Write My Essay Sample: Amartya Sen and Development

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Amartya Sen is a distinguished professor of economics who was born on 3rd November 1933 in Santiniketan India. He won the Nobel prize of economics in 1998 for his contribution to welfare economics and its fundamental problems.  His contribution also covered the social choice, poverty and the measurement of welfare, a rare work that has a major impact on politics. His work relating to the causes of famine has changed the way public approaches the issue. He has successful managed to show how, in his analysis of poverty, hundreds of people within a country might starve even if a nation’s production of food has not declined. Sen, (2001) asserts that simple measures of Gross National Product are not enough in the assessment of the standard of living. He was thus fundamental in the creation of the United Nations Human Development Index that is today an authoritative international source of welfare in relation to comparison among countries.

Amartya Sen conceptualizes development as freedom where human being development is all about the growth of citizens’ abilities. It is a Universalists convention of notion that emphasizes the need of human’s beings to live a good life where all humans are entitled to live such a life.  This idea advocates for human flourishing as the main basis of solving global poverty and inequality and not its absence. Dre?ze, & Sen, (2002) state that freedom is all about increasing a people’s prospects and access to those things in which they have reason of value, hence they challenge the traditional concept of quantifying development through economic growth. Sen acknowledges that an increase in poor people incomes directly contributes to the growth of their liberty. He states that a sole increase in income has at its best an unequal and at its worst a detrimental impact on the greater part of a nation’s inhabitants (Dre?ze, & Sen, 2002).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Therefore there is a necessity for radical redistributive measures that will facilitate the poor to gain from any development. Amartya Sen, therefore, coined and adopted the capability approach to address these concerns.  Capability approach is defined by its emphasis upon the ethical importance of a person’s ability to attaining the type of lives they have a basis to value. This paradigm differentiates it from the more established approaches to moral evaluation for example resourcesim and utilitarianism that focus on the availability of the means to the good life and subjective well-being respectively. According to Alexander, (2008), capability approach defines an individual’s capability to a good life that is best defined by a set of valuable beings and doings. This for example may include a loving relationships and good health that bequeaths them a real success.  Amartya Sen first advocated this capability approach in the 1980’s which has comprehensively been applied to the situations involving the human development index for example at the UNDP (Kuklys, 2005).

It is indeed an alternative measure to the narrow econometrics variable measures of GDP per capita. In this approach, poverty is thus understood as deprivation in the capacity to live a high-quality life while development is defined as the expansion of capability. Sen argues that starvation is the characteristic of some individuals lacking enough food to eat, and it is not the characteristic of there being not enough food to eat (Kuklys, 2005).  The genesis of this argument was after the famine of 1943 in Bengal, where a realization was detected by Sen. He noticed that the overall food production was not any lower as compared to 1941 when famine and starvation was not present. Starvation was as a result of the wages being paid to farm laborers in 1942 not keeping up with the rise in food prices due to inflation in Calcutta. The genesis of the inflation was an economic boom in Calcutta due to war production at the time.

It is this economic fundamental that brought about a shift in entitlements where laborers suffered a real reduction in the capacity to command power over food. Sen, (2001) argues that poverty; famine, unfulfilled basic needs, political freedoms violations, and subjugation of women still continue to occur in the modern world irrespective of the unprecedented wealth and opulence reflected across the world. The previous strategies that have been employed to address these challenges are feted with structural errors that make them fail. Hence, the need for the capability approach that puts human flourishing at its core instead of economic growth in the quest to resolving the dilemma of poverty and worldwide inequality (Dre?ze, & Sen, 2002).  The pursuit for freedom for all mankind entails expansion of citizen’s capabilities through removal of the various types of impediments and not on making up of what the citizen’s lack. Therefore, development is the elimination of the various forms of impediments to development that leave the masses with constrained choice and a without chance of executing their rational urgency.

The major impediments to freedom are therefore poverty, tyranny, systemic social deprivations, deplorable public facilities, poor economic opportunities, intolerance, and other activities of repressive states.  By removing these impediments, the living standards of people will then be able to be uplifted, especially through ushering in factors like  increased economic  opportunities, social facilities, political freedom, transparency and security which are instrumental (Alexander, 2008).  These factors need to be interconnected for example the social facilities that involve the markets and the state.  Therefore, society’s arrangement needs to be investigated so as to seek out their contributions to guaranteeing and enhancing substantive freedoms of individuals. Through this, Amartya Sen believes that individuals will be the main agents of change instead of them being recipients of dispensed benefits.

The social facilities are meant to provide the opportunities that will further augment the well-being of the populace. Consequently the growth of freedom is vital to a nation’s development agenda, as a principal means as well as the primary end. The goal of development, in the end, becomes wider than the arithmetical determination of Gross National Product.  The notion of development should, therefore, be pursued systematically in order for it to be brought about.  For this reasons, poverty is thought of not as an abnormality, but as a phenomenon that can be resolved. For that reason, policy makers need to acknowledge that the privileges of mankind in a capitalistic world are situated on the same locus as their sufferings (Sen, 2001). This means that the predicament of development is anchored squarely in what has been classified as prosperity and how people and institutions go about advocating and promoting that classification, just in the same manner it does for poverty.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

This proposition means that a person can be happy without a lot of freedoms and a person could also have a good amount of freedom devoid of attaining much freedom. A person can, therefore, have a substantial freedom without achieving much meaning that freedom is by itself not free from a person’s ability or aspiration to apply it to any specific end. These makes development to be less of “making up of what people are deprived of” i.e. modernization to it being more of removal of impediments that prevent the same people from existing in a manner that they may otherwise choose for example State violence or market inequalities (Dre?ze, & Sen, 2002). There is no significance of political liberty on formal paper if the people are in reality being prohibited from benefiting from those freedoms as a result of impediments like discrimination, tribalism, malnutrition, racism, natural calamities or even epidemiological risk.

Yet many politicians and institutions are yet to understand and take on board this claim as they endeavor to address the supposed needs and the short-term political interest. A look at the millennium development objectives advocates Amartya Sen philosophy as free will is one of its core tenets of basic values.  Yet there is a big challenge in integrating freedom with economic production, a challenge that has been with mankind since the time of enlightenment political thinking. Economic Development is a politically emotional issue that is ethically essential and the elementary challenge it creates for the society can never be resolved unless the world adopts Amartya Sen Line of thought (Rauhut, Hatti, & Olsson, 2005).  Yet resolving the predicament of development is more important in the modern world that is divided between the advancement of globalization and the retardation of the art of politics when it comes to superior judgment.  The challenge is in the transformation of the state or country that currently does not bestow liberty to its people into a nation or state that does.  Amartya Sen Offers little advice about how this can or should be achieved (Kuklys, 2005).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Moreover, even in those countries that are labeled as developed nations, there is still freedom deficits that reverse the development goals achieved so far. Political freedoms are indeed compromised by entrenched interests in the United States of America and Australia as well as by the entrenched powers of the oligarchy in much of Europe and Japan.  The protectionism of large corporations in Japan and Europe limits the trade and industry independence of small and medium enterprises (Alexander, 2008). The social opportunities are also constrained in many countries of the world mainly because the rich have access to education and health facilities compared to the poor.

Even though Amartya Sen has raised issues pertaining to cultural freedoms, progress in this field will require a massive shift in attitudes for progress to occur. He also does not deal with the subject of how individual liberty ought to be crafted into the overall society that requires foregoing some aspects of personal freedoms in order to coexist peacefully (Rauhut, Hatti, & Olsson, 2005).


Alexander, J. M. (2008). Capabilities and social justice: The political philosophy of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Pub.

Dre?ze, J., & Sen, A. K. (2002). India: Development and participation. Oxford [u.a.: Oxford University Press.

Kuklys, W. (2005). Amartya Sen’s capability approach: Theoretical insights and empirical applications. Berlin: Springer.

Rauhut, D., Hatti, N., & Olsson, C.-A. (2005). Economists and poverty: From Adam Smith to Amartya Sen. New Delhi: Vedams.

Sen, A. K. (2001). Development as freedom. Oxford [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press.

Essay Writing Sample: Application of Critical Theory in Aristotle and Plato’s Work

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Question: The history of critical theory could be described as a sustained conversation and negotiation between the texts making up that history. Discuss how a later text in this course inherits and adapts the argument of an earlier one.

The historical-critical theory can be interpreted on a broad spectrum of the disciplines of both philosophy and the history of social sciences (Hohendahl et.al, 37). Among one of the interpretations is the fact that critical theory influenced various generations of social theorists in Western European Marxist tradition as well as German philosophers. According to critical theorist, a “critical” theory distinguishes from a “traditional” theory based on a particular practical objective.

In general, critical theory is a Marxist-inspired movement in political and social philosophy, which was formerly associated with the Frankfurt school’s work (Hohendahl et.al, 57). Over the years, critical theories have been building on the thoughts of Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx in maintaining that the primary objective of philosophy is to help in understanding and overcoming the social structures through which human beings have not only dominated but also oppressed. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]In this way, by believing that like other forms and aspects of knowledge, science has been utilized as a tool of oppression, critical theorists caution against having blind faith in the scientific developments and progress (Hohendahl et.al, 65). On the same breath, these scholars argue that scientific knowledge should not be followed as an end in itself without referring to the objective of human emancipation. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Based on this argument, critical theory has been instrumental in the study of literature, history, law, as well as social sciences. Therefore, critical theory can be described as a sustained negotiation and conversation between the texts making up that history. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] On this premise, the following paper will discuss the works of Aristotle and Plato by showing how critical theory applies in Aristotle’s application of Plato’s work.

Work Cited

Hohendahl, Peter U, and Jaimey Fisher. Critical Theory: Current State and Future Prospects.New York: Berghahn Books, 2012. Print.

Essay Writing Service Sample: The Capital Punishment

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Death penalty, which is also known as capital punishment, is a government practice that involves execution of those found on the wrong side of the law.  The practice and laws on death penalty have been in existence for quite some time and dates back to 18th century B.C. The Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon saw people get executed when found to have committed one of the twenty different crimes.  Athens, through the Draconian Code of Athens, used death penalty as their only means of punishment. During these ancient times, death penalty meant dying by burning, crucifixion, strangling, drowning and even being torn apart. This paper, therefore, outlines the significant arguments for and against death penalty.

To begin with, we should all acknowledge that death penalty is still in practice in the current world. However, this practice is limited to some countries and the conditions for this penalty vary significantly among countries. Some countries are known for prescribing death penalty for those individuals with severe mental diseases. Majority of the countries that exercise death penalty on law offenders would do so for cases like war crimes, desertion or mutiny in the military. A significant number of those given the death penalty are imprisoned for several years on death rows while awaiting their day of execution.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Currently, about 102 countries in the world have completely done away with  death penalty as a way of punishment for any of the crimes committed. Six other countries have removed death penalty only for ordinary crimes but consider it for serious crimes like war crimes. Thirty-two countries are currently in the process of abolishing death penalty while the remaining 58 still maintain the practice. Among those countries that still hold the practice whether for all crimes or just serious crimes, 25 of them executed 1,634 people in 2015. This figure raises concerns since it is the highest number of executions in the last 25 years. For all the countries that have abolished death penalty whether totally or partially and for those who still retain the practice could be based on the following reasons.

Arguments for Death Penalty

Countries such as the United States and China are among some of the nations that still practice death penalty as a form of punishment for criminals. Other countries and states are also known to have abolished death penalty and then later reinstated it. For instance, Chad abolished death penalty completely in 2014 but reinstated it in 2015 for crimes involving terrorism. There are many reasons as to why death penalty has not been abolished by these countries despite the concerns raised by organizations such Amnesty International. To some extend, I second the decision by these countries not to abolish death penalty on various grounds.

To start with, I strongly believe that death penalty was instituted by our creator God. In Genesis chapter nine versus six, it says that anyone who leads to another shedding blood then this person’s blood shall also be shed by mine hand like he did to the other. It further explains that men were made in the image of God and so life must be respected. From my point of view, death sentence for murders is okay since even God Himself supports it. Exodus chapter 21 verse 12 further goes on to say: anyone who causes another to die shall also be killed. However, other people might claim that this is in the Old Testament, and that now we have the New Testament this has changed. In revelation, a New Testament book, chapter 13 verses 10 also says; anyone that kills with the sword shall also be killed by the sword. Apostle Paul in the book of Acts chapter 25 verses 11 sums this argument by saying that some crimes are worthy punishment by death. He say in this book that if he is found to have committed a crime worth death sentence he won’t refuse to die.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Death penalty deters anyone wishing to engage in crime from committing the crime. There is need to continue with death penalty since it deters other murderers from committing the crime while at the same time it prevents the society from such murderers. It is also unethical to let someone who has murdered an innocent person to live. Statistics also show that crime rate is low in states that have death penalty (Muhlhausen, 2007).

It is believed that crime can be lowered by harsher treatments like death penalty among others. Basing on the general deterrence theory, it is apparent that when the risk for apprehension and punishment is increased, people will always shun away from such criminal activities. Criminals, like other members of the society, would weigh between utility (in this case their self-interest) and prices (which in this case is the constraints or punishments they may face) before embarking on any criminal activity (Muhlhausen, 2007). This can then be compared to the analogy that when prices in the real market increase, people tend to reduce their utilities or in other cases move for other less expensive commodities.

It has been confirmed through studies that death penalty, especially through the means of execution, has a significant impact on deterring crimes that result to death penalty. For instance, from 2004 to 2008, only 4 out of the 251 inmates that were executed in the US chose electrocution over lethal injection. The other 247 chose execution via lethal injection since it appeared less painful than the electric chair. This shows that, not only do this inmates fear death penalty but also care on how they are going to die (Radelet et al., 2008).

Absence of death penalty results into the increase of homicides. For instance, it is argued that the rise of homicide cases in the mid-1960s in New York could be attributed to the cessation of legal executions. It is reported that about 41 thousand people had been murdered since 1965 in New York as was opposed to those murdered in the previous twenty-three years. 1965 is known to be the year in which New York, one of the states in America, abolished death sentence (Galliher et al., 2001). What followed was disastrous than was expected.  By the time death penalty was abolished, there were about 400 victims of murder. However it did not take time before this figure rose to 1500 cases of murder per year, this only took 3 three years to escalate to such levels. During this particular time, it is also estimated that more people were killed on the streets of New York as compared to those killed during the war in Vietnam. All this were attributed to the absence of death penalty by the then senator of New York Volker (Galliher et al., 2001).

Death penalty is just a punishment like other punishments for other crimes. Basing on the principles of right and wrong when it comes to humanity, we find out that individuals should be praised and rewarded for the good deeds while being condemned and punished for their wrong deeds. This therefore means that any wrong in the society should not be left unpunished. For instance, if one is found stealing he or she must be arraigned in a court of law and sentenced accordingly. The same should apply to anyone found kidnapping a child. These two scenarios demand that these particular individuals serve given terms in prison or even pay fines for their crimes. Denying these particular individuals freedom by putting them behind bars is sufficient for them to pay for their wrong doings.

However, the case with murder and other capital offences should be viewed in different perspectives. For instance, if one is accused to have been responsible of murder of a child or any member of given family, denial of freedom is not sufficient. Loss of life cannot be punished by merely restraining someone in a prison and in which they receive constant food supply, clothing and health services. It would be even more annoying to keep someone who murdered one’s close friend or family member in jail and still pay for their upkeep and accommodation through taxes. A solution to all this would therefore be execution which ends the person’s life like they did to those they murdered. Thus, other crimes like murder, war crimes and robbery with violence should be meted with harsh punishments commensurate to the crime committed; in this case, death penalty.

Arguments against Death Penalty

Through studies, death penalty has been established death penalty leads to more harm to both the individual being executed and the society. It also fails to meet the approach of investing in the solution but rather the problem. The argument presented herein is based on some of the disadvantages that more than 120 countries considered prior abolishing the death penalty. Below are some of the disadvantages associated with exercising death penalty to law offenders of a country.

Killing the murderer does not kill murder. It is apparent that dead men are not in the position of committing any crime leave alone murder. Killing one who has killed therefore does not make any sense at all in terms of correcting the wrong done. Statistics show that states that still practice death penalty have more cases of murder per year than those that have already abolished it. For instance, murder rates in death penalty state was higher by 28% and 25%  than that for non-death penalty states in the year 2011 and 2015 respectively (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016). The other point of argument is that people who commit murder do not sit down and weigh the consequences of being executed as punishment. To my point of view the fear for the harsh penalty which is death could make some people afraid of but it is not significant enough to deter the majority of the society against crime.

From the above information one can clearly tell that though the perpetrators of murder are gotten rid of through execution in the death penalty states, the vice still exists. Ironically, states that have abolished death penalty and in which we expect higher cases of murder have lower murder rates per year. Among all the years from 1999 to 2015 there is not a single year that this death penalty states have recorded figures lower than the non-death sentence state in the United States of America (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016). When it comes to crime deterrence, one would even wonder if this punishment can help reduce other crimes yet it fails in reducing the capital crimes such as murder.

Death sentence is against human rights. Every human being has the right to life, a right that one gets deprived off through execution. Ending one’s life is against the universal declaration of human rights. Also, the methods used in carrying out these executions have been found out to be very inhuman something that has resulted into some of these methods being reviewed or substituted with others.

In ancient times death execution of law offenders was through crude methods such hanging, burning and even use of wild animals such as lions to devour the criminal. However, with time new methods of executions have been invented, just to kill other people. Currently, the use of lethal injection is the most used method of execution in the states that still practice it in America. Other states like Albania and Florida use both the lethal injection and electrocution. On the other hand, California and Idaho use both lethal injection or gas and firing squad, respectively.

Firing squad, electrocution, use of gas such as cyanide lethal injection are currently the most preferred methods of execution. However, these methods have been found to cause severe pain to the person being executed before he or she dies. Cyanide is known for depriving body tissues the ability to utilize oxygen, something that results into intense pain before dying. Electrocution is the most feared method by prisoners. This is attributed to the suffering it causes someone before he or she dies. Use of lethal injection is not only inhuman but also goes against medical ethics since it is involving medical personnel in killing rather than preserving life.

Death penalty has been found to be discriminatory in terms of social classes and race. Most of those executed are mostly from lower or middle social classes. For instance, cases about execution of prominent people in the society would end up becoming either life sentence or even shorter sentences. For instance, Egyptian ex-president Muhammad Morsi was given death sentence in April 2014 among many other criminals, but his sentence was overturned recently and he is now to serve a 20 year sentence in prison. It is rare for those from the lower social classes to receive such treatment.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In the United States, African Americans constitute the majority of inmates on death row. For instance in 2005 out of the 37 inmates that were on death row, African Americans constituted about 54.1 % as opposed to the 43.2% by whites. This is ironical given that African Americans are minorities when it comes to the total United States population and yet they constitute the majority of prisoner on death row (Muhlhausen, 2007). From this statistics, one can easily point out signs of racial discrimination when it comes to capital charges and death penalty, however majority members of the society would dispute this.

The issue of death penalty has led to so many cases where innocent people are tried and wrongly executed for crimes not committed by then or that were committed under certain circumstances. It has been established that in 2015, most of the executions were based on uncertain guilt and to some extend disabilities. In this same year alone, of the 28 who faced death penalty about three quarters had mental problems. Some of these prisoners like Warren Hill were suffering from a serious brain impairment condition which had even been confirmed by state doctors. Yet he was killed without considerations. Andrew Brannan was also among those that faced death penalty despite confirmation of mental illnesses resulting from post-traumatic stress syndrome (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016).

Some people have been falsely accused and even sentenced to face death penalties only for their cases to be overruled while on death row in light of new evidence. From 1973, more than 150 people were exonerated. The average number of years from the time of this sentence to exoneration stands at 11.3 years something that means although there is justice after all, it is always too long (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016).  Recent cases of exoneration are those of Henry McCollum and Leon Brown who were arrested in 1984 and had to serve for thirty years before being exonerated (Death Penalty Information Center, 2016).

In conclusion t is clear that there are many limitations as compared to advantages of death penalty. On would therefore advocate for the abolishment of death penalty as it is inhuman, has no impact on deterring crime and lastly because it is something of the past, of which the current civilized society does not need.


Death Penalty Information Center. (2016). Deterrence: States Without the Death Penalty Have Had Consistently Lower Murder Rates. Death Penalty Information Center.

Galliher, J. M., & Galliher, J. F. (2001). A” commonsense” theory of deterrence and the” ideology” of science: The New York State death penalty debate. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-), 92(1/2), 307-334.

Death Penalty Information Center. (2016).Innocence: List of Those Freed From Death Row.Death Penalty Information Center.

Muhlhausen, D. B. (2007, August 28). The Death Penalty Deters Crime and Saves Lives. Retrieved November 17, 2016, from

Death Penalty Information Center. (2016). News. Death Penalty Information Center.

News. (n.d.). Retrieved

Radelet, M. L., & Lacock, T. L. (2008). Do Executions Lower Homicide Rates: The Views of Leading Criminologists’. J. Crim. L. & Criminology, 99, 489.

Write My Essay Sample: Emotional Appeal: I Have a Dream

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Emotional appeal is an aspect of rhetoric that reinforces the feeling component in the listeners. Many speakers and writers tend to emphasize emotional appeal in disseminating the contents of their work. To create an emotional appeal to the audience, it is necessary that the speaker determines the features of the audience. This should then be followed by the employ of words, which instigate emotions over reason. The speech “I have a dream” is an example of a speech that effectively creates an emotional appeal to the listeners. Delivered by Martin Luther King Jr., the speech addresses the prevailing tribulations of the black man in America and the need for the emancipation of the main subject. In delivering the speech, Luther King employed several linguistic elements to appeal to the emotions of the audience.

To begin with, in the speech Martin Luther King begins by alluding to the tribulations that he and the rest of the black people face. Essentially, he prevails that “some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecutions and staggered by the winds of police brutality.” In stating these words, Dr. King was essentially indicating that he was aware and was part of the tribulations that the audience was going through. Thus, he was not just an external observer or analyst but rather a part of the entire melee.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Dr. King further alluded to children in his speech, which acts as a major element of emotional appeal that secured him more audience. Within the speech, he states “one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join bands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.” The mention of children immediately inspires emotions in the audience given that those present wanted to secure the futures of their children. By alluding to the children, Dr. King was able to show that he cared for the future generations. Essentially, just like every other parent, he felt an obligation to speak on behalf of the children whose future has had not yet been manifested.

The speech “I have a dream” further employs repetition to create an emotional appeal to the audience. In the speech, Dr. King declares “Free at last! Free at last!” with an intention to inspire the audience. This, in turn, inspires feelings of resilience and the spirit of resilience in the audience. Repetition further serves to show the audience the most significant elements of the speech. Repetition reinforces the addressed components into the mind and consciousness of the audience. These comprise some of the major linguistic tools in King’s speech that creates an emotional appeal to the audience.  [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In delivering the speech, Dr. King employed body movement to inspire the emotions of the audience. When he mentions the tribulations that the Black man has had to endure, he looks from one direction of the audience to the other. He does this with the bid to indicate that everyone present has been the victim of the tribulations being addressed. He also stands erect in delivering the speech, which reinforces stoicism and courage in the face of perils. By standing erect, he inspires feelings of resilience in the audience and the will to fight back against injustice. The speech “I have a dream” further entailed the use of tonal variation. Dr. King employs a mild tone when he recalls the history of black man’s tribulations from a hundred years before. He employs a sober tone that immediately arouses feelings of sympathy and relatability in the audience. These comprise the use of vocalic to create an emotional appeal. Lastly, the “I have a dream” speech entails the use of several anecdotes which reinforce identity and belonging in the society. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Essay Writing Sample: Abnormal Psychology: Social Phobias

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This research paper highlights abnormal behavior, specifically social phobia, as a common yet less understood phenomenon. Generally, there are many types of abnormal behaviors, but this paper provides in-depth information on social phobias. It highlights some of the major symptoms of this complication and the main reasons as to why it is classified as an abnormal behavior. To improve the legitimacy of the arguments, the paper brings in the biopsychosocial understanding of the condition to show how the human genes and the environment can sometimes bring about various conditions that can be classified as abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, the paper provides empirical and theoretical evidence to supports its arguments on this particular psychological complication. It does so, by highlighting some of the primary causes of social phobia and the possible treatments for the given complications. Finally, it incorporates a recent research study conducted on individuals with such tendencies.

Girls standing apart from others in school — Image by © Heide Benser/Corbis

Abnormal Psychology: Phobias

Abnormal psychology primarily deals with the study of unusual patterns of behavior, tendencies, and emotions, which cannot easily be classified as a mental disorder. One of the most common forms of abnormal behavior is known as phobia. Simply put, this refers to a unique anxiety disorder that is physically exhibited by a constant irrational fear of objects or a particular situation. This type of abnormal behavior will often occur based on an almost instantaneous response to the above triggers, and it might persist for more than six months. In most cases, the individual is unable to contain the situation or set of events that usually leads to the actual phobia (Hersen & Ammerman, 2000). This behavior is usually classified as abnormal since the sufferer often has an unusual reaction as when compared to other individuals in the same situation. In other words, while some individuals might not suffer from any fear-related responses to a particular situation, the individual with this kind of phobia suffers from increased levels of stress in a similar setting. In an instance where the sufferer is unable to avoid the setting or situation, he/she often experiences significant amounts of stress, which can be uncomfortable. This paper explores social phobia based on empirical and theoretical evidence. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Phobias can be categorized into three main groups. This includes social phobias, specific phobias, and agoraphobias. Some of the common symptoms of such an abnormal social responses include fainting, panic attacks, stomachaches and increased blood pressure.  Common among these is social phobia. According to Heinberg (1995), social phobia can persist for several years if left untreated. Heinberg (1995) further argues that this type of abnormal behavior often occurs based on a series of assumptions that makes the individual to be afraid being in certain social settings. Once an individual perceives any social setting in this manner, his/her anxiety system is automatically triggered. In the physical sense, this is exhibited by increased production of adrenaline and stress hormones such as cortisol. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Social phobias are part of a series of cognitive and instinctual behaviors that are deemed to be hereditary. ` This phobia was supposed to be some form of survival mechanism to a perceived danger or threat. Heimberg (1995) asserts that when the fear of the social setting is more imagined than real, “this makes it a rather redundant response for survival.” A significant portion of individuals with social phobia will often complain that the fear in a social situation is often exacerbated when they feel as if they are at the center of attention. This is often caused by the unusual perception that everyone is watching them, which they find rather aversive. Worth noting is the fact that an individual with normal responses would in such a setting never demonstrate any form of fear response at all.

There are various causes of social phobia. The first notable cause is the physical and hormonal changes in the body. To be specific, the affected individual might often perceive blushing as making a fool of themselves, or they might perhaps perceive an increased heartbeat rate as a direct indication of an impending danger. More so, these individuals will often be preoccupied with unnecessary thoughts or their physical responses, such that they fail to recognize social cues from their counterparts. This often leads to increased sense of abnormal fear response since they interpret the lack of reaction from their counterparts or social peers as an impending danger.

Several psychological research methods have been used to show that individuals with social phobia will often have a fixation on a material that corresponds to their abnormal behavior. One such study demonstrated that individuals with social phobia will selectively process social stimulus that they perceive as a danger (Asmundson & Stein, 1994). The study involved twenty-four persons who had social phobia and twenty normal individuals who were engaged in computer tests to determine their visual responses to particular stimuli. It was established that when there was more activity in the spatial brain, the individuals with social phobia would respond more to social threats than to physical threats (Asmundson & Stein, 1994). This was immediately pointed out as an unusual response or pattern of behavior in indi viduals. On the contrary, this pattern was not seen in people with normal behavior patterns. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Although these figures are notable, they also play a major role in underscoring the importance of non-genetic factors when it comes to the variations in abnormal behaviors such as phobias. In fact, various other studies have shown that people-specific experiences serve as the primary factors when it comes to developing phobias to events such as being bitten by a dog. Based on such information, it is important to note that the ‘nature versus nurture’ theory plays a major role in social anxiety (Benson & Haith, 2009). Additionally, some medical practitioners might be quick to highlight that this scenario is more complex that it seems- this ‘nature versus nurture’ theory is just but an understatement of the complexity of this unusual complication. They usually argue that individuals are different when it comes to responding to stressful situations and fear as well. This is because, while some people might be unmoved by any given situation or event, the social-phobic person might develop an abnormal response to the situation (Hersen & Ammerman, 2000).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

From the above analysis it is apparent that there is no explanation for an individual’s abnormal behavior that is concretely right or accurate – it is just right based on certain scenarios. As a result, an individual’s’ fear of social settings might arise from a frightening encounter that occurred even from childhood. However, it should also be noted that the abnormal behavior might be increased by an individual’s susceptibility to develop fears in response to certain situations. In some aspects, this response might be, in part, caused by inconsistencies in the human genes (Schmidt & Schulkin, 1999).

Recent advancements in the medical field have increased the chances of recovery from such a complication. Some of the notable methods used in the medical context today include psychotherapy, exposure therapy, and Neuro-Linguistic Programming techniques. Psychotherapy often involves several counseling sessions attended by the client with a certified psychologist to determine the best medical approach for the complication. Exposure therapy involves placing the client in situations that often lead to phobia in the first place and using techniques such as positive reinforcement to eliminate these fears. Finally, Neuro-Linguistic Programming involves the use of special hypnosis techniques and special language to reprogram the individual’s responses to the phobia. The levels of the effectiveness of any given treatment are also subject to various factors. For instance, the competence of the medical practitioner, the patient and the duration of time required to administer the treatment as well.


Asmundson, G. & Stein, M. (1994). Selective processing of social threat in patients with generalized social phobia: Evaluation using a dot-probe paradigm. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8(2), 107-117.

Benson, J. & Haith, M. (2009). Social and emotional development in infancy and early childhood (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Academic.

Heimberg, R. (1995). Social phobia (1st ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Hersen, M. & Ammerman, R. (2000). Advanced abnormal child psychology (1st ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schmidt, L. & Schulkin, J. (1999). Extreme fear, shyness, and social phobia (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Essay Writing Service Sample: My Addiction: Working Out

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Addiction is the engagement of a given behavior repeatedly even despite its positive or negative implications. When an individual is addicted, they find it hard to overcome their behavioral inclinations. They become dependent on the objects that reinforce their addictions and spend most of their time engaging in single behavior. When people hear the word addiction, the first thing that comes to their minds is drug addiction or alcohol addiction. Nonetheless, addiction is not always negative. Addiction can be positive and be channeled towards furthering one’s successes.

I am addicted to working out, as I tend to engage in physical exercises more than most people do. Working out involves the use of body building tools and other gym equipment to enhance the muscle and physical well-being. I started working out when I was 12 where I would engage in mild forms of practice such as jogging and wrestling. Over time, such actions formed an important part of me in a way that made me feel inadequate when not exercising. Therefore, I increased my exercising frequency and intensity of the workout schedule. I enjoy the process of growth and have been able to appreciate every step I engaged to become disciplined in my workout initiatives.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Before my addiction, I used to weigh 140 pounds, but with my workout schedules, I have managed to shed off some weight as I am now skinnier. This current situation has given me confidence in my daily activities. This addiction has enabled me to overcome paranoia and feelings of inadequacy that initially marred my peace. I am now able to speak more confidently in public. The progress I have had in the bodybuilding process has given me the morale on overcoming any challenges in life. I am more optimistic about life because of my addictive tendency. Based on my experience, I believe that life will always work out for the best as long as we extend the utmost effort.

I go to the gym five or six times a week. While at the gym, I often engage other bodybuilders and establish friendships, and this shows how my addiction has positively influenced my relationships with people. A gym is a social place that has provided me with a platform through which I met different people and established friendships. I also noticed that most people within the gym have a positive attitude towards life, a situation that has helped me avoid detrimental relationships. I work out around respectful and disciplined persons who have made the addiction a good thing in shaping my life. Since people tend to be influenced by the persons around them, this has placed me in the right environment.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

I feel healthier because of my addiction as I have experienced a feeling of being physically fit. Maintaining the workouts requires people to engage in healthy behavioral practices as well. The best health practices are required for one to manage to lift heavy weights among other activities within the gym. Such practices include the avoidance of fatty foods and intake of healthier foods. Bodybuilding affects the human mind in different ways. Popular effects include boosting mental stability and striking a balance of the mind. I can admit these effects as I can now control my temperament and emotions better than I did prior to the body building exercises. Before, I had a bad temper, and that always resulted in conflict with family members and friends. However, with the practice of pragmatism and self-control I have been able to make my situation better by establishing good relations.

I also consider working out to be a source of entertainment as it leaves me fulfilled at the end of the exercises. Even though one gets tired, there is a feeling of greatness that follows when one knows they have accomplished all goals for the day. In addition to this, the workout sessions are accompanied with jokes and jibes at each other, a process that makes lifting weights simpler. With this entertainment also comes educational moments within the gyms. People share ideas on the best ways of working out and ideal diets depending on the involved goals. When people are at the gym, they also share their life experiences, which can help people avoid common mistakes whether during working out or even in society.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Conclusively, addiction is not always associated with negativity when that is not the case. In my case, it becomes a good thing as it has managed to change my life positively. There are indeed negative addictions, which entail the use of drugs such as cocaine. Such addictions negatively affect the physical and mental health of the subjects. They limit the efficiencies of the addicted parties and create a sense of unfruitful dependence. As a workout enthusiast, I can employ my time positively to better my health and social relationships. Therefore, exercising should be an addiction that people seek to make their lives better.


Write My Essay Sample: Role of aging on the LGBT community


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This paper contains an analysis of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Community, specifically, the effect aging has on adult members of the community. The paper examines the challenges they face, how they deal with them and the various organization that has been established to assist them to embrace this stage of their lives. This paper also contains the experience of some of the members of the community who have experienced the effect of aging while being part of an exclusive community.

The term LGBT stands for some distinct groups within the gay community. This community comprises of Lesbians, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people. More widely it includes organizations and individuals who support the rights of these people. In this paper, we narrow down to the LGBT people only. Minority groups always face challenges in various aspects of life and aging is no exception. Although there have been problems in obtaining statistics on the size of the community, it is a fast growing one. As the proportion of America’s older population is growing, so is the number of (LGBT) adults who are going into their earlier years. In some decades, the number of LGBT adults of 65 years and above is expected to double and reach more than 3 million by 2030 (Adams, 2011).

The experience of aging in the LGBT community as described by a member of this community highlights various challenges they face. In a letter to Steven Petrow, the author of “Steven Petrows Complete Gay & Lesbian Manners”  and a columnist for the New York Times,  a 59-year-old male decries being friendless having lost almost all his friends to death and retirement. He feels like an outsider despite living in an area with a relatively large gay community and finds no connection on social media either. Despite his urge to go out dancing from time to time, he feels uncomfortable because he would not fit in and spends most of his time at home (Petrow, 2013). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Obviously, access to health care is a major challenge. While their heterosexual counterparts receive care from their families, gay people may face hostility from not only family members but also health care providers. The fear of discrimination also makes them shy away from seeking proper health care (Adams, 2011).  This coupled up with the high rate of HIV/AIDS infection in this community means not many members survive to old age, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The situation is made worse by the fact that some LGBT unions are not recognized by law in some states meaning partners cannot be granted leave to take care of their ailing partners. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Financial insecurity is worse for homosexual adults than heterosexual adults, not only is there a possibility of employment discrimination which hinders their saving capacity for old age, but also state laws may shut one out of access to their partner’s inheritance or require them to pay very high taxes (Adams, 2011).

Finally, social isolation, which is a challenge faced by all aging populations, is worse for members of the LGBT community because more often than not they do not feel welcome in many places where older people socialize such as religious centers. The effects of this isolation include depression, poor nutrition, delayed care-seeking and premature mortality (Adams, 2011).

While some are dealing with these challenges by complete avoidance of the underlying issues, others are making an effort at coping while others are successfully coping with aging by building close-knit social support systems.  Efforts are being made to address these challenges. Resources such as the federally funded  National Resource Center on LGBT Aging has been created to enable training of aging care providers to allow them to care for elderly LGBT people. The LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN) is has been established as a subdivision of the American Society on Aging and raises awareness on the unique experiences of the elderly LGBT community members regarding access to healthcare and other services.  Other examples of organizations addressing the issue of aging in the LGBT community are FORGE Transgender aging network and several LGBT rights activists. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]



Adams, M. (2011). AARP Pride: The Biggest Issues Facing Older LGBT Americans — AARP.


Petrow, S. (2013, March 19). A Gay Man at Midlife Ponders Being Lonely and Invisible


Essay Writing Sample: Quantitative Analysis


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A Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Quality Education in Our Lives and Societies

Research Problem

What is the impact of quality education in our lives and societies?


Education, in simple terms, is the act or experience through which an individual obtains formative effect to their mind and/or physical ability. It involves a formal process through which the society transforms its values, cultural heritage and skills from one generation to the other. This is achieved through institutions of learning such as schools, colleges and universities. The quality of education can be assessed based on several principles. According to Global Monitoring Report of 2005, quality education can be assessed on two principles; cognitive development of the learner and the role played by education in creating responsible citizens with good values and attitudes (Business Council of Australia, 2005). It should therefore involve relevant aims, learning from assessment, good use of time and have subject balance among many others. This is brought about by an interplay of the following interrelated dimensions; quality of teaching personnel, availability of quality of learning resources, quality of teaching practices adopted, the learning environment quality and the quality of results obtained or posted.

Education is fundamental in the development of human civilization, a better society and economic development of a nation. Through education, peace and diplomacy in the society is enhanced. It is through education that people learn how to understand others from different cultural backgrounds which helps in maintaining better social relationships in the society. Lowering poverty levels, disease risk factors and common health problems largely depends on education (UNESCO, 2004). It also helps in the creation of opportunities since the highly educated individuals get well-paying jobs while those who never attained any significant levels of education have low chances of succeeding in life.  Overall, it can be said, education plays a crucial role in any nation’s economic growth. According to a 2005 Access Economics report there was a 1.1 % increase in the Gross Domestic Product of Australia as a result of increased rate of participation in training and education (Business Council of Australia, 2005).[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]


Aim of the Research

The aim of this research is to help in the study and analysis of the impact of quality education on the lives of people and the society at large. Almost everyone can contribute significant views on the benefits of education to the individual, society and the nation at large. However I thought it would be necessary if the impact of not only education but quality education has on individuals and the society can be investigated. There is need to go back to various societies with quality education and conduct a quantitative research on the positive and negative (if any) impacts of quality education to their lives and society.

Literature Review

Highly educated individuals have been found to be healthier and to have a higher life expectancy than their counterparts with little or no education (Barker et al. 2011). Studies conducted on the relationship between health and education in developed countries like the United States and those in Europe have not been that successful. This is based on the fact that most members in those societies have attained higher levels of education and there are no significant variations in their schooling. Studies done in countries with high education attainment and those in countries with less education attainment give different outcomes that direct comparisons cannot be drawn from. However effect of education on health is supported by comparing crude deaths in these developed countries before educational revolution and those at present.

Education has been found to contribute greatly on the choice of spouses among females in the society. Highly educated females would prefer to have spouses with higher education levels than themselves as opposed to their counterparts who received no or little education. Education has also been thought to have an impact on a woman’s fertility and the health of an infant. Females that spent most of their time in schools are thought to have reduced fertility than those who stayed little or no time studying. A study was therefore conducted by Justin and his team to evaluate the impact education has on a woman’s fertility and infant health (Mccrary et al. 2011).

According to the study conducted by Mccrary et al. (2011) it was found out that schooling affected a woman’s fertility in terms of the timing of first pregnancy, number of children to be given birth to, interval between these children and even the probability of ever giving birth. Most educated women would prefer having lesser children and a reasonable interval between them. Some of them showed they would prefer not giving birth either. School entry policies also contributed negatively towards a woman’s fertility. Education also affected a woman’s behavior something that impacted directly on the infant’s health. However, the research found no significant impact on the infant health based on the low birth weight rate for infants in California of 0.0014 from the previous 0.0024 for ladies aged 23yrs.

Studies done on mortality rates based on the educational levels of the participants have found out that those individuals with low educational standards record higher figures than those with higher education levels. A study was conducted to show the relationship between cancer mortality and the educational levels among some European countries (Menvielle et al. 2008) which showed that individuals with low educational standards had more mortality rates than those with higher educational levels. However, margins in mortality rates among men were higher than those in women. In the study, margin in the difference was much smaller for women in Spain than in the other countries. The high margins in men than in women were attributed to the fact that there exist more inequalities in men than in women.

Education has a key role in promoting social cohesion, good citizenship associations and an individual’s well being. Societies that have been deprived of education record high cases of social exclusions and other social evils. A study conducted in Pakistan on teachers’ perceptions on social problems and education (Buzdar et al. 2015) showed that ignorance and illiteracy in the society were connected with most of the social problems. Corruption was among the highlighted social problem with most of the respondents claiming that it went unnoticed in the society due to the high illiteracy and ignorance levels. Gender related problems such as domestic violence and sexual harassment was also pointed out. Majority of the respondents were concerned about the existence of these evils in the society despite having vast knowledge about them.

Education helps in eliminating crime in the society. Incorporation of crime education within the education system limits an individual’s available ties viable for participation in crime, increases opportunities of success through employment and the patience and risk version developed through education (Machin et al. 2011). Teenagers who have spent most of their teenage life in school have been found to have lesser probabilities of engaging in teenage crime related activities. In the 1970s, school leaving ages were changed from 15 years to 16 years in countries such as the United States, England and Wales. From a study conducted in England it was found out that education has a positive impact on property crime than violent crime (which accounted for about 70% of crimes). In 2007/2008 there was 1% decrease in the levels of the number of people with no educational qualifications. During the same period, only 2% cases of property crimes were recorded, which is a significant reduction (Stephen et al. 2011).

Many hypotheses have been put forth about effects of education on civic engagement. Some people argue that education has a critical role in encouraging citizen participation in the democratic processes. Civic benefits that were in existence led to increased number of common schools and educational reforms in the 19th century. According to a study done by United States’ department of education (Dee et al. 2003) educational involvement promoted civic engagement like resisting child labor and engaging in activities such as voting. Voter participation was seen to be high among societies that were educated than those with little education. These individuals had a better understanding of their constitutional requirements and their role in nation development.


Basing on the literature review above, there are many benefits of education to an individual, the society and the nation as a whole. Several hypotheses have been put forward to help in data collection and analysis during the study. Some of these hypotheses have been drawn from the literature review and are as follows.

First of all it is hypothesized that quality education will have a greater positive impact than that observed in just an education. This therefore means that individuals and societies that have quality education will enjoy more benefits of education than their counterparts without quality education. The other hypothesis is that individuals and the society are responsible for impacts felt from quality education attainment. It is also hypothesized that people find it difficult to differentiate whether they have undergone quality education or just education. Finally it is hypothesized there is no significant difference in the impacts of education and those of quality education. This implies that individuals and societies without quality education will enjoy same benefits to a similar extend like those with quality education. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


This will be a quantitative study and so quantitative approach will be applied in investigating the impacts of quality education on people’s lives and the society. This study will involve collecting information from schools, colleges and nearby households. Samples to be used in the study would be selected using both random and non-random sampling techniques. Simple random sampling will be used in determining the school and colleges to be used in the study while purposive and convenience sampling will be used in subject selection. Households to be used in the study will be determined strictly through purposive sampling. Four secondary schools, three colleges and 15 households will be used during the study.

Subjects of Study

Subjects of the study will mainly involve; college students, school going students and parents or guardians to this students. Secondary (high) school students will be the point of interest rather than primary (elementary) going pupils. School going students of about 14-16 years will be selected using purposive sampling methods and college students of age about 17-22 years also selected from their colleges purposively. Household chosen will include those lying in the middle class category and those in the high class category. Only households within the same district within the same location will be selected for the study. Emphasis will be put on households with graduates and those yet to have graduates among their family members. Samples of about 10 students per school, 12 per college and two members of the households will be involved in the study.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews will be used in data collection. Data collected and obtained through these tools will then be compiled and analyzed as either descriptive or inferential data. All tools of data collection will be tested through a reconnaissance study that will be done six months before the actual study.


Questionnaires will be filled by school going students and those in colleges. Questions in the questionnaires will be both open ended and closed ended questions. These questionnaires will consist of questions about their understanding about quality education and its impact to their lives and the society. These students will also be involved in two focus group discussions. Interviews will only be conducted when researching in households. During all this procedures ages of participants, their social-economic and status and residence will be captured.

Participants in the households will be interviewed using an interview guide with questions on different areas of study. Questions will include whether the education they underwent was quality education. Gender, age and socioeconomic status and type of residence of the participants will also be taken.


Descriptive information of the samples used will be obtained on age, residential setting (for the households) and gender (for all participants). After analysis this information will then be presented in tables and graphs with their central measures of tendencies inform of mean, median and modes. Standard deviation and ranges will also be calculated from the data.

Inferences will be drawn to test all the hypotheses set using the t-test, significance level of 0.05 and at 95 % confidence interval. T-testing will be preferred given that our samples will be in all cases less than 30 and the population standard-deviation is unknown (Lefevere, 2014).

Conclusion and Significance of The study

Findings obtained during the study are expected to boost the societies understanding about quality education and its significance. Students and the members of the society involved will also come to learn that education not only benefits them but also plays a bigger role in their wellbeing and that of other society members.



Baker, D. P., Leon, J., Smith Greenaway, E. G., Collins, J., & Movit, M. (2011). The Education Effect on Population Health: A Reassessment. Population and Development Review, 37(2), 307–332.

Business Council of Australia. (2005).Increasing Participation in Education and Training: Key Policy Steps. Melbourne, Australia:  Author

Buzdar, M. A., & Ali, A. (2015). Beliefs of Prospective Teachers to Eliminate Social Problems of Pakistani Society. Anadolu Journal Of Educational Sciences International, 5(1).

Dee, T. S. (2004). Are there civic returns to education? Journal of Public Economics, 88(9-10), 1697-1720.

Feinberg, I., Frijters, J., Johnson-Lawrence, V., Greenberg, D., Nightingale, E., & Moodie, C. (2016). Examining Associations between Health Information Seeking Behavior and

Adult Education Status in the U.S.: An Analysis of the 2012 PIAAC Data. PLoS ONE, 11(2), e0148751.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO. (2004). Educational for all: The quality imperative. Paris: Author.

Lefevere, L, S. (2014). 1,001 Statistics Practice Problems for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Machin, S., Marie, O., & Vuji?, S. (2011). The Crime Reducing Effect of Education*. The Economic Journal, 121(552), 463-484.

Mccrary, J., & Royer, H. (2011). The Effect of Female Education on Fertility and Infant Health: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth. American Economic Review, 101(1), 158-195.

Menvielle, G., Kunst, A. E., Stirbu, I., Strand, B. H., Borrell, C., Regidor, E., … Mackenbach, J. P. (2008). Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe. British Journal of Cancer, 98(5), 1012–1019.


Essay Writing Sample: Comparing and Contrasting Africa: Rwanda

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In my life, I have been fed with negative information about life in Africa. The information that comes through the print media and social media and other platforms such as television and radio paint a despicable and hopeless life that All Africans lead in their respective countries. In particular, I watched a movie titled Hotel Rwanda that depicts the life in Africa and more specifically Rwanda, which amused me and thus ignited my curiosity about the quality of life is on the ground (Hotel Rwanda) Notably, at a personal level, I like carrying my research or trying to do what is humanly possible to find the actual side of a given scenario. In situations where I cannot provide my well-informed argument, I decide to rely on the available sources of information. In this case, I have lived knowing that Africa is a “dark” continent that struggles with diverse problems ranging from poverty to poor health care and death. However, this paper seeks to show that unlike this depiction, Africa is a vibrant continent with numerous opportunities.

The Imaginative Picture of Africa: Rwanda

Firstly, in my imagination, based on the information fed from different media sources, I believed that there is no city or safe place in Africa; and that the region is mostly jungles. The media has been printing the downside of Africa which includes the conflicts from one country to another. The tribal and religious elements in African conflicts are what the media has greatly magnified. The imagination for someone like me who had never been to any African country is that people living in African are always on constant warfare and killing each other every now and then. Notably, I have gradually come to a realization that the media gives selective reporting of African issues which has significantly contributed to several misconceptions about Africa. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]An example of such negative depiction is the African nation of Rwanda that is largely infamous for a genocide killing more than 100,000 people out of a tribal conflict (Berman, 2013). The movie I watched titled hotel Rwanda also depicts the country during the genocide period. This ignited my urge to visit Rwanda and see for myself how the county is fairing as well as get a feel of the nature of life in Africa. Among the burning questions in my mind was in regard to the lack of follow up reporting by media or content of how the country of Rwanda is now fairing or reconstructing after the genocide. Basically, all that comes to people’s minds upon the mention of Rwanda is the genocide that is also taught in history classes.  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Besides perceiving Africa as a place of conflict, I also had an original picture of a “sick” continent. Evidently, one of such situations was the issue of Ebola. As was the reality, there has been a recent Ebola outbreak in Africa which was widely reported on the media. The deadly disease is among the fastest killers in the world and I have not heard any reports of an outbreak in any other part of the world other than in Africa. In this way, I believed that the whole Africa is affected and that it was risky to visit an African nation.  I have also heard disgusting news about terror in Africa where terrorist groups such as the Boko Haram in West Africa abducts young school girls and holds them in isolation. This coupled with the reports of war in countries such as South Sudan and Somalia paint an ugly picture of the life in African continent. Finally, I had the belief that Africans are struggling with poverty and hunger. As noted above, it is true that many countries in Africa are struggling to provide for their populations and that famine and starvation are common occurrences. However, even if this phenomenon affects most countries, it may not be the reality in all countries in Africa. Based on the above imagination, I settled on visiting the country of Rwanda which other than the genocide two decades ago has not been mentioned a lot in the media recently. I figured that this would be a good choice for a personal case study of the Africa continent.

The Actual Picture of Africa

Upon travelling Rwanda, I was surprised to get a different view. Firstly, the hospitality and peaceful nature of people the country’s capital city of Kigali Rwanda was amazing. The smiles on their faces told an entirely different story. The harmony and unity with which they welcomed visitors at the airport and in the hotel was an uttermost contrast to my perception of the African natives. In fact, there was not a single indication of war fare or starvation all through my week long stay and all I saw was vibrant nature and wildlife and a very rich culture. The country has a working government and the people seemed satisfied as they had been given an opportunity to vote in an electoral process just like in America.  I asked about the genocide and found that majority of the people had put this behind and were now keen on nation building and development. I also got to learn that Rwanda was among the fastest developing countries around the world but was more excited by the cleanliness of the cities and the political stability. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Another key aspect was the availability of an efficiently working healthcare system that incorporated modern equipment. The level of cleanliness in the health facilities was different from what the media had been telling the world and I also learnt that Ebola had only affected a few countries in Western Africa out the more than 50 Africa countries. On the other hand, there was no congestion in the hospitals and there was an evidently vibrant education system with several universities in the capital city of Rwanda. This trip was among the most exciting times I have had in my life as it opened my eyes to a totally different nature of life in Africa


In conclusion, I am of the opinion that it should be prudent for media platforms to provide the accurate and current information for different countries in the world instead of just providing general information.


Works Cited

Berman, Jonathan E. Success in Africa: Ceo Insights from a Continent on the Rise. , 2013. Print


George, Terry, Keir Pearson, Don Cheadle, Sophie Okonedo, Joaquin Phoenix, and Nick Nolte. Hotel Rwanda. Madrid: OnPictures, 2005

Essay Writing Service Sample: The Effectiveness of Sentencing/Prison

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Prisons (or correctional facilities) are systems for crime control. Prisons together with the police and court system form an indispensable part of the criminal justice system of any nation. Although sentencing and penal systems vary across countries, the fundamental purpose of sentencing is to prevent criminal behavior by ensuring citizens respect the law (McKay-Panos, 2016). Sentencing aims at contributing to a just, peaceful, and safe society. Offenders are often sent to prison due to specific national purposes and principle guideline offered by the constitution (Looman & Carl, 2015). Sometimes the goals of a case can have an adverse effect, and as such, the philosophies of sentencing provided to a judge are used to determine the best wat to achieve the purpose of disposition.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In recent years, prisons and court systems have been the center of public focus. Recent studies have shown that most countries use the prison system fraudulently. Mona Lynch, a social scientist and professor, is cited saying that prosecutors used the law punitively to form a targeted warfare against minorities (Rodriguez, 2016, para. 2). Trends indicate that the public disapproves of the prison system. Most people feel that prison systems do not ultimately serve to rehabilitate people. Similarly, there are contentious debates on the effectiveness of in creating a just, peaceful, and safe society (Rodriguez, 2016). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


The impact of sentencing can be discussed with regards to factors like prison population and a country’s outlook on its justice system. Lynch (2016) asserts that countries need to refrain from over-reliance on incarceration and look at other correctional programs, mostly for youths.

Are Prisons Effective?

A prison is a facility where the state authority forcibly confines inmates as a form of punishment (Welch, 2013). Prisons are as a result of criminal justice systems. The earliest records of the penitentiary date back to the 3rd millennia BC (Welch, 2013).  Major ancient civilizations used the concept of prisons as a way to detain incarcerated people. In those ages, prisons would act as detentions for offenders or presumed offenders until sentencing to death or life of slavery (Welch, 2013). Prisons have morphed into correctional facilities working with the concept of rehabilitating and reforming criminals. Prisons are used to hold convicted or suspected offenders, but on rare occasions, they are used as political correctness tools for detaining political prisoners and enemies of the state.


Canada has two types of prisons: the federal level used for holding inmates serving more than two years, and the provincial/territorial prison for holding individuals serving two years or less (Goff, 1997). Canada has a low incarceration rate compared to other industrialized nations. Canada holds 116 per 100,000 people compared to U.S. 702 per 100,000 (Griffiths, 2014). Canada’s criminal system is responsible for ensuring the safety of prisoners, which explains why the country has invested highly in correctional facilities that seek to improve the life of offenders (Griffiths, 2014). Today, Canada has approximately 215 facilities ranging from federal to provincial prisons (Goff, 1997). Trevethan and Rastin (2004) report that most incarcerated people in the Canadian prison system are black or other minorities who are in most cases drug addicts. Additionally, the majority of the inmates are men, and they sometimes undergo psychological breakdowns (Trevethan & Rastin, 2004). The Canadian criminal system considers factors such as the severity of an offense or the level of danger to the society as the determinants for a sentence (Griffiths, 2014). Although the criminal justice system means well in its purpose to reform offenders, there is no clear answer on its effectiveness[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

According to the Canadian criminal code, a sentence must be proportional to the gravity of the crime and the preconditions under which the offense was committed (Correctional Service of Canada, 2016). Also, the penalty must be least restrictive to achieve the purpose of rehabilitating and reintegrating the individual. Sentencing should promote a sense of responsibility in the inmate as well as allowing the prisoner to acknowledge that they have made a mistake and are willing to change for the better. Prison offers one a chance to be monitored and mentored for them to change to law abiding citizens. Similarly, punishment helps influence the character of an offender (Duguid, 2000). Sociologists argue that the courses offered in prisons have a positive effect towards the thinking of a criminal. In Canada, these courses mostly constitute skill development and basic adult education. Sometimes, inmates have tutors talk to them about religion and family life (Griffiths, 2014). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


Theories of deterrence claim that sentencing might deter other people from committing the same crime. Critics, however, point out that individuals who hurt others might also do so inside prison walls. Deterrence, however, works in societies since most persons who see the harsh penalties seek to live a more peaceful life (Ashworth, 2010).


According to Ashworth (2010), theories of retribution work on the concept that criminals will achieve a proper balance if the punishment causes a high level of misery. In this case, retribution can instill fear, and this reduces crime. Although there are no accurate numbers to support the claim, there is an agreement that treatment approaches in the prison system have proven useful (Ashworth, 2010). Community-based programs have dramatically led to few criminal activities in Canada, thus reducing re-imprisonment. Additionally, restorative justice has been central to ensuring that inmates are back to their mental health by the time they leave the system (Ashworth, 2010).


Incarceration has adverse effects on individuals and their communities. The ineffectiveness of prisons in preventing crime and the socio-economic effects on societies in countries such as Netherlands, New Zealand, and Germany have led to policy changes that can be felt by other nations (Ashworth, 2010). As Griffiths (2014) further confirms, incarceration is not an enough strategy; however, arrest and punishment can be deterrent. Most inmates hail from minority communities and broken families, implying that some of the prisoners become comfortable in prisons. For small time offenders, extended periods in prisons have proven to be risky since they are exposed to high-risk offenders who then teach them how to commit other crimes (Griffiths, 2014). Some Canadian prisons do not fully carry out their provisions, thus the purpose of sentencing is not fully utilized (Looman & Carl, 2015). Another cause for alarm on the prison system and its effectiveness is the prevalence of prison suicide. Looman and Carl (2015) add that many imprisoned white males commit suicide, a case attributed to rampant prison violence. Furthermore, the rising costs of maintaining correctional facilities is an increasingly worrying trend. A research by QMI Agency and Thibault (2014) indicates that as of 2013/2014, the cost of housing an inmate reached an all high of $2.7 billion. From the figure, it is apparent that these institutions struggle to hold and care for the incarcerated.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


As the prison population grows, the services and the infrastructure required also expand. The prison industry involves the private sector that benefits directly from the jail system. The results has seen prisons morph from criminal justice institutions to institutions that offer cheap labor. As such, big corporations have decided to target the marginalized communities for petty crimes to ensure that they stay in business. From corrupt free point of view, imprisonment would work to reduce crime and consequently instill peace. Although the ineffectiveness of prisons is evident, it is imperative for the justice systems to seek alternatives to sentencing. Eliminating prison systems and replacing them with humane and efficient systems can prove helpful.



Ashworth, A. (2010). Sentencing and criminal justice (5th ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.


Correctional Service of Canada. (2016). Serving time.


Duguid, S. (2000). Can prisons work? The prisoner as object and subject in modern corrections. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.


Goff, C. H. (1997). Criminal justice in Canada: An introduction. Scarborough, ON: ITP Nelson.


Griffiths, C. T. (2014). Canadian criminal justice: A primer (5th ed.). Scarborough, ON: Nelson Education Limited.


Looman, M. D., & Carl, J. D. (2015). A country called prison: Mass incarceration and the making of a new nation. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.


Lynch, M. P. (2016). Hard bargains: The coercive power of drug laws in federal court. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.


McKay-Panos, L. (2016, January 5). Prisoners and work. LawNow.


Rodriguez, I. (2016, November 16). ‘Targeted’ injustice: Why prosecuting the war on drugs needs serious reform.


Thibault, E. (2014, March 18). Federal inmate cost soars to $117Gs each per year. Edmonton Sun.


Trevethan, S., & Rastin, C. J. (2004). A profile of visible minority offenders in the federal Canadian correctional system. Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service of Canada.


Welch, M. (2013). Corrections: A critical approach (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.