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Essay Writing Service Sample: International Significance

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Racism

Racism is an issue of international significance that concerns me because it divides society on the basis of the color of one’s sin. However, racism is far more entrenched than that because not only is it simplistically the discrimination based on one’s skin color, but almost everything else associated with these people. Racism subjects minority groups to unfair scrutiny that results in a negative outlook of everything about them, including their cultures, their origins and their traditions (Lentin 71). Racism is one of the cruelest ways of separating human beings in society because it unfairly biases individuals without taking serious considerations. Therefore, racism has limited human interaction all around the world because it forces one group of people to look down on others.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Racism is a matter of concern because it means that human beings will never be united together in common understanding. Racism limits cultural interactions, and this, in turn, creates unnecessary tensions in the community that can be done without. The problem of racism is that the opposite is truly bliss because everybody in society can live together harmoniously and contribute to a rich cultural heritage (Eliav-Feldon, Isaac and Ziegler 48). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]Racist tendencies take away the belief that all communities can live peacefully with each other and share their cultures in such a way that there is global cultural assimilation. The continuous perpetuation of racism all around the world is a matter that concerns me because it means that human beings will never be able to live peacefully with each other. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Works Cited

Eliav-Feldon, Miriam; Isaac, Benjamin and Ziegler, Joseph. The Origins of Racism in the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Lentin, Alana. Racism: A Beginner’s Guide Oxford: One World, 2008.

Essay Writing Sample: Selected Poems of Wilfred Owen

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An analysis of selected poems by Wilfred Owen

Wilfred Owen is the writer of arguably some of the best war poetry written in English. He is commonly compared to Keats and Shelley who are often cited as his major influences.  Owen began writing poems in his teenage years, mostly on current issues. His experiences after enlisting in the British Army during World War One inform his verse, detailing the horrors he witnessed in the form of endless marches, howling shells, the filth in the trenches and attacks with poison gas, and capturing the brutal and irrational nature of wars (Academy of Poets). There are some events that sparked Owen’s creativity, including his convalescence at Craiglockhart hospital in the summer of 1917, the sessions with a psychiatrist that brought out his internal struggles with Christianity, brotherhood and friendship and most of all his friendship with fellow soldier Siegfried Sassoon.

The two of them agreed on most matters; the need for the war to end and the misuse of nationalism by rulers who sent young men on the battlefield to die for the cause. Sassoon later introduced Owen to a London editor by the name of Robert Ross who then introduced Owen to other poets such as Thomas Hardy and Robert Graves. Owen’s work received a warm reception from critics, and he was pleased to be part of this community (Academy of Poets). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]Owens poems include, among others: “Maundy Thursday”, “Greater Love”, “Apologia pro PoemateMeo”, “Parable of the Old Men and the Young”, “Arms and the Boy”, “Anthem for the Doomed Youth”, “Dulce et Decorum est” and “Futility” (Owen & Stallworth, 8). These poems, which this paper will analyze, cover some themes such as the irrationality of war and its surreal nature, the love and respect for his fellow soldiers, the complicated relationship between the church and state and immorality of war.

Owen’s poem “Maundy Thursday” shows the apparent distaste Owen had for the Christian religion. The poem was composed in 1915, two years after Owen had practiced as an assistant to the Vicar of Dunsden (Owen & Stallworth, 12). It describes a Christian mass where the congregation, one by one, approaches the altar to kiss the silver cross in held by a server lad with brown hands. Owen’s description of the men as ‘lugubrious but not sad’ implies that the people take the act as a simple gesture and not a statement of their faith. They seem to attend the Mass out of habit and not conviction. The women, on the other hand, seem to worship the real presence represented by the cross. While their faith is genuine, they phrase “their mouths are meek” implies that religion does not require the independent-minded, rather, those who can submit to it. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The children are too young, and their imaginations run wild, Owen uses the reference to a silver doll to portray the fact that they may not understand the implications of the gesture. Owen goes through all the necessary motions, kneeling and bending his head to kiss the ‘thing.’ In my opinion, Owen’s description of the Christ as “thin cold and very dead” makes his participation in the process seem rather routine and pointless. However, Owen continued to edit this poem at the time he was hospitalized for shell shock at Craiglockhart, which demonstrates the enduring relevance of this poem during the war

In “Greater Love” Owen rejects the idea of common love. By contrasting red lips which are usually indicative of romance to stones stained by English blood, beautiful eyes to the eyes blinded by Owen in battle. The exquisiteness of love’s attitude to the limbs cut by knives, love’s voice to that which sighs through a ‘raftered loft’ or those voices stopped by death. The hands of one peppered with shots being hotter and larger than other hands and those as pale as those who carry the cross through “through flame and hail.”

Many critics have analyzed this poem as having a theme of gender and sex. In particular, James Najarian’s article on Owen and the theme of eroticism portrays “Greater Love” as advocating for the bonds that may exist among men and slightly denigrates normative heterosexuality. He interprets the poem as being an argument by Owen that states the potential of same-sex love to be greater because it cannot be corrupted by traditional roles and diluted by common gestures that are usually deemed poetic. He further states that Owen compares heterosexuality to ‘kindness’ ascan become “rapidly pedestrian.” Najarian reiterates the purity of same-sex love based on the fact that it cannot be diluted by current poetic expression (Najarian, 6). However, I am of the opinion that “Greater Love” is simply descriptive of the suffering in the trenches of young soldiers who die an untimely death and the brutality of war contrasted with normal life.

“Parable of the Old man and the Young” is another of Owen’s poems that shows his complicated relationship with Christianity. Using the story from the Bible of Abraham being instructed by God to sacrifice his only son Isaac only for God to provide a ram at the last minute. Owen narrates how the English rulers (Najarian, 11) misconstrue an act that was initially honorable (the sacrifice of Isaac, Abrahams only son, to God). And further their selfish agenda (refusing to slaughter the lamb of pride and instead of slaughtering Isaac and later half the children of Europe, one by one) (Owen & Stallworth, 18).

Owen views the war as an unnecessary pain for the nation, brought about only by the rulers’ selfish agenda and pride.

In “Arms and the Boy,” Owen portrays the unnaturalness of weapons. In the first stanza, someone, quite likely the masters of the war, instructs the young boy to touch the bayonet blade. This act is meant to make the young boy get excited about the weapons he will soon have to use, which is ironic. The bayonet is described as a bloodthirsty animal with a “hunger for blood,” it is described as insane, “Blue with all malice” like “a madman’s flash.”  The chaos that the weapon can cause seems unpredictable and crazed.  In the second stanza, the boy is seduced into using these weapons, with descriptions like “blunt bullet-heads” and “cartridges of fine zinc teeth.” Finally, by contrasting the gentle nature of the boy with sharp and animal like teeth and talons, Owen proves once again the brutal nature of war for which man was not created.

“Anthem for Doomed Youth” is evidently a lament for the dead, an opinion on Owen’s experience of war as opposed to an account of the experience itself. By contrasting the loud sounds of battle to Britain’s ‘sad shires’ where loved ones mourn the loss of their dead. “Anger of the Guns” implies that the soldiers behind the guns were not angry and the citizens probably had more hatred for the enemy than the soldiers at the front lines. The sadness can only be seen in the eyes of the boys and brows of the girls, as dusk near, signifying the doom of youth. This poem makes mourning for the dead seem pointless as it can do little to bring them back.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

“It is sweet and honorable, to die for one’s country” is a quote from Owen’s poem, “Dulce et Decorum est.” In it, he describes a troop of weary soldiers marching in the night, so tired that they do not hear the shells dropping. When they are finally warned of the impeding danger of poisonous gas, it is too late for one of them who is later carried on a cart while gurgling blood from his destroyed lungs. Amidst all this, Owen implies that those back at home still deem war as honorable, yet they know not of the suffering at the frontlines. Owen’s description of the event is harshly written and leaves one with a distaste for the notion of going to war for the country’s honor.

Finally, Owen uses “Futility” to bring out the grief associated with war. The poem is set on the frontline on a bright morning upon the passing of a soldier. Owen ponders the futility of nature that gives life only also to give the possibility of its extinction. He uses imagery of the sun by contrasting its warmth and vitality with its inability to wake up the dead soldier as it once would. Owen seems perplexed as to the sun’s ability to wake the seeds and yet could not stir the still warm insides of a man. The futility of the situation is how nature could give life and yet watch idly by as that same life wastes away (Bateson, 34).

As shown in the summary of some Owen’s work, his poems succeeded in aptly describing war and the internal conflict it brought in a person and in nature itself.

Works Cited

Academy of Poets.”Wilfred Owen – Poet | Academy of American Poets.”Wilfred Owen | Academy of American Poets,

 

BATESON, F. W. “The Analysis of Poetic Texts: Owen’s ‘Futility’ and Davie’s ‘The Garden Party’.” Essays in Criticism, vol. XXIX, no. 2, 1979, pp. 156-164.

 

Najarian, James. Victorian Keats: Manliness, Sexuality, and Desire. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

 

Owen, Wilfred, and Jon Stallworthy.The Poems of Wilfred Owen.Norton, 1986.

Simcox, Kenneth. Wilfred Owen: Anthem for a Doomed Youth. Woburn P, 1987.

 

Write My Essay Sample: Rickets

 

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Rickets is a common disease among children that causes the softening and weakening of bones often due to deficiency of vitamin D in the body for a prolonged period. The bones become prone to deformity and fractures. When vitamin D lacks then the absorption of phosphorus and calcium from the gastrointestinal tract becomes quite difficult leading to improper phosphorus and calcium standards in the bones (Mayo Clinic, 2016).

Rickets can also be brought about by genetic defects. This leads to a condition known as hypophosphatemic rickets that affects the processing of phosphates in kidneys resulting in low phosphate blood levels hence soft and weak bones. Some diseases can also lead to rickets such as renal, intestinal or hepatic diseases. These conditions can affect the absorption and metabolism of vitamins and minerals. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

There are risk factors for rickets. A risk factor is anything that has the probability of escalating the chances of developing a disease or condition. These factors include poverty because the poor cannot afford a balanced diet. Sunlight provides vitamin D. Therefore, children living in northern latitudes are more likely to suffer from rickets because of lack of enough sunlight resulting in them having to depend on vitamin D from a well laid down nutrition. Malnutrition can increase chances of getting rickets especially in areas experiencing starvation and drought. Premature birth can increase development of rickets. Dark skin reacts less to the sunshine, therefore, producing less vitamin D increasing chances of rickets.

Symptoms

You can tell a child is suffering from rickets if any of the following symptoms are observed:

  1. Tenderness in bones of pelvis, legs, spine or arms
  2. A floppy baby
  3. Pains in bones
  4. Fracturing of bones
  5. Stunted growth
  6. Delays in tooth formation
  7. Increase in tooth cavities
  8. An odd shape of the skull or a soft skull
  9. Bowed legs in toddlers;
  10. Wide wrists (Kim, 2015).

Diagnosis

In the case of suspicion of rickets here are different ways of diagnosing; Physical examination by a doctor. The doctor will lightly press the bones so as to check for pain or tenderness. The doctor will then recommend for more tests to ascertain the diagnosis such as: To measure phosphate and calcium levels in the blood; a blood test will be conducted. For the checking of bone deformities, a bone X-ray is performed. For the determination of the level of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood, an arterial blood gas is done (Kim, 2015).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Treatment

The primary focus of treating rickets is the replacement of the missing mineral or vitamin in the body. A doctor can recommend that the child gets more exposure to sunlight, encourage intake of products rich in vitamin D like liver, eggs, milk and fish. In case you opt for supplements for vitamin D and calcium which are also treatments for rickets ensure you ask the doctor on the dosage which is given according to the size of the child. Braces can still be utilized in the case of skeletal deformities which help in the positioning back of bones (Kim, 2015). Corrective surgery is however administered in severe cases.

In case the cause of rickets is generic, the child can be prescribed active vitamin D hormones and phosphorus medications. If the cause is other diseases, then the disease has to be treated for rickets to be eliminated (Brunner, 2015).

Complications

A child becomes more prone to bone fractures if rickets goes untreated and if left in this state for long and the rickets are severe it may lead to permanent deformities of bones. There are also higher chances of seizure, breathing problems, and cramps due to low blood calcium levels. In rare cases, it may lead to the weakening of the heart muscles. There are also chances of stunted growth and an abnormally curved spine (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2016).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

 

References

Brunner, S. (2015, September 10). Rickets: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments – page 2 Medical News Today.

 

Kim, S. (2015, December 10). Rickets: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatments.

 

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2016, May 24). Symptoms and causes – Rickets – Mayo Clinic.

 

Essay Writing Service Sample: The Invasion of Iraq: Just or Unjust?

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In 2003 the US instituted an attack on Iraq which was met by Iraqi retaliation. These events led to the infamous Iraq war which resulted in the deaths of thousands of Iraqi citizens. It further led to the displacement of millions of Iraqis with the first American Missile striking Iraq on March 20th and therefore marked the beginning of the war. Given the superior military and strategic resources that were available to the US, it took the US only three weeks to topple the prevailing administration in Iraq. Nonetheless, despite the immense glory, the Bush administration was the subject of increased criticism from several humanitarian organizations. Even before the war, several parties reinforced that the US was wrong in attacking Iraq. These sentiments are justified since the US was unjustified in attacking Iraq. Several factors attest to this reality.

Misleading Evidence on Weapons of Mass Destruction

One of the major factors that led to the attack on Iraq was the US supposition that there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq (Pan, 2003). Even then, the US was committed to ensuring that weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear bombs were not in production in any given country. This is because such weapons pose a threat to the peace and safety of the American people. Nonetheless, at the end of the war, there were no were weapons of mass destruction that had been discovered in Iraq. Before the war, Iraq had indicated clearly that it was not producing nor employing weapons of mass destruction. However, US intelligence, based on misinformed intelligence prevailed that there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq (Isikoff & Corn, 2006 ).

By the time the war was ending in Iraq, the US had not a shred of evidence to back their assertions on the presence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. Iraq had ceased the production of weapons of mass destruction in the early 1990s. The initial war on Iraq by the Bush Sr. administration had rid the country of every weapon of mass destruction. In the 1980s Iraq comprised one of the major users of weapons of mass destruction (MacAskill, 2004). However subsequent administrations, to claim to power, had quickly determined that production of weapons of mass destruction posed a threat to their authority. It was the duty of the Bush administration to assess and verify the pieces of evidence that had been extended to them concerning the presence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Financial Cost of the War

The Iraq war, despite its military conclusion in 2003, spanned a duration of 8 years. In the eight years, the US committed to helping rebuild Iraq. When the war ended, the majority of the coalition forces that had helped the US in its war initiative, withdrew their troops from the war. The US was left with the responsibility of solely rebuilding the Iraqi State. This comprised a financial burden to the American taxpayers. In times of war, troop welfare is sustained by the taxpayer. In the eight years of war, the US has had to spend over 5 billion dollars (Isikoff & Corn, 2006 ). These funds were employed indirectly enhancing the successes of the military engagements in the Iraq country. Furthermore, the larger amount of these funds were also spent on weapons which greatly accelerated the financial costs that the US had to bear. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The US, given that no weapons of mass destruction were found, was compelled to service all the infrastructural damage that they had imposed on Iraq. Therefore, a significant portion of the Federal budget was committed to this initiative. These funds were intended to address the reconstruction of physical structures that had been felled in the war. The cost of the war amounted to over 751 billion dollars which is a figure that represents over eight times of the initial costs that had been projected at the start of the war (Filkins, 2009 ). The US further was forced to service veteran health benefits which brought the cost to over a trillion mark. The financial implications of the war on the US economy reinforce the illegality of the war.

Human Costs

The war resulted in the death of over one thousand Americans while the Iraqi population was slashed by about a half as a result of the war. Over 1 and a half million Iraqis comprise casualties of the war (Pan, 2003). War results in the death of several both the intended and the unintended. There is no metric that can be employed to justify the death over a million individuals based on the mistakes made by their leaders. The people of Iraq had not wronged the US,  neither had they indicated their support for Saddam Hussein’s actions. It is common knowledge that Saddam Hussein was a dictator and promoted brutality against the people of Iraq. The people of Iraq did little to deserve the casualties that befell them as a result of the war. The US should have sought other means to mitigate the threat posed by Saddam Hussein’s actions (Filkins, 2009 ). There are several diplomatic avenues that could have been employed by the US to topple Saddam Hussein from his position. For instance, economic sanctions and embargos on Iraqi products would have crippled the economy of Iraq and inspired an internal rebellion.

Tarnished Reputation

The surge of extremism against the US comprises one of the implications of the Iraq war. The UN among many other humanitarian organizations, given the human costs of the war, has repeatedly criticized the Bush administration for the intervention they engaged in mitigating the threat posed by Saddam Hussein. The UN prevailed that there were several non-violent frameworks, such as the ICC, which would have been employed in curtailing the threat posed by Hussein’s regime to the American people (Filkins, 2009 ). Countries which had initially been the allies became more aggressive to the United States. For instance, Saudi Arabia, a great friend of the US, had tacitly indicated loathe for the decision undertaken by the US. In attacking Iraq, the US overlooked these sentiments which resulted in the bad blood between the two nations to present day. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Counter Arguments

Regardless of the realities of the war on the American people and the global community, the proponents of the war prevail that the war did more good than bad (Pollak, 2015). In reinforcing their stands, the proponents prevail that there was a need to enforce the international laws. The international laws prevail that no country should be allowed to produce weapons of mass destruction (Isikoff & Corn, 2006 ). Proponents of this argument prevail that more countries would be willing to openly flout the international regulations if Iraq had not been made to suffer consequences. Nonetheless, this premise is invalid given that there were no weapons of mass destruction that were found in Iraq. The attack was inspired by hearsay and inconclusive evidence. The US should have instead solicited the counsel of the United Nations body and instituted a collective attack on Iraq upon confirmation of the presence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.

The proponents further indicate that Iraqi citizens are better off today than they were before the war (Pollak, 2015). Saddam Hussein was dictatorial and repeatedly tortured political opponents and dissidents. He thrived on the fear of the Iraqi people and repeatedly threatened their peace. Therefore, in attacking Iraq, the US was aligned towards the liberation of the Iraq people. This assertion is not necessarily true given that the State of the citizens of Iraq remains under threat. Since the disposition of the Hussein regime, the political administration of Iraq has never stabilized (MacAskill, 2004). More people have been forced to flee their homes to escape the malignant grasp of authoritarian and brutal sects in the country. Divergent extreme groups, in the knowledge that political authority in the region had been left bare, rushed to secure authority for themselves (MacAskill, 2004). This inspired infighting which resulted in the destruction of even more property, the death of more Iraqis and the displacement of an even greater number of individuals. Iraqis are now at the mercy of philanthropism as a result of the war. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Conclusion

The dominant opinion in the global community reinforces that the Iraq war was unjustified. There are several reasons as to why the US should not have attacked Iraq. To begin with, despite initial allusions to the presence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, none were found at the end of the war. Furthermore, the war resulted in the deaths of over 1 million Iraqis which comprise a humanitarian crisis. Alternatively, as a result of the war, the American taxpayer has been forced to service the costs that arose from the war. To preempt a repeat of an unfounded attack in the future, there is a need to determine the validity of pieces of evidence before taking action. This will ensure that an attack is based on real and legal premises.

References

Filkins, D. (2009 ). The forever war. NY: Vintage.

Isikoff, M., & Corn, D. (2006 ). Hubris: The inside story of spin, scandal, and the selling of the Iraq War. OR: Broadway Books.

MacAskill, E. (2004, January 27). Iraq war unjustified says human rights group.

Pan, E. (2003, October 17). Iraq: Justifying the War.

Pollak, J. B. (2015, May 19). Five reasons the Iraq War was not a mistake.

Write My Essay Sample: Teamwork in Action

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Teamwork in Action: Observations of Team Dynamics

The team dynamics chosen for this analysis are those involving the members of The Avengers in the 2016 movie “Captain America: Civil War.” This choice is idea for dissection because the dynamics have evolved over the course of their cinematic run and a lot of the traits now present are the result of the ways previous conflicts were waged and resolved. One of the other reasons this is an interesting choice is that, as the title suggests, there is significant turmoil afoot in this installment, to the point that a division takes place. How that fissure us formed and the events leading up to the “civil war” are important aspects of team relations (Russo & Russo, 2016).

When the movie begins, the team is operating in a mode that has evolved since previous chapters. Captain America is the unquestioned leader of the group and the rest of the team readily defaults to his authority. This is a departure from the team’s past atmosphere where there was no clearly defined leader (Russo & Russo, 2016). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The interplay between the various team members is playful, signaling a comfort level and trust, but serious and duty-oriented. Arriving at the level of comfort displayed by the members of the team requires trust. Being as effective as the Avengers are requires trust as well. When viewed alone, the trust-building steps are largely missing in “Civil War.” When the origins of each character is considered, it is easier to digest how the team has been able to come together and maintain a bond that is able to withstand almost anything (Russo & Russo, 2016).

During this analysis, the way the team works together, communicates with each other, and addresses conflict will be evaluated. Being an action movie with a plot centered on inner turmoil and ultimately inner battle, there are several scenes that can be dissected to gather a better sense of how the team functions and what trait of each individual contributes positively toward maintaining the alliance versus those traits work to undermine unity (Russo & Russo, 2016).

Foundations of the Team

The foundations of the team in “Captain America: Civil War” center around their special gifts and affiliation with an organization called S.H.I.E.L.D.. The genesis of their union was influenced by a common enemy in a previous chapter. The organizational leader (Nick Fury) was responsible for the recruitment of the various team members, though, Fury is not relevant to this chapter of the saga (Russo & Russo, 2016).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The parts of the foundation that are continually relevant to team dynamics include the structure of leadership. Tony Stark/IronMan is the financier of the team and in many ways a leadership figure. Operationally, Captain America is responsible for strategy and tactics. While there are rarely conflicts where rank matters, you can often see the team deferring to Captain America’s military background for planning and execution of missions (Russo & Russo, 2016).

The foundational elements of the team are tested in this installment of the series as two factions are formed when the team is faced with making a decision that was long in the making.

Conflict

The main contact that is central to “Civil War” involves a request by the United States and partnering nations to bind the team in an agreement that would place authority in the hands of an international committee. Tony Stark chooses to adhere to the agreement while Captain America opts to remain autonomous as a team. It is quickly understood that the stakes of the pending agreement and disagreement among team members that the matter could cause the team to disassemble (Russo & Russo, 2016).

During previous missions, the team has caused significant collateral damage. While always in the pursuit of “justice,” the members have failed to secure safety for bystanders while carrying out their superhero duties. Tony Stark feels particularly guilty about this aspect of their exploits and that guilt inspires his decision to join the accord. Captain America, mindful of the concerns of the international community, still believes that aligning with a governmental entity will hamstring the team and disallow it to operate with impunity to secure freedom around the world (and beyond) (Russo & Russo, 2016).

Complicating these issues is a villain that plays team members against each other. One particular character, with a checkered past and a life-long friendship with Captain America, is framed for a terror attack. Captain America hopes to rescue his friend while the rest of the team seeks him for prosecution. Before it is known that the friend (The Winter Soldier/Bucky) is innocent, the competing agendas cause the team members to battle – exacerbating the new rifts in team unity (Russo & Russo, 2016).

A new character is introduced into this dynamic as well. The son of a politician who was killed in the attack blamed on The Winter Soldier is, himself, “super.” This creates a three-way conflict where team members are attempting to fulfill three separate agendas while trying to remain as virtuous and law-abiding as possible (Russo & Russo, 2016).

Interplay

Prior to the conflicts, the members of the team all had different idiosyncrasies that have over time been able to be managed. Each team member had gifts that allowed the team to thrive and the objectives of each mission helped to mask what could have otherwise been revealed as personality clashes. Effective communication has always been missing among the team members but with each new challenge came a new distraction to smooth over conflicts before they were able to cause damage to the relationships (Russo & Russo, 2016).

This new conflict, instead of being a distraction, put the communication issues in the forefront. Team members who might have been able to constructively voice their concerns had communication been taken more seriously in the past now choose to fight their way toward their respective objectives. What’s revealed is that team members understand that they need each other but lack the foundation of trust and communication to deal with their most difficult test so far (Crick, 2014).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

 

Conclusion

The moral of the story presented by “Captain America: Civil War” is that communication and relationship maintenance are necessary to bridge gaps caused by conflict. Recognizing disconnection early in a team’s existence is the best time to work on issues that may become too great to tackle in tougher times. The final scenes of the film show that the team members still care a great deal for each other but are left reflecting on what could have been had they had a more secure foundation earlier in their union (Russo & Russo, 2016).

The team has a chance to reconcile but it will take trust being rebuilt, communication skills being honed and respected, and a willingness of each individual to accept their actions and how they contributed to the breakdown of the unit (Crick, 2014).

References

Crick, J. (2014). Effective team communication. In Practice (0263841X), 36(2).

Russo, A., Russo, J., (2016). Captain America: civil war. [Burbank, CA]: Marvel Studios

Essay Writing Service Sample: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Severe Head Injury  

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Severe Head Injury

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Summary

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder directly relates to head injuries suffered by patients following road traffic accidents. The stress reactions of the accidents were associated with several intrusive thoughts and avoidance of physical and cognitive events based on the sequence of the accident. PTSD appears to manifest itself even when there was a loss of consciousness and organic amnesia for the accidents and the subsequent events. Car accidents can cause PTSD among people, and this can be directly associated with the head injuries caused by the events.

The article is based on the case scenario of a girl that was involved in a car accident and was diagnosed with severe brain swelling. The study shows that she went through different treatments for a duration of three months in different medical departments. After being discharged, she resumed work, where she was known to be a competent employee capable of handling all duties. After fourteen months, she started to show psychogenic symptoms known to be common with a head injury such as poor concentration, severe headaches, undue fatigue, occasional dizziness, and difficulty coping at work (McMillan 432). At home, her mother noticed that she blamed herself for surviving while her friend, who was driving died from the accident. Her mother noticed some additional symptoms such as loss of libido, early awakening and tearfulness, hopelessness, and poor appetite. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

PTSD after disasters or combating stress is now being noticed in adults especially with head injuries. Amnesia is also related when the head injuries are severe. In addition, the stress associated with post-accident trauma can be ameliorated by behavioral techniques as could have been applied in this case study.

Critical Analysis

This is a research article that attempts to provide evidence of the study objectives by use of a case study. The thesis statement was the relation between head injuries and PTSD, and the provided example shows how such injuries can affect people even after undergoing treatment. In addition, it bases the objective on adults and chooses the case of an 18-year-old girl.

This is a British Journal of Psychiatry and was published by T. M. MacMillan. The author an established professor of Clinical Neuropsychology and has written very many psychology articles. He has years of experience in this field as he has written other articles on different psychiatric topics. He is the research director of the D.Clin.Psychology and MSc in Neuropsychology courses at the University of Glasgow (The University of Glasgow). His stay in the university has provided him with experience needed to conduct studies such as the one shown in this article. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Upon the analysis of this article, MacMillan shows excellent research skills by providing all information on the case study for one to relate with the objective of the article. In addition, he uses simple psychological terminologies as that serves to facilitate information with many readers. This means that the article has an open audience of any person interested in PTSD and car accidents. The article also relies on data from a case study of which many people can relate. Car accidents are common with people, and the reactions are readily witnessed in society. While considering the medical explanation of when the victim was hospitalized provides people with real life examples such as Intensive Care Unit while leaving out the prescriptions that would have been associated with such treatment (McMillan 431). One would expect that a professor such as MacMillan would choose technical terms while writing an article.

The focus of this article is to show people that adults also experience PTSD after accidents and combating stress as opposed to people who only associate the condition with children. To achieve this, it compares the relations between PTSD and accidents when head injuries are involved. His presentation of data is excellent as he chooses a single case study and includes different effects in AC’s life. By specifying her age, he manages to show the reader that the victim was affected while at working age (McMillan 431). In normal cases, people associate teenagers as youngsters while that is not the case. By stating that she is 18 years and describing some of her accomplishments at her workplace, he attempts to demonstrate the level to which the head injury affected her professional performance. In addition, by stating the effects of the head injury at AC’s workplace and home shows how intensive a head injury after an accident can affect the victims.

The article is well written with subtitles that provide readers with insight on what is encompassed. In addition to the subtitles, it has well-laid paragraphs that communicate different points. A reader can easily use the subtitles to determine the choice of the framework used by MacMillan to provide evidence for his thesis statement. Also, the paragraphs are well arranged for every subtitle to help the reader identify the key points. He also uses numbering in the case report to help a reader understand the different steps involved in the PTSD. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

MacMillan concludes the article by providing an alternative means through which people can deal with PTSD. Given his field of expertise, he suggests that behavioral techniques could be effective in dealing with this condition among adults. He gives this advice to clinicians as the case study involved medical techniques to deal with the situation with limited success. This makes the article an effective research study that analyzes a situation while enlightening people in addition to providing viable solutions. Therefore, based on the information provided by the article, one would assume that the target audiences are clinicians and other experts within the field of psychology. However, everyone could benefit by using the information from the article. This could benefit everyone since car accidents are common and can easily affect the people one cares about. Such information would help people prevent their loved ones from going through AC as portrayed in the case report.

Works Cited

McMillan, T. M. “Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, and Severe Head Injury.” British Journal of Psychiatry (1991): 431-434.

The University of Glasgow. Professor Tom McMillan. 2016.

 

Essay Writing Sample: The Tale of Yingying

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Creative Piece

Tsui Yingying felt her heart flutter when she saw Zhang through the window as he went to the temple hall. She had fallen passionately in love with him at that moment but was distraught by the knowledge that she should never have to express her feelings to him (Minford, 2000). She went back to her bed and spent a few hours, restless, tossing and turning, at a loss on what to do. She knew she had to act as a lady would and not say a word to anyone. It was for this reason that she said she was unwell when her mother sent for her to greet Zhang. Finally forced to go to the banquet, she sulked and would not face him, confused over what she felt. When Hongniang brought her a poem written by Zhang, she read it over and over again, excited that he felt the same way. Quickly, she wrote a poem to him, inviting him to the western chamber. Her excitement did not last long, though; she remembered she was only supposed to be proper. Dressing up to head to their rendezvous, she decided to put an end to Zhang’s advances. She would not entertain him any longer. It broke her heart, but she could not compromise her virtue in this way. She tells him off but goes to his bedside nights later, unable to stay away. The battle within herself continued, sometimes she wanted him and would let him into her chambers, at times she refused to see him. When he finally left for Chang-an, she knew she had lost him, this time forever. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Analysis

YinYang behaves in a Confucian way; she follows strict decorum in her thinking and response to Zhang’s advances at when she invites him to the western chamber, only to tell him off for his lewdness. Often, she remembers that she is expected to behave like a lady, and refuses to see Zhang.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

At the same time, she behaves in a Daoist manner; her feelings lead her to spontaneously defy decorum first when she attends the banquet disheveled with her hair uncombed and also when she responds to Zhang’s poem with an invitation to the western chamber.

YingYang’s undecided manner is perhaps what drives Zhang to break off their relationship in the end when he ends up marrying another.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Reference

Minford, J., & Lau, J. S. M. (2000). Classical Chinese literature. New York: Columbia University Press.

Write My Essay Sample: The Socializing of America

 

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The Socializing of America: Common Good and Common Sacrifice

America is known as a capitalist society throughout the world. To many, the symbol of America is one where people are able to rise or fall based on what the “market” dictates. In this sense, the market is the buying and selling of goods and services, where supply and demand determines which ventures succeed and which ventures fail. Overall, the idea that America is a completely capitalist society is partly correct. On the other hand, there are significant portions of America’s economy that is based on socialization.

Socialization is a system where resources are gathered from virtually everyone and divided among the population. One of the most well-known socialized elements of American society involves taxes. Taxes are collected through various means and the revenue generated from those taxes is used to fund public schools, the military, and police. The understanding, under this form of socialization, is that the government is better able to take on projects of the common good versus leaving these services to the private market (Donaldson & Scriven, 2003).

In today’s politics, the debate about the level of socialization practiced broadly in America includes determining which services should be private and which should be social. Also, how are social programs to be paid for – meaning, which portion of the population should bear the greatest burden for social programs. In order to understand the conversation about socialization, it’s important to review the history of American politics surrounding socialization (Donaldson & Scriven, 2003). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Pre-New Deal

President Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced the New Deal to American public policy in 1933. The policy was initially aimed at addressing the problems that rose as a result of the Great Depression. Before these policies, many Americans were essentially on their own to deal with the effects of a market driven economy. This meant that employment, healthcare, and retirement were aspects of life that were largely left to the individual to manage. In the event that market forces caused Americans to suffer financially, there were little in the way of federal government programs to help (Himmelberg, 2001).

An example of the lack of a social safety net was the banking collapse brought about by the stock market crash of 1929. When banks failed and were not able to secure the deposits of customers, many were left with a small fraction or none of the money they had kept in deposit accounts. Even though bank customers did not do anything to contribute to the collapse, they were at the mercy of a system that was not provided with safeguards to protect their assets. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, formed in 1933, was a federal government protection that guaranteed the deposits of commercial bank account holders in the event of a future failing (Pederson, 2011).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Another problem that affected Americans prior to Roosevelt’s policies were older citizens. Those who were past working age were able to retire if they had saved enough money to live on or their company offered pensions to supplement their savings. The result of this policy was that older Americans suffered extremely high rates of poverty if they had insufficient funds to maintain their lifestyle beyond their working years. Social Security (originally called Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance) was signed into law in 1935. This new program helped those who were minor survivors of death by their guardians, those who were disabled and unable to work, and those who retired without ample savings or pensions on which to rely (Reagan, 1999). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Present-Day American Social Programs

Today, many parts of the New Deal are still part of federal policy and several of those policies have been expanded in an attempt to meet the demands of today’s population. What is different today are aspects of life that make social programs more expensive to the point of being a burden on the economy as a whole. Americans live longer than ever today (which means more money is required to live after working years) and taxes are lower. Figuring out how to maintain socialization and manage the national budget continues to be a source of debate and creates lines of division in contemporary politics (Donaldson & Scriven, 2003).

 

References

Donaldson, S. I., & Scriven, M. (Eds.). (2003). Evaluating social programs and problems: Visions for the new millennium. Routledge.

Himmelberg, R. F. (2001). The great depression and the new deal. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Pederson, W. D. (Ed.). (2011). A companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt. John Wiley & Sons.

Reagan, P. D. (1999). Designing a new America: The origins of New Deal planning, 1890-1943. Univ of Massachusetts Press.

Essay Writing Service Sample: End-Of-Life Care

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Introduction

End of life care is accorded to patients with the advanced and not curable disease to be in this world comfortable until they pass on. It promotes the palliative and supportive care desires of the family as well as the patient to be acknowledged and satisfied all through the final stage of being into mourning. Nurses are more often in a situation to provide for the families and patients confronting difficult decisions and adjusting to painful realities (Carrese & Rhodes, 1995).

A healthier end of life care is understanding that the process of death and dying is inevitable and is a natural cause of life’s the last stage in person’s life it is exceptionally important time for the individual who is dying and their family as well as well as close friends. Since the goals of an end of life are to maintain the choices, comfort and quality of life of a person in the terminal phase; to care for the spiritual and psychosocial needs of the family and the terminally ill and sustain their individuality. Based on the above, this topic is appropriate while looking into the ethics analysis because lots of decision making often hard ones is made and many times it involves sacrificing some interventions for the greater good .this topic is justifies to be done to reduce burdensome and inappropriate health interventions.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Taking a moral position is the willingness to stand and be counted for and acting according to one’s ethical beliefs. When the principles that govern morals are facing threats regardless of actual or perceived risks such as anxiety, stress or isolation from colleagues me as a nurse must have the moral virtue to determine when action is required. I also believe that  I am obliged to care for patients with respect and in a nondiscriminatory manner. In the course of these, I recognize that nurses may be limited to some risk of harm nurses are expected to accept as an ethical duty. The damage may include emotional, divine and physical harm.

Ethics is a subdivision of philosophy that dealing with how to appreciate the moral principles of individuals and their decision-making process based on what is acceptable and what is morally correct or wrong (Merriam-Webster, 2014). When families and patients make the decision regarding the care they would accept or not accept in the perspective of the end of life, care there are often ethical issues that can arise. As nurses, our values and morals sometimes are inconsistent with those that the patients under our care have, and this may cause some distress to both parties.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Patients put a high value on what they would hope to attain regarding their poor health. These goals are patient’s values and moral principles. These goals are often the wishes the patient’s harbor regarding their disease. Often many difficult decisions have to be made as the patient approaches the end of life. Some of these decisions revolve around the kind of treatment they would want. In the clinical setup, it is common to witness the divergence the family and patient wishes. Occasionally, there can be the conflict between what medical practitioner believes compared to what family and the patient wants to. From time to time, the healthcare system and the insurance have guidelines that may not be in line with the values in addition to goals of patients and kin.  The story of young Jahi McMath that broke recently in the news is a prime example of how a conflict of interests may arise. In this case, the family wished their young daughter to continue using the ventilator which did not auger well with the wishes of the hospital. Following extensive tests, on the brain of little Jahi McMath, it was diagnosed as dead on and consequently the need for medical interventions was not a priority since there was no evidence of the quality of life (Fox News, 2013).

Nurses need to understand the standard of care and the scope of practice which as stipulated in Code of Ethics for Registered nurse from Canadian Nurses Association (CNA, 2008).This principle of promoting and respecting informed decision making are based on the agreement to comply with the right to individually chat a way forward and to support individuals autonomous rights (CNA, 2008). Many at times it’s difficult to see a patient make decisions that nurses do not personally subscribe to or the nurses feel it’s not the best choice given the patient’s circumstances. As nurses, it’s our obligation to support as well as advocate for the victims’ rights including to be autonomous. For instance cancer patients whom a nurse has been caring for suddenly make a decision to stop chemotherapy and redirect his efforts in bonding with his kin. While the nurse has cultivated a loving relationship with the patient and would not what to see him die, the nurses must respect the wishes of the patient and his choice of medical care.

When assisting the patient in making the difficult decision, the nurse should be aware it’s their obligation not to cause harm but instead, promote well-being and health by working with both the patient and the family. The community should also be involved w to ensure the patient attains their highest possible level of well-being and health (College of Nurses Ontario, 2016). The standard of refraining from causing unnecessary harm is critical while taking care of terminally ill patients. Although it is apparent that some medical and nursing actions cause some damage, nonmaleficence principle seems to take care of these, whereby as providers the priority is providing an action that is of greater good and hence justifying the harm caused (American Nurses Association, 2001). These situations are all too common in end of life clinical set ups such that a patient whose death is imminent requires pain killers to be comfortable. In some cases a patient can be so close to death such that he has irregular respirations and bradycardia, the nurse needs to give pain medication although there is fear that by giving this medication, it may hasten the process of dying. By the Code of Ethics for guiding nurse (ANA, 2015), the nurse may not accelerate the termination of life process. However, the healthcare provider, in this case, the nurse has a duty to relieve suffering in a dying patient although the action taken may speed up the process of dying.

The process of justice governs social fairness. Justice involves determining if someone is entitled to privileges. The Code of Ethics of Registered Nurses (CNA, 2008)  spells out that a  nurse should uphold justice by promoting equity and fairness, human rights and promoting the public good. Necessary interventions are directed to the person disserving regardless of patient’s’ economic or social status.  As with Jahi McMath continuing to put her in the ventilator would be futile with her brain death as there is no hope for recuperation. So the option of removing her from the life support machine was considered no based on her economic, social or demographic status but purely based on the medical diagnosis.

Medical assisted dying is the process of hastening deliberately individuals by use of the lethal substance or drug (College of Nurses Ontario, 2016). Under this description, two different subcategories consist of assisted suicide and active euthanasia. In the case of assisted suicide, the patient means to carry out suicide, and the nurse provides a lethal dose of medication for the patient to use on himself. In active euthanasia, another person terminates the patient’s life (Volker, 2010).The Codes of Ethics from several nurses’ organization forbid nurses in assisting patients to die.  College of Nurse in Ontario, recognizes the nurse’s conscience freedom, such that due to the different values and beliefs of the nurse he/she may not be comfortable with participating. The law does not compile anybody to participate in assisted dying, However, if a nurse is not willing to participate, they can work together with the healthcare facility to find n alternative person.

Caring for terminally ill patients places a nurse in a unique position of witnessing the complex decisions that families and patients make. Even though the practitioners of nursing have their principals they sometimes cause conflict with their patient’s values and beliefs and an internal disagreement for the nurse can develop. It’s the obligation of the nurse to show leadership and show the patient the greater good rather than co-centering on the interventions that may be the beginning of a conflict. Such reactions include in withholding/withdrawing of medical interventions and when not attempt resuscitation .at this juncture it’s the nurse in his wisdom to assess and do what is beneficial to the patient in spite of any attachments to the patient.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In conclusion, the principles that govern ethical principles are very significant in the nursing practice as it guides the nurse to make everyday decisions. By understanding the issues that may emerge while caring for the terminally ill patients as articulated above, the nurse is will be ready to rise to the occasion when confronted with this ethical dilemmas with respect and in a nondiscriminatory manner. Palliative care nursing engages a person’s way of life and his experiences It also calls for an approach and attitude that goes beyond the immediate medical diagnosis. Attaining this require something extra that goes beyond the daily nursing routine that governs the daily interactions between the patients and the nurse. It is both art and science that gives regards to the overall well-being of an individual. Values are molded through owns perceptions and experiences about life such that it is a cross between set values and the ultimate goal one desires to achieve in a particular manner. Most importantly it’s a necessary quality that governs practice conducts all the time a nurse works with a patient nearing an end of life (Becker et al., 2004).

Reference

American Nurses Association. (2001).Code of Ethics for Nurses with interpretive statements Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Publishing.

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. 

Becker, l (2004) Fundamental Aspects of Palliative Care Nursing. Salisbury: Quay Books. Commission for Health Improvement, Audit Commission (2001) National Service Framework AssessmentsNo 1: NHS Cancer Care in England and Wales.

Canadian Nurses Association.(2008). Code of Ethics for registered Nurses.

Carrese, J. A., & Rhodes, L. A. (1995). Western bioethics on the Navajo reservation. JAMA, 274, 826-829.

College of nurses Ontario. (2016).Guidance On Nurses Roles In Medical Assistance In Dying.Pub; 41056 ISN 978-1-77116-046-9

Ethics [Def. 1]. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster Online. In Merriam-Webster.

Fox News. (2013). Jahi McMath’s case: Hospital won’t aid teen’s transfer.

Volker, D. L. (2010). Palliative care and requests for assistance in dying. In B. R. Ferrell & N. Coyle (Eds.), Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing (pp. 1185-1192). New York: Oxford University Press

Write My Essay Sample: West Africa

West Africa, Islam, and its effects on Modern World Economic Basis

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West Africa played a significant role in trade and greatly influenced history. This means that Islam was widespread in West Africa and this kind of influence that enabled it, as a religion to influence the global trade (Form, 2012). This role is further made significant as it created the economic basis for the modern world. The correlation between West Africa, Islam, and trade in the modern world can be assessed in based on the need of new materials and a gap for knowledge in other places from this area, which was central to other markets such as America, Europe, Asia, and other African countries. In addition, it has triggered the modern world economic basis by making it vital for countries to adopt trade systems with imports and exports but with a monetary system.

The need for materials made people travel in different areas while looking to find goods and services. The nature of goods and services varied, and that showed why the traders needed to find a central location in which they could locate different markets. West Africa provided a location in which the locals could easily access materials. For instance, the Mali Empire was spread across northern Africa, and that meant it was easier to conduct trade (Form, 2012). This was because the trade was organized by specific tribes that always travelled to different market points to find a market for their goods. Seeing that the Mali Empire covered a big part of Northern Africa, it made the area open to trade by different people. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

This increased interaction between people due to trade increased the spread of Islam among people within this area. In some countries, many traders were Muslims and took advantage of the fact that they could interact with other tribes of Africa and the world and convert them to the religion as well. Trade always brings together people of different culture, and that meant creating a bigger audience for Islam.

Islam created a factor through which a large number of people familiarized, and that gave rise to an empire. Conducting trade in an empire is relatively simpler than having a group of tribes freely engaging in trade. This made the area a favorite for the world during the Trans-Atlantic Trade. This would explain why the area managed to have very big empires. These empires became specialized in trade, and that attracted different markets. For instance, the slave trade was a common factor for West Africa with majority of the slaves being shipped to work in American cotton farms. It would be important to note that Muslims were the primary target for slavery dealers (Ahmed, 2016). This came at a time when Islam had been eradicated by the Crusades in Europe, and they were considered as Moors. Even though the slaves could be divided into Africans and Muslim slaves, many West Africans had been converted to Islam and that made it a factor that affected many Moors. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The Portuguese were most active in the slave trade and often traded items such as crude arms, horses, Andalusia silk in exchange for gold ivory and slaves. This critically shows that the trade was mainly barter with both parties providing what they had in exchange for what they need. Even though the Portuguese exchanged for items such as African gold and ivory, their primary focus was slaves. The slaves were a source of free labor, which was more valuable for industrialization and labor in farms. It would be important to note that in 1492, the slave trade involving the Muslims declined as the European market was saturated (Ahmed, 2016). However, with the discovery of America, this shifted with an increase in the slave trade to work on the American farms so that Europe could be supplied with agricultural products such as sugarcane and cotton (Ahmed, 2016). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

With the abolishment of slave trade, the economic activities of West Africa and other parts of the world still affect modern trade. Countries still trade in commodities based on their nature of specialization. This is now considered as imports and exports with money providing the nature of the exchange. It would be vital to note that the West African trade of slaves came to make the cost of labor so cheap that countries realized they could make more profits through colonization than with slave trade (Ahmed, 2016). This changed the nature of trade for the world, as the European nations were now in control of their colonies natural resources. This meant that the need for payments was limited with countries exporting the resources home. While considering the labor aspect between this time and the slave trade in West Africa, it would be evident there was a shift in the labor system. The Muslim slaves were now being paid for their services but the rates were lower.

Specialization was a factor that becomes evident with the increased trade in West Africa. This is evident in the sense that the Europeans chose to deal in specialized goods. Since they would always offer their products in exchange for ivory and gold among many other goods, it became a recognized system of trade. In the modern world, the European nations still rely on Africa for raw materials (Form, 2012). For instance, cocoa and rubber are still sourced from West Africa while the countries import industrialized products from the European nations.

In essence, the trading structure has not changed, as the only difference is the elimination of slave trade. Islam is still a common religion with many West African nations such as Nigeria, Sudan, Algeria, and Morocco among many others (Bugnacki, 2014). This means that the trade increased the spread of Islam as it also involved people from different parts of the Middle East. The only difference in this structure is the introduction of currency in trade. This has done away with the barter system and introduced the monetary system that has made the trade easier. This means that the Modern World trading system has been greatly influenced by West Africa and Islam. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Therefore, the modern world trade system is a reflection and progress of the historical West African trade system with an effect of Islam. The effects can be viewed from a political, social, environmental, and economic point. The modern world economic structure considers Africa as a source of raw materials while Europe and America provide industrial products. The world is now capitalistic with countries making balances between the imports and exports to run economies. In comparison to the West African empires such as the Mali Empire, the system is almost similar, but the primary difference is the monetary system. Upon the analysis of these different economic systems, it is evident that the West African trade is still active, but the empires are now replaced with countries that do not consider the religion of its citizens. However, in countries like Nigeria, Sudan, Algeria, and Morocco, the Muslim population is still high while affecting the nature of products involved in the trade.  In conclusion, religion and trade are widely connected, and that shows why Islam affected the West African trade while still influencing the Modern World trading system.

References

Ahmed N. (2016). The Atlantic Slave Trade. History of Islam.

Form, D. (2012). Effects of Islam on West Africa. Prezi.