrying the gene mutation which affects females and males equally, whereby autosomal means that the process of mutation can take place in both X or Y-chromosomes (Jones, 2008). On the other hand, recessive means that this process must be present in both the father and the mother of the child. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


Bloom, M. (2014). Understanding Sickle Cell Disease. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.

Jones, P. (2008). Sickle cell disease. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers.

Essay Writing Service Sample: Governments’ Policy on Gambling


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Gambling is a controversial practice among societies not only Canada but also across the world. In the past few years, government-operated gambling has expanded steadily in Canada and more specifically in Ontario. For example, statistics show the gambling revenue has been reaching over $5.7 billion on annually basis[1]. Notably, although many people in Canada participate in gambling without showing signs of harm, a good percentage of gamblers; about 3.4% have reflected financial injuries as a consequence of depending on gambling for a livelihood. [2]. Critical to note is that gambling is addictive, just like alcohol and the resulting individual and social costs are significant[3]. In this respect, those that are addictive or misuse the value of gambling experience undesirable consequences while others who participate wisely in gambling can make sound use of it. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In the above scenario, governments have one of the biggest roles to play to control the negative social and economic impacts of gambling. One way of monitoring the effects of gambling by governments is by enacting policies[4]. However, the expansion of legalized gambling in the society is one of the issues that pose different challenges for policy makers. In respect to policy making in gambling, the responsibility of the state in addressing pathological and problem gambling, as well as the regulation and legal status of Internet gambling, are some of the key issues that need to raise concern.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]   The following essay will seek to discuss the state’s policy on the issue of gambling. The paper emphasizes that although gambling has played a critical role in economic development, the government need to ensure that its negative impacts on individuals and the society are minimized. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]



Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Gambling Policy Framework, Toronto: CAMH, 2011.


Pavalko, Ronald M., ‘Gambling and Public Policy,’ Public Integrity 6.4, 2004, 333-348.


Poulin, Christiane, ‘Gambling,’ Canadian Medical Association Journal 175 (10), 2006, 12081209.




[1] Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Gambling Policy Framework, Toronto: CAMH, 2011.


[2]  Poulin, Christiane, ‘Gambling,’ Canadian Medical Association Journal 175 (10), 2006, 12081209.

[3] Ibid

[4] Pavalko, Ronald M., ‘Gambling and Public Policy,’ Public Integrity 6.4, 2004, 333-348.

Essay Writing Sample: Emergency Planning

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Question One

As an event manager, one must possess the ability to tackle any changes that take place during the event especially when dealing with a scenario that may be unprecedented. These unprecedented events have the potential to affect the accomplishment of the goals that the event management team has set out within a given period (Singh, 2013). In the given scenario, there are only three days left before the Annual Women’s Day Conference. In planning of any meeting, time is a critical aspect since it determines how resources are to be administered and how all the needs of the people who will attend will be looked into. The event was supposed to accommodate seven thousand people; however, eight thousand people have had their monies accepted and as a result will be in attendance for the event. This was because my assistant did not close the web registration for the event. In such a scenario, the first thing that I would do will be to consider whether making a refund for the extra one thousand people is a plausible thing. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

This is not possible since the amount involved is a sizable amount that indicates the desire by all those who made the bookings. As a result, one must consider the various options available so as to ensure that all people who would be in attendance would fit in the seminar. The first thing I would do would be to convene a meeting with the three key players including Peggy frank, Jennifer Dunn, and Bill Smith. The aim of the meeting would be to notify them that the resources needed for the event would need to be expanded so as to accommodate the extra one thousand guests that are expected. The best thing to do would be to expand the location through offering additional tents that would be set up at the open sources. I would also increase the amount of resources of the people since there is little time to change the location of the event and cancellation of the event at this stage would not be a plausible option.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Question Two

In the management of events, the number of guests that are expected is often unknown. When the number is unknown, it offers the planners with a daunting task of determining the resources to be allocated in terms of seats and other incentives that may be given to the guests. As an event manager, I would set up several plans that would look after the needs of the unknown guest counts. This may be through having excess seats for the unprecedented number of guests. I would also ensure that the parking spaces available also account for an increase in the number of guests. Having more rooms in terms of accommodation would also ensure that the needs of extra guests who were unaccounted for are looked into by the planning team.

For the given event, there are several items that could have been considered or included in the contingency plan. The first would be an alternative meeting place or theater that would accommodate more or less number of participants of the event. In such an event, the number of people may either fall below average or be excess of the number of people that the event managers ad planned in the first place. Having another location or theater that could accommodate more than seven thousand people could be an option that should have been included in the contingency plan of the event. The second thing that ought to have been included is the web registration system. The current predicament that is faced by the event organizers was caused by the assistance failing to close the web registration portal. Before selecting the location of a given event, the team should have ensured that the numbers of people who register for the event do not exceed the capacity of the identified location. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]



Singh, R. K. (2013). Event management. Chandni Chowk, Delhi: Global Media.

Essay Writing Service Sample: Evaluating the Historical Bias

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Evaluating the Historical Bias of One Modern Assessment of Lincoln’s Contemporary Biographers

The assessment of biographies poses many of the same challenges as primary source evaluations.  In addition to considering the objective truth of events described by a biography’s author, consideration must also be given to what kind of agenda is being supported, and whether or not it leads to a distortion of the historical facts. Joshua Zeitz’s article, “The History of How We Came to Revere Abraham Lincoln,” poses these and other important questions in regards to John Hay and John Nicolay’s extensive biography of President Abraham Lincoln.  He claims that these two men are personally responsible for reshaping the narrative surrounding Lincoln’s life in the decades after his untimely death.

According to Zeitz, the men’s “exhaustive, ten-volume biography…constituted one of the most successful exercises in revisionism in American history” (2).  The first step taken by the author toward proving this assertion is to establish that Hay and Nicolay’s biography was by no means the only, or even the first, attempt to capture in an historical document the life of the President and his role during the civil war.  In fact, he claims that many contemporary biographers tackled the subject.  Men such as George Bancroft, Josiah Holland, Jeremiah Black, and Horace Greeley all created through their work images of a very different man than the one described by Hay and Nicolay.  “Bancroft,” he points out, “cast a critical eye on Lincoln’s abilities” (5).  Holland “introduced the president as a Bible-quoting evangelical whose hatred of slavery flowed from an eschatological belief that ‘the day of wrath was at hand’” (5).  Jeremiah Black, with the help of Chauncey Black, portray him as lacking in refinement in comparison to the “highly cultivated gentlemen” (6) who preceded him as president.  And Greeley “portrayed Lincoln as a bungling leader who squandered multiple opportunities to end the war early” (7).  It is clear from the diversity of these biographical portrayals that each author had his own agenda to push forward.  Hay and Nicolay were no exception.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

It is clear that the article’s author believes Hay and Nicolay’s biography to be not only more extensive, but also more historically correct.  Zeitz points out that after Lincoln’s death, “the war was beign recast as a brothers’ squabble over abstract political principles like federalism and states’ rights, rather than as a moral struggle between slavery and freedom” (7).  He notes that the effect of this change in perspective was to propel Hay and Nicolay forward in the creation of their own biography, but does not offer concrete proof that their interpretation of the events surrounding Lincoln’s Presidency and death hold more objective truth than the conceptualization of the war as a “brothers’ squabble.”  Without offering evidence to support his claim, the author makes his own bias toward Hay and Nicolay apparent.  He points out the secretaries’ discernment and skepticism when it came to using “memories recorded years or decades after the fact” (8), lending additional credence to the men’s work, only to later point out that they did not hold fast to this rule themselves in their interpretation of the Civil War and its underlying causes.  The only proof offered in the article that Lincoln was, in fact, driven not by a practical desire to keep the Union whole, but by a moral objection to slavery, is the recollection of an old man decades after the fact.  His aging cousin’s memory of Lincoln, whose “heart bled” when they saw “negroes chained, maltreated, whipped, and scourged” (9) is given great credence despite a lack of less subjective corroboration.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In many cases throughout the article, there is a lack of adequate reference material.  Although in-text citations are provided, it is hard for readers to evaluate their objective truth without being able to follow them up.  Zeitz claims that “As an antebellum politician, Lincoln – though not an abolitionist or a radical – had boldly affirmed that black Americans were fellow men and women” (10).  This statement is only one example of affirmations of Hay and Nicolay’s biographical interpretation made throughout the article without any attempt at offering concrete evidence to back it up.

Like the biographers Zeitz attributes with creating the lasting impression of Lincoln as a hero of the war, and, as Hay put it, “the one unapproachably great figure of a great epoch” (11), the author of the article has chosen a side and shows this bias throughout the piece.  He is not attempting to change an already accepted historical narrative, but to assign responsibility for its creation.  This he does effectively, although he fails to objectively establish whether Hay and Nicolay, or their many contemporaries who argued in opposition to Lincoln’s now almost uncontested greatness, were correct in their interpretation of Lincoln’s actions.  His assertion that their biography has come to shape the modern conception of Lincoln as a President, however, is undeniably valid. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


Sources Cited

Zeitz, Joshua. “The History of How We Came to Revere Abraham Lincoln: The Slain President’s Two Personal Secretaries Battled Mudslingers for a Quarter-Century to Shape His  Image.” Smithsonian Magazine. February, 2014.

Essay Writing Service Sample: Web Final Exam

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QUESTION 1: Describe the concept of absolute units and relative units. Specifically describe the em and ex units.

CSS properties are often used to establish values of length for various elements of a website or app. Some of the most common measurements used in styling with CSS are margins, padding, font-size and various border specifics for box properties. For coding, length measurements consist of a number and a unit distinction. These units will vary depending on whether the designer is using relative or absolute length measurements, but no values can be absent.

Absolute lengths use specific measurements that do not rely on any other defined elements to establish length. Units used for absolute measurement include inches (in), centimeters (cm), points (pt) and pixels (px). There are other absolute measurement units, but absolute length is most useful for print media or devices with lower resolution.

Relative length units are dependent upon a parent property with the stylesheet. This makes relative units ideal for coding websites or other applications that are intended to be view on high-resolution devices with various screen sizes. When using relative measurement units, the most common unit is em. This unit originated as a typographic measurement based on the letter M in the current font being used. For example, when you establish font size in your css document, then the measurement of 1em becomes the new font size for the element. However, if you are nestling elements within elements, it is important to remember that every em specifying font size will by multiplied with the other ems established in the document. For this reason, the value of em can be inconsistent depending on the elements being used in that section of the page. The less commonly used relative measurement is the ex unit. This unit refers the x-height of the current font. This x-height is based on the vertical measurement of the x in the current font. This is true even if the current font does not include the letter x.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

QUESTION 2: Describe the text-align, text-decoration, and line-height properties.

The various design elements available for use in CSS are very similar to basic HTML code elements. However, CSS can be applied and edited without the need to change a large amount of coding in the primary document or application. The text-align element styles the text in the specified section (if applicable) by establishing where it should be placed within the element or page. Just as with a print document, website and application fonts can be aligned in various ways; most commonly left, right and center.

There are several elements that can be controlled by the text-decoration property. Just a with any other element in your stylesheet, this property can be use to establishing overall styling or only just a portion of a page or app. There are values within the text-decoration property that allow underline, overline, line-through and none. As many web browsers automatically underline and color a hyperlink, the text-decoration property and its children (text-decoration-color, text-decoration-line and text-decoration-style) can help the programmer ensure that their project maintains the styling as it was intended rather than picking up default values from the browser or other intermediary code.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The line-height property specifies the line height of an entire document or specified section. This property can be either relative or absolute, depending on the measurement units used in the code. For absolute values, a line-height can be a specific length in pixels, inches or other accepted CSS units. If a page or app is likely to be viewed on devices with varying screen sizes and resolution capabilities, then a relative line-height can be established using percentages or a number value that will be multiplied by the current font size.

QUESTION 3: What is dithering? Why does it occur? How can it be avoided?

Dithering is not as much of an issue in web design as it was when both web browsers and bandwidth didn’t allow for a wide choice of colors. When the web first moved beyond simple text pages, designers had to find a way to improve image quality and color perception. Spatial dithering is a technique that uses two colors mixed evenly together, causing the human eye to see an “average” of those two colors. Temporal dithering is – and was – less common. It worked to improve the perceived quality of images and colors on low-quality displays by using frame rate control. Now that most browsers and devices can handle millions of colors more precisely, dithering is rarely used and is not often a problem. However, there are still low-quality devices that have problems with subtle gradient shifts so designers still need to be keep an eye on their code in regard to dithering. If you are designing for high-definition screens and all you have to work with is a low-definition image, you run the risk of your image looking even worse than it actually is. For image smoothing, dithering can still sometimes be useful to make a lower-quality image appear to be of higher quality on a high-definition screen.

QUESTION 4: Give a brief overview of forms and how they work. Include a description of the Common Gateway Interface and CGI scripts.

            Common Gateway Interface (CGI)  is a protocol used to allow designers to create web forms that interact with a database or other background application. CGI scripts can be written in many web languages, but the sequence by which the script works is generally the same. The designer creates the code for a form. This code can be as simple as a single line or two establishing name-value pairs. Based on the code chosen, a form is created for a user to enter information. Once that information is entered, your CGI script is designed to parse out the values and either use a GET or POST query string. After the CGI script sends the data to where it was intended to be sent, a response is sent back to the user. This is usually done via an HTML page created dynamically on demand.

An example of CGI script used for forms is a small form for a website or blog that allows users to be added to an email list. The user general enters their name and email address, when they press submit, the CGI script communicates with the database application that is managing your mailing list. The name and email are added to the database for later use and the user is sent to a confirmation page or given some other indication as a “reply” from the server that the user’s information was successfully added to the mailing list.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

QUESTION 5: Explain the function of CSS positioning properties.

The position property in CSS allows for establishing alternate rules for specific elements within your page or app. There are four values for the position property: static, relative, fixed and absolute. Within these values, top, bottom, left and right can also be specified, but they will only work if the position property is set first. An element positioned as static simply flows with the regular layout of the page and is not affected by the further positioning values. The relative value allows the coder to set top, right, bottom and/or left values, moving the image away from its default normal position. An element defined with a fixed position will always remain in the exact same place on the viewer’s screen, regardless of scrolling. When the position:absolute value is specified, the element will be position relative to the closest ancestor element. However, if no positioning elements are present on which to determine the value, the element will act as a fixed element, remaining in the same position regardless of scrolling. The CSS positioning properties are often useful when scripted animation effects are desired. There are many properties that can be established within the positioning properties, allowing for coders to account for text overflow, specify margins or determine the type of cursor displayed to the user. Rather than using basic HTML or trying to integrate frames, the CSS position properties allow a coder to establish a hierarchy of design that applies to all of a project or whichever specific piece is desired.

Write My Essay Sample: Shooting an Elephant

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Shooting an Elephant is an autobiographic reflection written by Orwell, the only character in the piece which doubles as the narrator. Orwell was working in Moulmein as a sub-divisional police officer in Burma, which was a British colony at the time. In the Shooting an Elephant, it is evident that the narrator has mixed feelings about his participation in the British Empire. Orwell recognizes that the British Empire is an oppressive and reprehensive institution. On the other hand, Orwell hates the aggrieved burns who abuse him because of his position in the Imperial police force. This essay describes how Orwell’s experience of shooting an elephant gives him insight into the manner in which imperialism deforms the freedoms of the colonists as well as how it afflicts the colonized.

Imperialism in Shooting an Elephant

Orwell serves in the British police force during a time of imperialist rule when great empires dominated subordinate nations such as Burma to take advantage of their resources. The British Empire believed that it was a white man’s burden to civilize savages in these countries. However, writers such as Orwell broke imperialism to the question whether or not European colonizers were in control. Orwell reveals his opposition to imperialism by using parallel between a Burmese elephant and the British Empire to pass a message on imperialism (Sarkar, 2016). Orwell feels that in actuality, the nature of imperialism is horrendous because it destroyed the freedoms of the British Empire as much as they justified their actions to the ‘savages.’

Orwell is best positioned to give this story because as a British officer, he had better knowledge of the truth of imperialism. Imperialism is a vice because it does not educate the locals who the British emperor felt that they were savage. Orwell depicts the native’s hatred by giving an example of a European woman who was spat on by the locals if she attempted to walk through the bazaars on her own. This is an indication that imperialism created hatred of the colonizers because of the inhumane acts they perpetrated on the natives. It would be expected that Orwell would do his job without feeling guilty. However, the inhumane acts such as flogging the locals for no particular reason created an internal conflict between what Orwell did not want to do and what he was forced to do by the British Empire. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

This autobiographic reflection begins with Orwell’s claiming his outlook on British imperialism by stating that he is fully against the oppressors and that imperialism is a vice. Orwell’s perspective on the British rule is rather surprising given that he is a British officer in Burma. Nonetheless, he feels a deep hatred and guilt towards the British Empire and himself (Montgomery, 2013). Orwell does not only write about his experience with the elephant but also how shooting the elephant metaphorically reflects his views on British imperialism. His feelings are hostile towards imperialism and Britain’s excuse for their actions in conquering Burma.

Orwell chose the elephant as a symbol of the British Empire. He draws a connection between an elephant and the British Empire using physical characteristics and its effect on Burma. The colossal nature of the elephant was analogous to the size of the British Empire, which signified its unstoppable power. Both elements share hideousness in the effect it causes on Burma. Orwell describes imperialism as stinky, intolerable, dirty, and evil and creates a parallel with an elephant by describing it as terrorizing and wild.

Orwell sets the mood of the story by illustrating the setting of the story as a ‘cloud stuffy morning at the beginning of the rains.’ The mood sets the Orwell’s tone as upsetting and weak. He depicts himself as a weak character when he writes about the Burma people and how they mock and laugh at him because he is a British police officer. Other metaphor he uses when he writes about himself builds o his character as a weak man. He compares himself to a lead actor in a piece, a performer about to execute a trick, and a puppet that poses as a dummy and wears a mask (Murphy, 2013). Since he held the magic rifle, the locals expect him to shoot the elephant but more so because he is a white man.

At this point, Orwell comes to the realization of the actual position that the white held in the East and how imperialism can hurt both the victims and their oppressors. Orwell explicates how the oppressor destroys his freedoms when he turns tyrant. He further explains the need for the white man to consistently impress the locals and act as they expect of them. His perspective is an indication that the natives have power over the white man. Therefore, Orwell has to complete his role as expected of him and realizes that all through he has been a victim of the Burmese people. Orwell felt that he was subject to the expectations of the Burmese people and he had to use his power to meet these expectations.

Orwell compares himself to an actor in the play with the Burma people behind him as the audience. He uses this metaphor when he aims to shoot the elephant in the head to display double-edged sword factor for imperialism. Orwell feels like a puppet that is controlled by both the British Empire and the Burmese people. He uses this image to demonstrate the weakness and helplessness of his character and feels like he has been forced to wear a mask and play the part of an authoritative white man. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Details in Orwell’s story demonstrate the failure of the British Emperor on the actions he took to conquer Burma. Orwell’s work of shooting the elephant is symbolism for the destruction of imperialism. His action is an indication that he was also indirectly a puppet of the natives because he succumbed to the pressure of the Burmese people and killed the elephant. Orwell’s feelings of guilt and alienation are clearly portrayed by how he immediately departs from the crowd once he kills the elephant (Melia, 2015). His loss of control is equivalent to the loss of real power of the British colony over Burma. More so, shooting the elephant symbolizes the British emperor’s failure in managing his colonies.

Shooting an Elephant in a reflection that proves that destruction of imperialism is inevitable. The British company never truly had full power over Burma. Orwell successfully draws a parallel between the British Empire and the elephant to establish the true nature of imperialism. Just like the elephant, the British colony’s justification the Burmese people ends up in dreadful fatality (Maiti, 2015). By shooting the elephant, Orwell demonstrates the shift in power since he is forced by the supposed conquered Burmese to destroy British Empire, which proofs that the presence of white men in the East is futile. Therefore, imperialism at its best is deceptive and horrendous.

Tone in Shooting an Elephant

Orwell’s tone in the narrative is revealing, informal and friendly. His tone captures the attention of the reader because he builds the trust of the reader by sharing intimate details of his hatred and confliction. More so, his approach to narrating the story reveals a glimpse of his persona that in most narrations the reader does not get to see. For example, his voice when he speaks of conflict is the view of a person under authority trying to do act right in an impossible situation. More particularly, he says, ‘I was stuck between my hatred of the empire I served and my rage against the evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible.’ He speaks of his alienation and that of the locals when he refers to the crowd of Burmese people watching him as an ‘a sea of yellow faces’ (Murphy, 2013). It is easy for the reader to follow and share about his experiences because he is very honest about his challenges; as much as most of the readers have never had to shoot an elephant. However, the readers empathize with Orwell because many have had to act in a manner that feels wrong because then they wanted to avoid dishonor or they were forced to wear a particular ‘mask.’[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


Orwell uses his moral dilemma to communicate to the reader the evils that emanate from imperialism and colonial politics. He successfully blends his personal thoughts, political opinions, and commentary into the narrative, which makes the story easy to read as well as shows the influences of imperialism on the colonized and the oppressors. Orwell explains imperialism by perfectly transforming himself from a position of supposedly high power into a victim of his tragedy of shooting an elephant. He implies that it is a tragedy that human beings would go to all lengths to do some things just to avoid dishonor and humiliation.



Maiti, K. (2015). Designating an Animal Victim: Violent Sparagmos in Orwell’s Shooting an Elephant. Labyrinth: An International Refereed Journal of Postmodern Studies, 6(1).

Melia, P. (2015). Imperial Orwell. Atlantis. Journal of the Spanish Association for Anglo-American Studies, 37(2), 11-25.

Montgomery, K. (2013). Shooting An Elephant: How the British Became the Leading Imperialist in Africa and the World.

Murphy, R. F. (2013). Exterminating the Elephant in” Heart of Darkness.” The Conradian: the Journal of the Joseph Conrad Society (UK), 38(2), 1.

Sarkar, S. (2016). ‘To Avoid Looking a Fool’ or Repressed Ethnocentrism-A Postcolonial View of George Orwell’s Shooting an Elephant. International Journal of Research, 3(01), 850-853.


Write My Essay Sample: Greek and Roman Literature on Women

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Greek and Roman authors and their portrayal of women as evil

The topic of Witchcraft and Sorcery was one of the most common themes written about by Greek and Roman authors in ancient literature. A common feature of such writing was the portrayal of women as having some magic powers, often using them for evil purposes hence the term “witch” which is thought to have been derived from the word Wicca, meaning someone who cast a spell. Coupled with the witch-hunts that were common in many parts of Europe in the Middle Ages, this term began to be used to describe females only and to signify evil (Russell, 23). The works of Homer, Theocritus, Apollonius, Horace, Lucan, and Apuleius while different in many ways have a certain similarity in the portrayal of a single female character as having magical powers and other characteristics considered evil among the people of ancient Greek and Rome. This essay provides a deeper analysis of this portrayal by Greek authors represented by Homer, Theocritus and Apollonius and Roman authors represented by Horace, Lucan, and Apuleius.

Homer’s The Odyssey which was the first piece of literature in which the famous character Circe makes her first appearance, was written in around 700B.C. Circe is a goddess, the daughter of the Sun and lives on the island of Aeaea. One of the incidents worth noting in the Odyssey is Odysseus’ visit to Aeaea, where Circe turns his men into animals. With the help of Hermes, a god, Odysseus gained immunity to Circe’s magic potions and forced Circe to convince him to become her lover. The description of how Circe mixed potions and uses her wand to enhance the effect of her spell portrays her as a woman who uses black magic to get what she wants. Homer, however, deviates from the traditional stereotype of witches being ugly old hags, describing Circe as having golden braided hair, the speech of a human being and special powers. Homer still ascribes to the traditional portrayal of witches using their skills to gain some sexual favors as Circe turns Odysseus’ men into pigs and erases their memory of home to ensure Odysseus stays with her (Homer, 47).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Apart from Circe, Homer’s The Odyssey has some notable female characters, each of them used in a different way to further his portrayal of women as evil. Penelope, the grieving wife of Ulysses, is as complex a character as they come. Homer first paints her as a grieving mother, oblivious to the advances of her suitors. This quickly changes when she is described by Telemachus as an intelligent woman who for three years drove men out of their minds with empty promises. While apparently mourning for her husband, Penelope lead these suitors one with the promise of marriage to one of them immediately she finished showing her wedding veil. Unbeknownst to them, she destroyed her work every night so that she never actually finished sowing. Homer portrays Penelope as a deceitful gold digger who used her seductive charm to become wealthy by her suitors (Homer, 67).

Homer also tells of another charming woman, Clymenestra, who was consistently pursued by suitors in her husband’s absence. Despite her strong character, she falls for one of her suitors and colludes with him to plot the death of her husband Agamemnon once he returned from his noble pursuits.  Again, Homer depicts a woman as being evil, only capable of love when it fulfills her selfish desire, and quick to dismiss the vows of marriage once they do not serve her needs at the time as is implied by Clymenestra finally causing the death of her husband.Clymenestra is also depicted as one having no self-control, and needing the validation of a man which coincides well with the theme of male domination consistent in The Odyssey.

Closely related to Homer’s Circe is Medea, her niece, and the subject of Apollonius’ Jason and the Argonauts. She was quite infamous, as is shown by her appearance in the works of many other writers such as Euripides and Ovid. In Apollonius’ story, Medea is smitten by Aphrodite with love for Jason to complete the plans of Athena and Hera. This backfires, leading Medea to help Jason in getting the Golden Fleece and she returns to Greece as Jason’s wife. In Greece, she is an outsider who does not fit in. When Jason later betrays her for a younger, local woman, Medea vengefully punishes Jason, giving her the sinister reputation she has had for centuries (Homer, 64). Not only did she make a poisonous robe that killed Princess Jason was to marry, she later killed all her children in horrible ways. Apollonius’ portrayal of Medea seems to appeal to readers’ sympathy, in telling of her love for a husband who later betrayed her (Homer, 89). Unlike other authors who describe the evil characters with no hint of humanity, Apollonius lets a reader see into his character’s betrayal, perhaps in an attempt to explain her evil. The magnitude of Medea’s actions, however, have made readers throughout succeeding centuries experience certain difficulty in reconciling their sympathy for her with her destructive actions.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

It is of interest to note that Apollonius himself was said to have been associated with witchcraft. One of Apollonius’ more intriguing spells was the PGM Xia (Ogden, 113). It involved the use of a Typhon’s skull and the chanting of an incantation while spreading herbs and incense to summon one’s demonic assistant. The assistant remained loyal only if she stayed in the form of an old repulsive hag. If she were allowed to transform into a young and attractive maiden, however, she would escape. The evidence of his spells still being practiced 300 years later paints Apollonius as a skilled sorcerer, once again bringing into question why a woman practicing the same kind of magic would have been labeled evil. It seems like the evil was attributed to women, regardless of the existence of men who performed similar actions (Ogden, 133)

Theocritus’ second Idyllic about a woman called Simaetha. On her way to the temple, she sees a young man named Delphis and is completely struck by her intense attraction to him, so much so that she is taken ill for several days. Upon sending for him, Delphis admits that he was planning to come to her of his own accord but later betrays her with another lady. Simaetha then turns to magic to win her lover back(Hunter, 44). Once more, the use of magic is portrayed by Theocritus to be for selfish purposes and evil intent. Simaetha uses aniunx bird in casting her spell, attaching it to a wheel which when spun would imitate the mating call of the iunx, a sound presumed to draw the desired lover to her house. Simaetha is portrayed as anything but the demure, proper Roman women of ancient Rome as she brazenly goes after a man to the point of using a spell to ensnare him (Hunter, 38). Although driven by love, Simaetha’s use of magic spells for her own agenda made her go down I n history as one of the evil women of ancient Greece.

The stories told of the magic performed by the women in Greece through the characters of Circe, Medea and Simaetha tells of an apparent bias in the judgment of a person of the female gender. The women of Greece are portrayed as evil, sex-fiends who were repugnant either in looks or behavior and whose sole aim is to gain the affections of a man. This stereotype is mad much worse by the sexual connotations, which put some doubt on the claims of burning love for the objects of their affection. Men who practiced sorcery, however, were not the subject of much controversy, manifestly evident in the fact that the term “sorcerer,” often used for the male version of a witch does not come with an implication of evil or the stereotype of ugly and repulsive physical features. The fact that the Greek authors analyzed in this essay seem to further this agenda paints a picture of the prejudice against women in those ancient times.

One of the most famous witches of Roman literature is Canidia, in Horace’s poems. Canidia has portrayed as the stereotypical witch; a repulsive and frightening old hag. Canidia and her counterpart Sagan, mentioned in Horace’s poems as well, are dressed in black attire with pale skin and dirty nails and hair. Canadia is described as having locks entwined with vipers. Her rituals portray a certain inhumane quality, especially when she abducts a boy and buries him in the ground, keeping his head just above the surface, so that she can make a powerful erotic spell. The boy was starved and always teased with glimpses of food to make his internal organs stronger with longing, making the spell even more potent (Horace, et.al, 21) Just like the stereotypical witch Canidia uses her magic to satisfy her depraved lust. Horace deliberately portrays Canidia as a depraved practitioner who practices black magic perhaps to discourage the payment for witches’ services in ancient Rome (Flint, 77)

Erictho in Lucan’s Pharsalia is often described as a “living caricature of wickedness” (Johnson, 26). Lucan took a completely different approach in his portrayal of Erictho as a witch who unlike other witches who use their powers to attain wealth, sex or power, commits evil acts just for the sake of it and delights in her actions. Lucan describes her as a woman willing to commit any crime and would not have any hesitation given a chance. Instead of being a symbol of fertility as most Roman women were expected to be in ancient times, Erictho represents destruction and death. Erictho sacrifices babies to the gods. In one particular reference, she tells the gods that she has never had any hesitation in murdering a child to give the gods the entrails. In another grimmer picture, she tears the fetus from the womb of a pregnant woman to give an offering to the gods. Erictho is also given lethal powers by Lucan. She is described as being more poisonous than a snake, with the ability to destroy entire fields of the crop by simply walking over them. Roman women characteristically presented themselves with some level of modesty, but Erictho is brazen and shameless. Lucan also describes her as physically repulsive and bizarrely sexual, with an affinity for defiling the dead. In this way, Lucan has stuck to the traditional portrayal of witches as ugly and disgusting in the worst way possible, choosing only to vary his narrative with her unique senseless cruelty (Lucan, 56). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In The Golden Ass by Apuleius, the practice of witchcraft being exclusive to women who are sexually deprived or desirable seems to be a common theme. Apuleius brings out more clearly the tendency of men throughout history to blame the effects women may have on them on dark magic, acting as an excuse for their immorality and also allowing them to apportion the blame for their actions on someone else. The women described as “not at all bad-looking” and “really in heat” at the start of the Golden Ass already sends a powerful message on the stand Apuleius takes on the matter of women and their power (Apuleius & Sarah, 32). The numerous sexual encounters in his narrative serve to further his agenda. Pamphile is one of the sinfully seductive seductresses in the narrative. The narrator is warned to “watch out for her criminal enticements” because “the moment she sees a handsome young man, she becomes possessive and cannot see or think of any other thing.” Pamphile’s evil nature is brought out through this warning which includes a cautionary tale on how she would instantly turn into a rock, sheep or any other animal any man who does not cooperate or fancy her (Apuleius & Sarah, 53).

Another character of interest in Apuleius’ Golden Assis the witch Meroe who was said to have turned a former lover into a beaver because beavers are famed for escaping their pursuers by biting off their testicles.  A clear message that something akin to this would happen to her lover who had been unfaithful (Apuleius & Sarah, 68). Meroe has no qualms in destroying a man in this way; the most heinous retribution a man could undergo by threatening his masculinity. Such a threat is sure to control even the toughest of men.

The women of Rome seem to have suffered a fate similar to that of their Greek counterparts, only made worse by the extremism in the authors’ description of their wickedness. In ancient Rome, it was a common belief that women who drank committed all sorts of adultery, with the Romans going as far as allowing a husband to beat his wife to death for the crime of drinking. The placing of the stereotype of witchcraft on women who were considered to be most vulnerable to bouts of uncontrollable anger made the whole practice to be looked upon with a mixture of fear and disgust. It caused the consequent expulsion of certain religions that gave women a pivotal role as they were believed to be similar to witchcraft. Despite the public maltreatment and prosecution of women associated with black magic, it is documented that famous men sought to have their diviners, and this was accepted by society. Julius Caeser as in The Lives of The Twelve Caesars openly admitted to having favorites in the field of magic.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

From the analysis of relevant literature, it is noticeable that ancient mythology and literature was used by various authors as a medium of portraying witchcraft and sorcery as a woman’s domain that was malevolent and misused for selfish gain or the sheer pleasure of it. Authors use crimes synonymous with the most evil perceived of any woman, in the form of infanticide and the threat to a man’s virility. Some of the authors target the very core of felinity by describing their characters as barren, either by choice or otherwise, and giving them sexual deprivation of unfathomable proportions that drives them to heinous acts. The women’s sexuality is underscored by some of these authors who portray the power a woman may have over a man as being the effect of black magic and not a natural occurrence.

Against a background of meekness, humility and some form of class that was expected of both Greek and Roman women at the time, the characters of these works all defy the norm and present a very different picture. The authors’ works all agree on the woman being an evil creature, although some go about it in a more humane way than others, allowing the reader to feel some sympathy for the character in being able to relate to their experience. While attempting to portray different levels of wickedness, the authors all describe the woman of the ancient times as an evil creature who was not to be trusted.

The vilification of women by the two different cultures reflects on the issues of equality between men and women that is still a vibrant subject up to date. For ages, men have been viewed as the stronger sex in various cultures; among the manifest injustices to women is in education. In most traditions, women were not allowed to go to school and were perceived as domestic workers whose place was the kitchen and raising children. Some cultures in third world countries in Asia and Africa still downplay the girls and deny her a chance to go school; marry her off early in exchange for commodities as bride price. This brings in the question of why women have been sidelined in for ages as seen from the above-discussed philosophers and authors. The world, however, is coming to age and women have been granted equal opportunities as their male counterparts.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In conclusion, I am of the opinion that both women and women should be treated equally. The above-discussed texts proof that we have come a long way into embracing our equality and the world should thus strive to ensure that all women are accorded their rights and privileges just like men. We should seek to instill the fact that both males and females are equal and only differentiated by our genders. Both the Greek and the Roman cultures failed to express this in the past but have since made amends; there is thus potential for all sections of the world to emulate the same.


Works Cited


Apuleius, and Sarah Ruden. The Golden Ass. New Haven [Conn.: Yale University Press, 2011. Internet resource.


Flint, Valerie I. J. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe.Athlone, 1999.


Homer. The Odyssey.Viking, 1996.


Horace, et al.The Complete Odes and Epodes: With the Centennial Hymn. Penguin, 1983.


Hunter, R L. Theocritus and the Archaeology of Greek Poetry.Cambridge UP, 1996.


Johnson, W R. Momentary Monsters: Lucan and His Heroes. Cornell UP, 1987.


Lucan. Pharsalia.Cornell UP, 1993.


Ogden, Daniel. Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook. Oxford UP, 2002.


Russell, Jeffrey B. A History of Witchcraft, Sorcerers, Heretics & Pagans.Thames & Hudson, 2007.