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Write My Essay Sample: Teamwork in Action

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Teamwork in Action: Observations of Team Dynamics

The team dynamics chosen for this analysis are those involving the members of The Avengers in the 2016 movie “Captain America: Civil War.” This choice is idea for dissection because the dynamics have evolved over the course of their cinematic run and a lot of the traits now present are the result of the ways previous conflicts were waged and resolved. One of the other reasons this is an interesting choice is that, as the title suggests, there is significant turmoil afoot in this installment, to the point that a division takes place. How that fissure us formed and the events leading up to the “civil war” are important aspects of team relations (Russo & Russo, 2016).

When the movie begins, the team is operating in a mode that has evolved since previous chapters. Captain America is the unquestioned leader of the group and the rest of the team readily defaults to his authority. This is a departure from the team’s past atmosphere where there was no clearly defined leader (Russo & Russo, 2016). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The interplay between the various team members is playful, signaling a comfort level and trust, but serious and duty-oriented. Arriving at the level of comfort displayed by the members of the team requires trust. Being as effective as the Avengers are requires trust as well. When viewed alone, the trust-building steps are largely missing in “Civil War.” When the origins of each character is considered, it is easier to digest how the team has been able to come together and maintain a bond that is able to withstand almost anything (Russo & Russo, 2016).

During this analysis, the way the team works together, communicates with each other, and addresses conflict will be evaluated. Being an action movie with a plot centered on inner turmoil and ultimately inner battle, there are several scenes that can be dissected to gather a better sense of how the team functions and what trait of each individual contributes positively toward maintaining the alliance versus those traits work to undermine unity (Russo & Russo, 2016).

Foundations of the Team

The foundations of the team in “Captain America: Civil War” center around their special gifts and affiliation with an organization called S.H.I.E.L.D.. The genesis of their union was influenced by a common enemy in a previous chapter. The organizational leader (Nick Fury) was responsible for the recruitment of the various team members, though, Fury is not relevant to this chapter of the saga (Russo & Russo, 2016).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The parts of the foundation that are continually relevant to team dynamics include the structure of leadership. Tony Stark/IronMan is the financier of the team and in many ways a leadership figure. Operationally, Captain America is responsible for strategy and tactics. While there are rarely conflicts where rank matters, you can often see the team deferring to Captain America’s military background for planning and execution of missions (Russo & Russo, 2016).

The foundational elements of the team are tested in this installment of the series as two factions are formed when the team is faced with making a decision that was long in the making.

Conflict

The main contact that is central to “Civil War” involves a request by the United States and partnering nations to bind the team in an agreement that would place authority in the hands of an international committee. Tony Stark chooses to adhere to the agreement while Captain America opts to remain autonomous as a team. It is quickly understood that the stakes of the pending agreement and disagreement among team members that the matter could cause the team to disassemble (Russo & Russo, 2016).

During previous missions, the team has caused significant collateral damage. While always in the pursuit of “justice,” the members have failed to secure safety for bystanders while carrying out their superhero duties. Tony Stark feels particularly guilty about this aspect of their exploits and that guilt inspires his decision to join the accord. Captain America, mindful of the concerns of the international community, still believes that aligning with a governmental entity will hamstring the team and disallow it to operate with impunity to secure freedom around the world (and beyond) (Russo & Russo, 2016).

Complicating these issues is a villain that plays team members against each other. One particular character, with a checkered past and a life-long friendship with Captain America, is framed for a terror attack. Captain America hopes to rescue his friend while the rest of the team seeks him for prosecution. Before it is known that the friend (The Winter Soldier/Bucky) is innocent, the competing agendas cause the team members to battle – exacerbating the new rifts in team unity (Russo & Russo, 2016).

A new character is introduced into this dynamic as well. The son of a politician who was killed in the attack blamed on The Winter Soldier is, himself, “super.” This creates a three-way conflict where team members are attempting to fulfill three separate agendas while trying to remain as virtuous and law-abiding as possible (Russo & Russo, 2016).

Interplay

Prior to the conflicts, the members of the team all had different idiosyncrasies that have over time been able to be managed. Each team member had gifts that allowed the team to thrive and the objectives of each mission helped to mask what could have otherwise been revealed as personality clashes. Effective communication has always been missing among the team members but with each new challenge came a new distraction to smooth over conflicts before they were able to cause damage to the relationships (Russo & Russo, 2016).

This new conflict, instead of being a distraction, put the communication issues in the forefront. Team members who might have been able to constructively voice their concerns had communication been taken more seriously in the past now choose to fight their way toward their respective objectives. What’s revealed is that team members understand that they need each other but lack the foundation of trust and communication to deal with their most difficult test so far (Crick, 2014).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

Conclusion

The moral of the story presented by “Captain America: Civil War” is that communication and relationship maintenance are necessary to bridge gaps caused by conflict. Recognizing disconnection early in a team’s existence is the best time to work on issues that may become too great to tackle in tougher times. The final scenes of the film show that the team members still care a great deal for each other but are left reflecting on what could have been had they had a more secure foundation earlier in their union (Russo & Russo, 2016).

The team has a chance to reconcile but it will take trust being rebuilt, communication skills being honed and respected, and a willingness of each individual to accept their actions and how they contributed to the breakdown of the unit (Crick, 2014).

References

Crick, J. (2014). Effective team communication. In Practice (0263841X), 36(2).

Russo, A., Russo, J., (2016). Captain America: civil war. [Burbank, CA]: Marvel Studios

Essay Writing Service Sample: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Severe Head Injury  

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Severe Head Injury

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Summary

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder directly relates to head injuries suffered by patients following road traffic accidents. The stress reactions of the accidents were associated with several intrusive thoughts and avoidance of physical and cognitive events based on the sequence of the accident. PTSD appears to manifest itself even when there was a loss of consciousness and organic amnesia for the accidents and the subsequent events. Car accidents can cause PTSD among people, and this can be directly associated with the head injuries caused by the events.

The article is based on the case scenario of a girl that was involved in a car accident and was diagnosed with severe brain swelling. The study shows that she went through different treatments for a duration of three months in different medical departments. After being discharged, she resumed work, where she was known to be a competent employee capable of handling all duties. After fourteen months, she started to show psychogenic symptoms known to be common with a head injury such as poor concentration, severe headaches, undue fatigue, occasional dizziness, and difficulty coping at work (McMillan 432). At home, her mother noticed that she blamed herself for surviving while her friend, who was driving died from the accident. Her mother noticed some additional symptoms such as loss of libido, early awakening and tearfulness, hopelessness, and poor appetite. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

PTSD after disasters or combating stress is now being noticed in adults especially with head injuries. Amnesia is also related when the head injuries are severe. In addition, the stress associated with post-accident trauma can be ameliorated by behavioral techniques as could have been applied in this case study.

Critical Analysis

This is a research article that attempts to provide evidence of the study objectives by use of a case study. The thesis statement was the relation between head injuries and PTSD, and the provided example shows how such injuries can affect people even after undergoing treatment. In addition, it bases the objective on adults and chooses the case of an 18-year-old girl.

This is a British Journal of Psychiatry and was published by T. M. MacMillan. The author an established professor of Clinical Neuropsychology and has written very many psychology articles. He has years of experience in this field as he has written other articles on different psychiatric topics. He is the research director of the D.Clin.Psychology and MSc in Neuropsychology courses at the University of Glasgow (The University of Glasgow). His stay in the university has provided him with experience needed to conduct studies such as the one shown in this article. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Upon the analysis of this article, MacMillan shows excellent research skills by providing all information on the case study for one to relate with the objective of the article. In addition, he uses simple psychological terminologies as that serves to facilitate information with many readers. This means that the article has an open audience of any person interested in PTSD and car accidents. The article also relies on data from a case study of which many people can relate. Car accidents are common with people, and the reactions are readily witnessed in society. While considering the medical explanation of when the victim was hospitalized provides people with real life examples such as Intensive Care Unit while leaving out the prescriptions that would have been associated with such treatment (McMillan 431). One would expect that a professor such as MacMillan would choose technical terms while writing an article.

The focus of this article is to show people that adults also experience PTSD after accidents and combating stress as opposed to people who only associate the condition with children. To achieve this, it compares the relations between PTSD and accidents when head injuries are involved. His presentation of data is excellent as he chooses a single case study and includes different effects in AC’s life. By specifying her age, he manages to show the reader that the victim was affected while at working age (McMillan 431). In normal cases, people associate teenagers as youngsters while that is not the case. By stating that she is 18 years and describing some of her accomplishments at her workplace, he attempts to demonstrate the level to which the head injury affected her professional performance. In addition, by stating the effects of the head injury at AC’s workplace and home shows how intensive a head injury after an accident can affect the victims.

The article is well written with subtitles that provide readers with insight on what is encompassed. In addition to the subtitles, it has well-laid paragraphs that communicate different points. A reader can easily use the subtitles to determine the choice of the framework used by MacMillan to provide evidence for his thesis statement. Also, the paragraphs are well arranged for every subtitle to help the reader identify the key points. He also uses numbering in the case report to help a reader understand the different steps involved in the PTSD. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

MacMillan concludes the article by providing an alternative means through which people can deal with PTSD. Given his field of expertise, he suggests that behavioral techniques could be effective in dealing with this condition among adults. He gives this advice to clinicians as the case study involved medical techniques to deal with the situation with limited success. This makes the article an effective research study that analyzes a situation while enlightening people in addition to providing viable solutions. Therefore, based on the information provided by the article, one would assume that the target audiences are clinicians and other experts within the field of psychology. However, everyone could benefit by using the information from the article. This could benefit everyone since car accidents are common and can easily affect the people one cares about. Such information would help people prevent their loved ones from going through AC as portrayed in the case report.

Works Cited

McMillan, T. M. “Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, and Severe Head Injury.” British Journal of Psychiatry (1991): 431-434.

The University of Glasgow. Professor Tom McMillan. 2016.

 

Essay Writing Sample: The Tale of Yingying

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Creative Piece

Tsui Yingying felt her heart flutter when she saw Zhang through the window as he went to the temple hall. She had fallen passionately in love with him at that moment but was distraught by the knowledge that she should never have to express her feelings to him (Minford, 2000). She went back to her bed and spent a few hours, restless, tossing and turning, at a loss on what to do. She knew she had to act as a lady would and not say a word to anyone. It was for this reason that she said she was unwell when her mother sent for her to greet Zhang. Finally forced to go to the banquet, she sulked and would not face him, confused over what she felt. When Hongniang brought her a poem written by Zhang, she read it over and over again, excited that he felt the same way. Quickly, she wrote a poem to him, inviting him to the western chamber. Her excitement did not last long, though; she remembered she was only supposed to be proper. Dressing up to head to their rendezvous, she decided to put an end to Zhang’s advances. She would not entertain him any longer. It broke her heart, but she could not compromise her virtue in this way. She tells him off but goes to his bedside nights later, unable to stay away. The battle within herself continued, sometimes she wanted him and would let him into her chambers, at times she refused to see him. When he finally left for Chang-an, she knew she had lost him, this time forever. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Analysis

YinYang behaves in a Confucian way; she follows strict decorum in her thinking and response to Zhang’s advances at when she invites him to the western chamber, only to tell him off for his lewdness. Often, she remembers that she is expected to behave like a lady, and refuses to see Zhang.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

At the same time, she behaves in a Daoist manner; her feelings lead her to spontaneously defy decorum first when she attends the banquet disheveled with her hair uncombed and also when she responds to Zhang’s poem with an invitation to the western chamber.

YingYang’s undecided manner is perhaps what drives Zhang to break off their relationship in the end when he ends up marrying another.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Reference

Minford, J., & Lau, J. S. M. (2000). Classical Chinese literature. New York: Columbia University Press.

Write My Essay Sample: The Socializing of America

 

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The Socializing of America: Common Good and Common Sacrifice

America is known as a capitalist society throughout the world. To many, the symbol of America is one where people are able to rise or fall based on what the “market” dictates. In this sense, the market is the buying and selling of goods and services, where supply and demand determines which ventures succeed and which ventures fail. Overall, the idea that America is a completely capitalist society is partly correct. On the other hand, there are significant portions of America’s economy that is based on socialization.

Socialization is a system where resources are gathered from virtually everyone and divided among the population. One of the most well-known socialized elements of American society involves taxes. Taxes are collected through various means and the revenue generated from those taxes is used to fund public schools, the military, and police. The understanding, under this form of socialization, is that the government is better able to take on projects of the common good versus leaving these services to the private market (Donaldson & Scriven, 2003).

In today’s politics, the debate about the level of socialization practiced broadly in America includes determining which services should be private and which should be social. Also, how are social programs to be paid for – meaning, which portion of the population should bear the greatest burden for social programs. In order to understand the conversation about socialization, it’s important to review the history of American politics surrounding socialization (Donaldson & Scriven, 2003). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Pre-New Deal

President Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced the New Deal to American public policy in 1933. The policy was initially aimed at addressing the problems that rose as a result of the Great Depression. Before these policies, many Americans were essentially on their own to deal with the effects of a market driven economy. This meant that employment, healthcare, and retirement were aspects of life that were largely left to the individual to manage. In the event that market forces caused Americans to suffer financially, there were little in the way of federal government programs to help (Himmelberg, 2001).

An example of the lack of a social safety net was the banking collapse brought about by the stock market crash of 1929. When banks failed and were not able to secure the deposits of customers, many were left with a small fraction or none of the money they had kept in deposit accounts. Even though bank customers did not do anything to contribute to the collapse, they were at the mercy of a system that was not provided with safeguards to protect their assets. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, formed in 1933, was a federal government protection that guaranteed the deposits of commercial bank account holders in the event of a future failing (Pederson, 2011).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Another problem that affected Americans prior to Roosevelt’s policies were older citizens. Those who were past working age were able to retire if they had saved enough money to live on or their company offered pensions to supplement their savings. The result of this policy was that older Americans suffered extremely high rates of poverty if they had insufficient funds to maintain their lifestyle beyond their working years. Social Security (originally called Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance) was signed into law in 1935. This new program helped those who were minor survivors of death by their guardians, those who were disabled and unable to work, and those who retired without ample savings or pensions on which to rely (Reagan, 1999). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Present-Day American Social Programs

Today, many parts of the New Deal are still part of federal policy and several of those policies have been expanded in an attempt to meet the demands of today’s population. What is different today are aspects of life that make social programs more expensive to the point of being a burden on the economy as a whole. Americans live longer than ever today (which means more money is required to live after working years) and taxes are lower. Figuring out how to maintain socialization and manage the national budget continues to be a source of debate and creates lines of division in contemporary politics (Donaldson & Scriven, 2003).

 

References

Donaldson, S. I., & Scriven, M. (Eds.). (2003). Evaluating social programs and problems: Visions for the new millennium. Routledge.

Himmelberg, R. F. (2001). The great depression and the new deal. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Pederson, W. D. (Ed.). (2011). A companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt. John Wiley & Sons.

Reagan, P. D. (1999). Designing a new America: The origins of New Deal planning, 1890-1943. Univ of Massachusetts Press.

Essay Writing Service Sample: End-Of-Life Care

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Introduction

End of life care is accorded to patients with the advanced and not curable disease to be in this world comfortable until they pass on. It promotes the palliative and supportive care desires of the family as well as the patient to be acknowledged and satisfied all through the final stage of being into mourning. Nurses are more often in a situation to provide for the families and patients confronting difficult decisions and adjusting to painful realities (Carrese & Rhodes, 1995).

A healthier end of life care is understanding that the process of death and dying is inevitable and is a natural cause of life’s the last stage in person’s life it is exceptionally important time for the individual who is dying and their family as well as well as close friends. Since the goals of an end of life are to maintain the choices, comfort and quality of life of a person in the terminal phase; to care for the spiritual and psychosocial needs of the family and the terminally ill and sustain their individuality. Based on the above, this topic is appropriate while looking into the ethics analysis because lots of decision making often hard ones is made and many times it involves sacrificing some interventions for the greater good .this topic is justifies to be done to reduce burdensome and inappropriate health interventions.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Taking a moral position is the willingness to stand and be counted for and acting according to one’s ethical beliefs. When the principles that govern morals are facing threats regardless of actual or perceived risks such as anxiety, stress or isolation from colleagues me as a nurse must have the moral virtue to determine when action is required. I also believe that  I am obliged to care for patients with respect and in a nondiscriminatory manner. In the course of these, I recognize that nurses may be limited to some risk of harm nurses are expected to accept as an ethical duty. The damage may include emotional, divine and physical harm.

Ethics is a subdivision of philosophy that dealing with how to appreciate the moral principles of individuals and their decision-making process based on what is acceptable and what is morally correct or wrong (Merriam-Webster, 2014). When families and patients make the decision regarding the care they would accept or not accept in the perspective of the end of life, care there are often ethical issues that can arise. As nurses, our values and morals sometimes are inconsistent with those that the patients under our care have, and this may cause some distress to both parties.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Patients put a high value on what they would hope to attain regarding their poor health. These goals are patient’s values and moral principles. These goals are often the wishes the patient’s harbor regarding their disease. Often many difficult decisions have to be made as the patient approaches the end of life. Some of these decisions revolve around the kind of treatment they would want. In the clinical setup, it is common to witness the divergence the family and patient wishes. Occasionally, there can be the conflict between what medical practitioner believes compared to what family and the patient wants to. From time to time, the healthcare system and the insurance have guidelines that may not be in line with the values in addition to goals of patients and kin.  The story of young Jahi McMath that broke recently in the news is a prime example of how a conflict of interests may arise. In this case, the family wished their young daughter to continue using the ventilator which did not auger well with the wishes of the hospital. Following extensive tests, on the brain of little Jahi McMath, it was diagnosed as dead on and consequently the need for medical interventions was not a priority since there was no evidence of the quality of life (Fox News, 2013).

Nurses need to understand the standard of care and the scope of practice which as stipulated in Code of Ethics for Registered nurse from Canadian Nurses Association (CNA, 2008).This principle of promoting and respecting informed decision making are based on the agreement to comply with the right to individually chat a way forward and to support individuals autonomous rights (CNA, 2008). Many at times it’s difficult to see a patient make decisions that nurses do not personally subscribe to or the nurses feel it’s not the best choice given the patient’s circumstances. As nurses, it’s our obligation to support as well as advocate for the victims’ rights including to be autonomous. For instance cancer patients whom a nurse has been caring for suddenly make a decision to stop chemotherapy and redirect his efforts in bonding with his kin. While the nurse has cultivated a loving relationship with the patient and would not what to see him die, the nurses must respect the wishes of the patient and his choice of medical care.

When assisting the patient in making the difficult decision, the nurse should be aware it’s their obligation not to cause harm but instead, promote well-being and health by working with both the patient and the family. The community should also be involved w to ensure the patient attains their highest possible level of well-being and health (College of Nurses Ontario, 2016). The standard of refraining from causing unnecessary harm is critical while taking care of terminally ill patients. Although it is apparent that some medical and nursing actions cause some damage, nonmaleficence principle seems to take care of these, whereby as providers the priority is providing an action that is of greater good and hence justifying the harm caused (American Nurses Association, 2001). These situations are all too common in end of life clinical set ups such that a patient whose death is imminent requires pain killers to be comfortable. In some cases a patient can be so close to death such that he has irregular respirations and bradycardia, the nurse needs to give pain medication although there is fear that by giving this medication, it may hasten the process of dying. By the Code of Ethics for guiding nurse (ANA, 2015), the nurse may not accelerate the termination of life process. However, the healthcare provider, in this case, the nurse has a duty to relieve suffering in a dying patient although the action taken may speed up the process of dying.

The process of justice governs social fairness. Justice involves determining if someone is entitled to privileges. The Code of Ethics of Registered Nurses (CNA, 2008)  spells out that a  nurse should uphold justice by promoting equity and fairness, human rights and promoting the public good. Necessary interventions are directed to the person disserving regardless of patient’s’ economic or social status.  As with Jahi McMath continuing to put her in the ventilator would be futile with her brain death as there is no hope for recuperation. So the option of removing her from the life support machine was considered no based on her economic, social or demographic status but purely based on the medical diagnosis.

Medical assisted dying is the process of hastening deliberately individuals by use of the lethal substance or drug (College of Nurses Ontario, 2016). Under this description, two different subcategories consist of assisted suicide and active euthanasia. In the case of assisted suicide, the patient means to carry out suicide, and the nurse provides a lethal dose of medication for the patient to use on himself. In active euthanasia, another person terminates the patient’s life (Volker, 2010).The Codes of Ethics from several nurses’ organization forbid nurses in assisting patients to die.  College of Nurse in Ontario, recognizes the nurse’s conscience freedom, such that due to the different values and beliefs of the nurse he/she may not be comfortable with participating. The law does not compile anybody to participate in assisted dying, However, if a nurse is not willing to participate, they can work together with the healthcare facility to find n alternative person.

Caring for terminally ill patients places a nurse in a unique position of witnessing the complex decisions that families and patients make. Even though the practitioners of nursing have their principals they sometimes cause conflict with their patient’s values and beliefs and an internal disagreement for the nurse can develop. It’s the obligation of the nurse to show leadership and show the patient the greater good rather than co-centering on the interventions that may be the beginning of a conflict. Such reactions include in withholding/withdrawing of medical interventions and when not attempt resuscitation .at this juncture it’s the nurse in his wisdom to assess and do what is beneficial to the patient in spite of any attachments to the patient.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In conclusion, the principles that govern ethical principles are very significant in the nursing practice as it guides the nurse to make everyday decisions. By understanding the issues that may emerge while caring for the terminally ill patients as articulated above, the nurse is will be ready to rise to the occasion when confronted with this ethical dilemmas with respect and in a nondiscriminatory manner. Palliative care nursing engages a person’s way of life and his experiences It also calls for an approach and attitude that goes beyond the immediate medical diagnosis. Attaining this require something extra that goes beyond the daily nursing routine that governs the daily interactions between the patients and the nurse. It is both art and science that gives regards to the overall well-being of an individual. Values are molded through owns perceptions and experiences about life such that it is a cross between set values and the ultimate goal one desires to achieve in a particular manner. Most importantly it’s a necessary quality that governs practice conducts all the time a nurse works with a patient nearing an end of life (Becker et al., 2004).

Reference

American Nurses Association. (2001).Code of Ethics for Nurses with interpretive statements Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Publishing.

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. 

Becker, l (2004) Fundamental Aspects of Palliative Care Nursing. Salisbury: Quay Books. Commission for Health Improvement, Audit Commission (2001) National Service Framework AssessmentsNo 1: NHS Cancer Care in England and Wales.

Canadian Nurses Association.(2008). Code of Ethics for registered Nurses.

Carrese, J. A., & Rhodes, L. A. (1995). Western bioethics on the Navajo reservation. JAMA, 274, 826-829.

College of nurses Ontario. (2016).Guidance On Nurses Roles In Medical Assistance In Dying.Pub; 41056 ISN 978-1-77116-046-9

Ethics [Def. 1]. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster Online. In Merriam-Webster.

Fox News. (2013). Jahi McMath’s case: Hospital won’t aid teen’s transfer.

Volker, D. L. (2010). Palliative care and requests for assistance in dying. In B. R. Ferrell & N. Coyle (Eds.), Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing (pp. 1185-1192). New York: Oxford University Press

Write My Essay Sample: West Africa

West Africa, Islam, and its effects on Modern World Economic Basis

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West Africa played a significant role in trade and greatly influenced history. This means that Islam was widespread in West Africa and this kind of influence that enabled it, as a religion to influence the global trade (Form, 2012). This role is further made significant as it created the economic basis for the modern world. The correlation between West Africa, Islam, and trade in the modern world can be assessed in based on the need of new materials and a gap for knowledge in other places from this area, which was central to other markets such as America, Europe, Asia, and other African countries. In addition, it has triggered the modern world economic basis by making it vital for countries to adopt trade systems with imports and exports but with a monetary system.

The need for materials made people travel in different areas while looking to find goods and services. The nature of goods and services varied, and that showed why the traders needed to find a central location in which they could locate different markets. West Africa provided a location in which the locals could easily access materials. For instance, the Mali Empire was spread across northern Africa, and that meant it was easier to conduct trade (Form, 2012). This was because the trade was organized by specific tribes that always travelled to different market points to find a market for their goods. Seeing that the Mali Empire covered a big part of Northern Africa, it made the area open to trade by different people. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

This increased interaction between people due to trade increased the spread of Islam among people within this area. In some countries, many traders were Muslims and took advantage of the fact that they could interact with other tribes of Africa and the world and convert them to the religion as well. Trade always brings together people of different culture, and that meant creating a bigger audience for Islam.

Islam created a factor through which a large number of people familiarized, and that gave rise to an empire. Conducting trade in an empire is relatively simpler than having a group of tribes freely engaging in trade. This made the area a favorite for the world during the Trans-Atlantic Trade. This would explain why the area managed to have very big empires. These empires became specialized in trade, and that attracted different markets. For instance, the slave trade was a common factor for West Africa with majority of the slaves being shipped to work in American cotton farms. It would be important to note that Muslims were the primary target for slavery dealers (Ahmed, 2016). This came at a time when Islam had been eradicated by the Crusades in Europe, and they were considered as Moors. Even though the slaves could be divided into Africans and Muslim slaves, many West Africans had been converted to Islam and that made it a factor that affected many Moors. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The Portuguese were most active in the slave trade and often traded items such as crude arms, horses, Andalusia silk in exchange for gold ivory and slaves. This critically shows that the trade was mainly barter with both parties providing what they had in exchange for what they need. Even though the Portuguese exchanged for items such as African gold and ivory, their primary focus was slaves. The slaves were a source of free labor, which was more valuable for industrialization and labor in farms. It would be important to note that in 1492, the slave trade involving the Muslims declined as the European market was saturated (Ahmed, 2016). However, with the discovery of America, this shifted with an increase in the slave trade to work on the American farms so that Europe could be supplied with agricultural products such as sugarcane and cotton (Ahmed, 2016). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

With the abolishment of slave trade, the economic activities of West Africa and other parts of the world still affect modern trade. Countries still trade in commodities based on their nature of specialization. This is now considered as imports and exports with money providing the nature of the exchange. It would be vital to note that the West African trade of slaves came to make the cost of labor so cheap that countries realized they could make more profits through colonization than with slave trade (Ahmed, 2016). This changed the nature of trade for the world, as the European nations were now in control of their colonies natural resources. This meant that the need for payments was limited with countries exporting the resources home. While considering the labor aspect between this time and the slave trade in West Africa, it would be evident there was a shift in the labor system. The Muslim slaves were now being paid for their services but the rates were lower.

Specialization was a factor that becomes evident with the increased trade in West Africa. This is evident in the sense that the Europeans chose to deal in specialized goods. Since they would always offer their products in exchange for ivory and gold among many other goods, it became a recognized system of trade. In the modern world, the European nations still rely on Africa for raw materials (Form, 2012). For instance, cocoa and rubber are still sourced from West Africa while the countries import industrialized products from the European nations.

In essence, the trading structure has not changed, as the only difference is the elimination of slave trade. Islam is still a common religion with many West African nations such as Nigeria, Sudan, Algeria, and Morocco among many others (Bugnacki, 2014). This means that the trade increased the spread of Islam as it also involved people from different parts of the Middle East. The only difference in this structure is the introduction of currency in trade. This has done away with the barter system and introduced the monetary system that has made the trade easier. This means that the Modern World trading system has been greatly influenced by West Africa and Islam. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Therefore, the modern world trade system is a reflection and progress of the historical West African trade system with an effect of Islam. The effects can be viewed from a political, social, environmental, and economic point. The modern world economic structure considers Africa as a source of raw materials while Europe and America provide industrial products. The world is now capitalistic with countries making balances between the imports and exports to run economies. In comparison to the West African empires such as the Mali Empire, the system is almost similar, but the primary difference is the monetary system. Upon the analysis of these different economic systems, it is evident that the West African trade is still active, but the empires are now replaced with countries that do not consider the religion of its citizens. However, in countries like Nigeria, Sudan, Algeria, and Morocco, the Muslim population is still high while affecting the nature of products involved in the trade.  In conclusion, religion and trade are widely connected, and that shows why Islam affected the West African trade while still influencing the Modern World trading system.

References

Ahmed N. (2016). The Atlantic Slave Trade. History of Islam.

Form, D. (2012). Effects of Islam on West Africa. Prezi.

Essay Writing Service Sample: Diamond Chemicals

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Diamond Chemicals Case Study

Evaluation

Diamond Chemicals can modify their evaluation methods by including the Retail Prices Index (RPI) measure of the use of the final products of polypropylene. This will be necessary to enable the company estimate the inflation from the perspective of the customer and from the perspective of the business, as well. This will change the associating costs as estimate by Morris, and this will have an impact on the estimated budget because more money will have to be secured to take into consideration the inflation rates.

The evaluation methods of Diamond Chemicals can also be modified by including other detailed financial statements from both their branches in Liverpool and Rotterdam. In addition to the statement of cash flows, an analysis of the balance sheet will be important particularly in revealing the real estimate of the depreciation of different assets as well as the liabilities of the company. An income statement will help to provide more comprehensive information about the tax obligations of the firms as well as their profitability, and these statements will be important to compare to the cash flows (Grinin, Korotayev & Tausch, 2016). Without these additional financial statements in the evaluation process, it will not be possible to make an informed decision that will directly result in benefits for Diamond Chemicals.

The evaluation methods on the use of funds can be modified to include a risk assessment that will eventually result in more funds being needed. The methods employed by Diamond Chemicals do not consider any risks associated with misappropriation or poor use of funds. In addition to the fact that inflation considerations have not been made, the techniques for analyzing the use of funds have to be modified. This will allow Morris to have a much clearer forecast of the direction that the company will take if she proceeds with the proposed capital program in Merseyside. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Is the Merseyside Project Worthwhile?

The Merseyside Project is worthwhile to Diamond Chemicals because it has enabled the company to establish a foothold in Liverpool. Of the major competitors in the industry, Diamond Chemicals has penetrated and operated in the Liverpool market since 1967, earning the trust of a sizeable pool of clients (Bruner, 2001). Upgrading production methods and boosting its financial capabilities will be a worthwhile venture because it will allow the company to continue on a path of successful growth.

The Merseyside and Rotterdam projects compare equally on a financial basis because the two plants are of identical size, design and scale. The profitability for both companies is averagely the same, although the Rotterdam project handles a bulk of the sales for Diamond Chemical’s European and Middle Eastern market (Bruner, 2001). The upgrade of the Merseyside project will make it more financially viable, although both projects are in strategic locations that allow the company to exploit a larger market segment. The two projects also compare in terms of costs and maintenance where the company currently spends roughly the same in the associating costs for both projects.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

IRR

There are a number of problems associated with the use of IRR in analyzing the management and strategic decisions proposed by Morris. First, the IRR may overstate the calculated rate of return, thereby shortening the payback period and resulting in an anticipation of higher amounts of income. Interim cash flows that have been reinvested at a lower rate will result in an overstatement of the rate of return, and this will be a significant problem when making investment decisions. The overstatement will result in overstatement of the forecasts, thus resulting in huge losses when the returns do not materialize.

When IRR and NPV evaluations disagree, then a change to the timing of cash flows will be necessary to correct this problem. The disagreement between the IRR and NPV figures arise when the cash flows for each project have either been rushed or delayed, resulting in different calculations (Hoover & Siegler, 2008). Similarly, when the two figures do not agree, it is also possible to assess the size of each project and ensure its viability to the company’s overall objectives. The size of a project can cause conflicting IRR and NPV figures because the project does not fit into the overall demands set by the investment.

Risk Factors

There are a number of risk factors associated with such a project; first, the changes in prices of raw materials, from the petroleum used in transportation to the basic cost of raw materials for producing polypropylene can increase. This would be disastrous because it would render budgets useless as the forecasts will only be showing lower prices than the actual situation on the ground. The risks associated with increases in prices, or generally, inflation, is a serious risk factor that can bring any project to a halt. Considering a progressive price increase for the important commodities required for the project will be necessary to mitigate all the associating risks.

Similarly, there is a risk of rapid changes to technology where the current upgrades will quickly be rendered useless in a short time (Hoover & Siegler, 2008). Technological advancements might result in massive changes to the production of polypropylene within a short time, and this will result in the upgrades on the Merseyside plant as being useless. Considering changes on the engineering front of the project will be very important as it is capable of exposing the company to several damaging risks. The impact of these risks to both projects can be catastrophic because it can easily open the door for other competitors to establish a foothold in the industry and take away Diamond Chemical’s customers permanently.

Real Options

There are a number of real options available to Diamond Chemicals that they can consider for the long term. First, they should consider outsourcing some of the production operations of the Merseyside plant instead of losing business for the forty-five days that can easily prove to be longer. In an industry with several competitors, the company cannot afford to lose even a single client, and thus it should ensure that its operations are continuous even if it means outsourcing to a competitor (Blaug, 2007). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Another real option available to Diamond Chemicals is to sign an agreement with one of the competitors to transact business on its behalf. This will result in a significant loss of income for the business throughout this forty-five-day period, but it will be better than going out of commission permanently. This will provide an opportunity for the management of the company to analyze the market even further and forecast on the technologies that are likely to be developed in the future. The values of these options are that they will ensure that there is a steady source of income even during the duration of the capital program to provide additional funds to mitigate any risks.

Approval

The Merseyside project should be approved because it will increase the capacity of the business as well as its dominance in the market in the future. Businesses should always select the option for upgrading immediately with the current technologies because change has become a single most important determiner in the success of several businesses globally.

References

Blaug, M. (2007). The Social Sciences: Economics (Methods of inference and Testing theories). The New Encyclopædia Britannica, v. 27, p. 347.

Bruner, R. (2001). “Diamond Chemicals PLC (A): The Merseyside Project” and “Diamond Chemical PLC (B): Merseyside and Rotterdam Projects” In Case Studies in Finance: Managing for Corporate Value Creation, 4th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Grinin, L., Korotayev, A. & Tausch, A. (2016). Economic Cycles, Crises, and the Global Periphery. New York: Springer International Publishing.

Hoover, K. D. & Siegler, M. V. (2008). Sound and Fury: McCloskey and Significance Testing in Economics. Journal of Economic Methodology, 15(1), pp. 1–37.

Essay Writing Sample: Review of Early Mental Health Promotion and Intervention Programs

Essay Writing Sample: Review of Early Mental Health Promotion and Intervention Programs

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KidsMatter Program

Creator: KidsMatter was developed in partnership with the Australian Psychological Society, the Commonwealth Government Department of Health, beyondblue, Principals Australia Institute, and Early Childhood Australia.

Components of the program: There are four components to the program; this includes developing children’s social and emotional skills, creating a sense of community, working with parents, as well as helping children with mental health problems (KidsMatter, 2017).  Considering that these programs are being administered to young children, the programs largely depend on the involvement of parents to ensure that the program is as successful as it needs to be (KidsMatter, 2017). Therefore, either group or individual sessions with the specialists could help work out some of the issues.

What research informs the structure of the program? The Early Childhood Framework, in this case, is formed by evidence regarding the mental health of young children. In fact, most of the practices and foundations of the program are evidence-based. In that regard, the program drew upon internationally-recognized research in the field which involved an understanding of risk and protective factors, prevention, promotion and early intervention program, and the socio-ecological model (KidsMatter, 2017). The social-ecological approach recognizes that parents, family, and schools have a significant influence on children. Other theories that the program borrows from include the theory of attachment, which assists children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (KidsMatter FAQs, 2017). Consequently, most of the activities undertaken mostly focused on behavioural changes and the ability to initiate these changes.

Who delivers the program? Psychiatrists are largely involved in the intervention programs since they have a greater understanding of the subject. Other than that, trained specialists trained in the subject deliver the lessons to children with the level of expertise required. Parents may also be involved in the delivery of the program since they have a close connection to young children, therefore, have a greater opportunity of succeeding in the subject (KidsMatter FAQs, 2017).

Who is the Audience: The audience of the program depends on the issue at hand, and the intervention used to remedy the issue. For instance, while some of the programs may be directed at children, some of them could be focused on parents with a specific issue at hand, which may actively affect the mental well-being of the children (KidsMatter, 2017). Basically, the target audience would be anyone that is interested including new staff, interested education, as well as health and community personnel. Nevertheless, the target audience will mostly be the parents due to their close connection with children.

Evaluation of Impact: The main objectives of the program, in this case, is to ensure that children disorders could be intervened with at the early stages to ensure that they could associate with the community well. The external evaluation of the initiative showed that people working with children are in a position to implement evidence-based mental health promotion, prevention and early intervention practices (KidsMatter FAQs, 2017). Children experiencing mental health difficulties have largely benefitted from such a program, in fact, the risk of ongoing issues throughout life are addressed appropriately.

Strengths of the program: The program enjoys a number of advantages/strengths especially regarding research. For instance, it enjoys huge financial support from the government of Australia; it also works in collaboration with the largest research institute in South Australia with a focus on multidisciplinary research relating to Australian educational features (KidsMatter FAQs, 2017).

Challenges of the program:  component 3 and 4 in the program, working with parents, as well as helping children exhibiting difficulties in their mental health, were difficult to implement in many cases due to associated complications.

The Early Head Start child promotion program

Creator: Jule Sugarman was its creator and first director.

Components of the program: The program is composed of pre-school education health screenings, health check-ups, and family-specific services (Head Start, 2017). The program also takes different options and initiative including the EHS-Child Care Partnership, a Family Childcare Program Option and the Home-Based Program Option (Del Grosso, Akers, Esposito & Paulsell, 2014).

What research informs the structure of the program? The structure of the program is largely informed by the theory of change, which could be interpreted to imply that arrangements between the Early Head Start Program and the Child care providers could be used to overcome some of the social challenges. The theory of change represents a range of inputs, activities outcomes and organization, as well as contextual factors that could guide early child care (Mathematica Policy Research, 2014). Research into the theory showed that these factors could be used to overcome issues like fostering strong family relationships and enhance the physical and emotional well-being of children.

Who delivers the program? Teachers with a bachelor of degree with about six courses in early childhood learning are hired to deliver the program objectives.

Who is the Audience: The program is specially designed to suit children from low-income families and can hardly afford premium services in private clinics and programs. However, the target audience may also depend on other specific factors like disabilities and services needed by other members of the family (Head Start, 2017).

Evaluation of Impact: The main objective of the program is to provide early childhood education, ensure parent involvement in the process, promote health and nutrition for children, and promote families of the children as well. The program is also expected to develop strong cognitive skills for children, enhance their physical and emotional well-being and stabilize their families (Head Start, 2017). In its evaluation, studies conducted have failed to produce academic consensus about its effectiveness.

Strengths of the program: It enjoys immense support from the government of the United States and has the ability to reach and influence the lives of millions of individuals living with disabilities.

Challenges of the program: In some studies, the promotional program has been observed to be ineffective for people. Some of the authors report that the program is less meaningful and unable to foster any significant effect on the lives of children.

Summary Sheet for Class

For this study, two programs have been selected for analysis, the KidsMatter Program and the Early Head Start child promotion program. Though the two programs operate in different countries and have different objectives, they all seek to promote the emotional well-being of the children. This is to imply that the two programs will work towards ensuring that the transition to elementary school is smooth for children with different disorders. While the KidsMatter program focuses on ensuring that the children can ease into the context of the society, the supporting framework differs largely from the one used in the other program. That is, KidsMatter program depends on evidence-based practices and borrows largely from theories such as the socio-ecological approach that recognizes the role played by parents and close members of the family in the early development of the child. However, the Early Head Start promotion program foundation lies on the theory of change. The theory of change combines a range of inputs, activities outcomes and organization, as well as contextual factors that could guide early child care.

The two programs also appear to differ in terms of their delivery considering that KidsMatter program seeks the counsel of specialists like psychiatrists individuals trained in service delivery and parents. The Early Head Start Child Program, on the other hand, is delivered by teachers conversant with early childhood development. Apparently, irrespective of the program undertaken, the same outcomes will be achieved in terms of overcoming the mental disorders of individuals. However, the largest disparities in the two programs are evident in their evaluation/effectiveness when implement. While the early intervention programs administered at KidsMatter are highly successful, the Early Head Start Child Program is not as successful since research results are highly inconclusive with both positive and negative results. In fact, some of the researchers have concluded that it is meaningless for children. On the contrary, it has also registered high levels of success in other cases. This shows that a more intensive research should be undertaken to improve it and ensure that it also enjoys high levels of success. In terms of their target audience, the only point of disparity is in the fact that the later program focuses on children from families that are not well off. However, it is clear that the two programs target children and families with specific issues and conditions. Consequently, it is evident that both of the programs are indispensable to the society since they serve a huge purpose in ensuring that children ease into their immediate society and community.

 References

Del Grosso, P., Akers, L., Esposito, A. M., & Paulsell, D. (2014). Early care and education partnerships: A review of the literature

Head Start. (2017).

KidsMatter (2017).

KidsMatter FAQs (2017).

Theory of Change for the Study of EHS-Child Care Partnership, Mathematica Policy Research (2014)