Essay Writing Sample: The New Education vs. the Old Education in Athens

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Education remains an important feature in every society, and this is with good reason. The evolution of man has been characterized with the education of different aspects that led to the modern world. In Athens, education has also gone through different stages, and that provides the chance for people to make a comparison. Many factors show the differences between new education and old education in Athens.

Old Education in Athens

Ancient Athens was considered the brightest city in Greece while considering education and cultural studies. The old education system was focused on synchronizing the body and soul. This means that the old education system was based on physical exercises and music. People were required to attend gymnastic classes and music school. This means that the primary purpose of education at the time was to help people develop mentally. Even though people would still get to learn the facts, it was not the core objective of the education system.

The education system was aimed at making people fit to become better citizens. Patriotism was one of the key aspects, and it involved the children from birth. Learning started early to ensure that people were well versed in their culture. Art was also one of the primary ways through which education was delivered. In Athens, poetry was a common form of learning, and all boys were required to be fluent. The whole logic behind attending the poetry classes was for the students to be able to distinguish between perfect and crude art. Other forms of learning included science and philosophy among many others. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The old education system was private, and people had the choice to choose whether they needed their children to attend school. It would be important to note that even the people from the poor communities would strive to ensure their children achieved at least the basic education. While boys were educated at the homes of the respective teachers, girls would be educated at home. While at an early age, the children would be taught Grammata, which includes arithmetic, reading, and writing (Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs of Hellenic Republic, 2014). Once the students proved to have an excellent command of the language, they would be taken to the next step, in which they would be introduced to great poets.

Modern Education in Athens

The modern education system in Athens is triggered by the interaction of the country with other nations. It has changed rapidly with students now focusing on ways through which they can solve the country’s social and economic problems (Morgan, 2014). Students are required to attend lectures, in which they are taught a range of subjects. There has been an emergence of teachers that can teach everything. In addition, both male and female students learn in classrooms depending on the grade of their studies. This marks an end to the different ways in which students were taught with regard to gender.

Education is no longer a personal decision for the parents. It is considered a necessity and all parents have to ensure their children are educated. The education system has also been improved to ensure the students are conversant with modern world affairs. For instance, economic classes play the role of producing students that can work in the government to ensure the economy performs soundly. The initial system that made people form a bond with the government has ceased to exist. People now believe in a capitalistic system in which they get value for every service offered. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Contrast of the Old and New Education in Athens

While comparing the old and new education system in Athens, it is evident that the core objectives vary. In the old systems, the reason behind education in the past was to make people who would be patriotic to the country. However, in the new education system, people are educated to make them earn a living. The interaction between Greece and the other countries has made people feel the need to adapt to the capitalist system. Even the fact that Greek is a member of the European Union shows why such a system becomes necessary for the Athenians to adapt with such an education system.

In addition, the infrastructure involved with the education system has been widely associated with these education systems. In the past, people would be educated in local rooms or at home. However, modern Greece has schools, universities, and college buildings in which students can access vast reading materials. For instance, students can find books on different subjects. In addition, the students can also learn through magazines and newspapers. The main contrast between the old and new education is that people choose to specialize in the modern world. For instance, people become scientists, lawyers, or even doctors. While looking at the old education system, people would all become artists and patriots. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


Therefore, there is a sharp contrast between the old and new education systems in Athens. These have played a role in defining the nature of students and country performance. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]While comparing the current education system with other countries, it is evident that it will also evolve with the aim of meeting the world demands. The students become the biggest beneficiaries as they can choose whatever disciplines to pursue depending on their preferences.


Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs of Hellenic Republic. (2014). Education in ancient Athens.

Morgan, J. C. (2014). The Transition Period of Athenian Education and Modern Education. The Classical Journal, 13(4), 272-276.

Write My Essay Sample: Evaluation Tools

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There have been increased concerns about the methods used in teaching K-8 students. These concerns have led to the introduction of different evaluation tools. The tools are meant to assess the reading ability of the students by subjecting the students to some activities related to reading exercise. One of the evaluation tools that have recently been introduced is the Development Reading Assessment (DRA-2) tool (Brosi, 2011).

The tool is being used in studies on the evaluation of reading fluency and comprehensiveness in K-8 students. It is better as compared to the originally used Basic Reading Inventory (BRI) which only tested the comprehension skills of the students by just providing a list of words and stories after which the students are asked questions.

The process of implementing the DRA-2 evaluation tool includes administering tests to students that assess their reading abilities by a series of stories that are progressively challenging as the teacher evaluates the accuracy of the students in reading out aloud, retelling the stories, and responding to questions related to the stories (Brosi, 2011).  This way, the teachers will be better placed to observe, record, and evaluate the changes in the reading performance of students systematically.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In areas where this tool has been used, there has been a positive impact on the reading skills of the students now that it increases the reading proficiency of the students. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] The advantages of this tool over previously used tools include its sound reliability and validity analysis. It is an easy to apply and administer evaluation tool, as it enables automatic scoring of students’ progress. The feature makes it is more efficient as it also provides enhanced reporting features used for additional analysis of student results; to ensure consistent assessment administration. The constant assessment capability enables schools to keep data on all the students’ performances and thus guaranteeing a transparent grading system across schools.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Brosi, E. (2011). Table 1.2: Academic/educational attitudes and values. In Measurement tools for evaluating out-of-school time programs: An evaluation resource.

Essay Writing Service Sample: My Personal Goals

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My life has always been guided by the desire and aspiration to teach. To a large extent, I have strived to pursue my career in teaching and offering guidance as much as possible. My current job involves providing instruction to military personnel before their deployment. As an instructor, my duty is to equip the military members with relevant knowledge that will help them on their mission. It is essentially a job that exposes me to the realities of teaching while enabling me to develop my skills even further. The job offers me the necessary foundation for building my career as an instructor in the medical field. I have a yearning to teach in a medical environment such as a nursing school or a community college. My current job has enabled me to develop the necessary skills in teaching and instruction to help me further this dream. In any case, teaching experience gained in one field always helps significantly in case one changes the job.

Career Goals

As an instructor, my career goal is to develop my skills better through experience in teaching military officers and to transfer this experience to teaching in an academic institution. I am currently guided by the motivation to teach, and my career is fully defined by this motivation. I aspire to develop an active and fruitful career in the teaching fraternity. While I understand that many people venture into the field, mine is a strong desire to use my skills and experience for the betterment of the society by teaching and offering guidance in the medical field. My career is guided by sharing my knowledge with others and watching people excel through my instructions, teaching, and coaching. Currently, I teach various classes ranging from survival skills to communication. My concentration in education has provided me with an opportunity to implement the academic knowledge I learned to the actual environment. I teach my students about critical skills, and I also develop myself better. In the process, I prepare myself for my career development process. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Preparation, Experience, and Accomplishments

My current concentration in education adequately prepares me for my career objectives. I have gained valuable experience on how to analyze social, political, and economic influences on education. I fully understand how education is affected by these factors and the imperative need to consider these variances when teaching students (Cappello & Moss, 2010). I recognize that schools are often affected by historical, political, and social factors thus affecting the acquisition of information by the learners. In the medical fraternity, I understand the legal factors play a significant role in influencing the nature of education.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here] To this end, I am adequately prepared to understand these issues and apply them effectively while teaching. My career will, therefore, be guided by professionalism and the need to maximize output for my students. I have gained so much from understanding how education can be enhanced through the various dynamics. I am therefore fully equipped to offer my instructions from a perspective of full understanding.

My concentration also enables me to identify structures and policies in education institutions that can be used for engagement in practice. Indeed, educational organizations provide the best platform to grow and nurture talent. In many educational institutions such as schools and colleges, students are exposed to practical situations that help them to develop their skills. In education, students conduct instructions to the community, school, and other institutions in order to practice what they have been taught. I have therefore gained an ability to take advantage of such opportunities and develop them further for the interest of my students. The success of any student depends on the mentorship and guidance they obtain from their instructors. I, therefore, attach much importance to mentorship programs found in colleges since they enable students to grow holistically and develop their skills. Throughout my career, I will ensure that I develop structures that facilitate the teaching profession with a focus on practical learning skills.

Across the education system, different players have their duties and responsibilities to accomplish. My concentration has enabled me to fully delineate the roles and tasks of every player in the sector. I understand that educational institutions can only succeed when every party is committed to their role. As a teacher, I know that my role is to teach my students in the best way that supports their growth and development. When given a responsibility to manage an institution, I will understand the need to grow and support every aspect of that school in order to foster growth. The course has enabled me to learn and understand about the various leadership theories and how they apply to the real situation. I know how the education system works and the different ways to manage education. I have gained research skills that I can use successfully to obtain more information on the field and further grow knowledge and support education. Moreover, the course has exposed me to the skills of developing a student-centered approach to learning.

I understand that learning becomes productive when the student is most engaged and fully facilitated. The concentration has further enabled me to identify and recognize the many sources of diversity and inequity in education. The social inequities realized in life greatly affect the learning process (Cappello & Moss, 2010). Children from low-income families cannot always access quality education. In many poor neighborhoods, educational institutions lack many facilities and support structures. Students in such environments must, therefore, be helped to make them at par with their counterparts in better schools. Similarly, in many urban communities, students are exposed to diverse cultures and systems due to the different races and cultures inherent in such environments. These issues play a prominent role in shaping the students’ perspectives on life. The course has given me skills to understand legal and ethical issues in education and how to apply them effectively.

My coursework has greatly facilitated my ability to be a better teacher and instructor in the teaching profession. Before the course, I found it difficult to determine whether my students were gaining something from my teaching. I did not have the skills to understand student behavior and their ability to grasp instructions. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Today, I am well equipped to understand student reaction to my teaching. I, therefore, teach in a manner that best suits my students. I vary my mode of teaching depending on the nature of my students. The course has therefore been valuable for me. Also, my experience in this program enables me to understand the various changes that are constantly seen in the education sector. I have the skills to effect change to the best interest of my students. Any change process I initiate will be focused on improving the teaching profession. The exposure I have received from the course has made me better-equipped to write recommendations that can help to improve education. I am more focused on curriculum development since I see many loopholes in that area.


Cappello, M., & Moss, B. (2010). Contemporary readings in literacy education. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.

Essay Writing Sample: Case Study Analysis and Strategy Proposal

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Social responsibility changed with considerations from different viewpoints, and the obligations of organizations towards this CSR is, therefore, a varying practice across the industry. In this analysis of the internal and external influences of CSR, it is imperative to appreciate the significance of leadership, and the level of education of such persons in management. In comparison to the changes that are occurring to efforts in social responsibility on a global scale to the previous standings, the discussion will also define a case whereby CSR changes have become a challenge, and in this way, format a strategy proposal.

Analysis of Social Responsibility

Based on theoretical discussions, it will be possible for the research to engage various aspects within the organizational environment in either theoretical or practical capacity. Through the assessment of arguments from Swanson (2014), the significance of leadership in using CSR to create images is compared to arguments by Dillon, Back and Manz (2014),[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]which attempt to justify empowerment of social responsibility through practical management. Organizational strategies on an ideal platform can formulate functional internal and external stimuli for the engagement of ideal CSR strategies. Also, the assessment of a corporate strategy in the field also aims at appreciating the market status and revise its strategic plan. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Ethical Decision-making

Decision-making in the organizational setting links with the strategic position of the management in their interests in community and societal responsibilities within their operating environment. Du, Swaen, Lindgreen and Sen (2013) propose the consistent repositioning of organizational ideals towards a better ethical CSR approach. All activities engaged in this process must, therefore, align to their obligation to act towards the ultimate benefit of the general society. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


Dillon, P. J., Back, R. M., & Manz, C. C. (2014). Authentic corporate social responsibility based on authentic empowerment: An exemplary business leadership case. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 7(1).

Du, S., Swaen, V., Lindgreen, A., & Sen, S. (2013). The roles of leadership styles in corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(1), 155-169.

Swanson, D. L. (2014). Images of the self: Toward a model of CSR leadership. Embedding CSR into Corporate Culture, 13-33.

Write My Essay Sample: Organizational Culture

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Innovative culture can serve as a catalyst for efficiency and growth, but it can also be a source of frustration, stagnation, and even regression within an organization. The prospects of innovation, in and of itself, is not solely dependent on the type of change being implemented, but the success or failure of organizational change rests primarily on management’s ability to match new policies with existing structure, and the managerial staff’s understanding of the dynamics at play within their organization.

A manager that assumes the role as change agent should be attuned to the preexisting environment of her group and which policies have led to success previously. New policies should build upon past success or be specifically engineered to correct prior difficulties. A change agent should also marshal support from others while designing and introducing instruments of change. Assistance from ideas champions will help to deliver the intended message of the new organizational change and lend credence and confidence necessary for broad buy-in among organization members.

The process of effecting change within an organization requires all of the aforementioned virtues along with a tolerance for and plan to mitigate likely responses to new direction. Among these likely responses for the organization’s staff are risk and conflict. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]Risk, the likelihood that there will arise discord and disharmony during the organizational change or that operations may be hindered through the initial stages of reform, should be accounted for and evaluated diligently throughout the process. Adverse reactions to change should not come as a shock to the manager staff, to the contrary, risk of adverse reaction should be expected and a strategy to deal with issues that may arise should be well-formed and ready to employ.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Conflict is one of the risks that commonly arise during periods of organizational transformation. Conflict can present itself in one or more of several possible ways. First, conflict among organization members is a likely result of unrest within a member community. Suddenly, organization members (employees) are being asked to alter their routines that may have been formed over a significant period of time. Disruption causes uncertainty, uncertainty causes stress, and stress fuels conflict. The second source of conflict may arise between the organization and partner entities outside of the business or group. If innovative change is pursued without consultation with adjacent organizations, a disruption similar to that which can plague intra-organizational harmony can present itself.

In order to mitigate the risk of conflict, both within the organization and with partner organizations outside of the group, managers should be receptive to feedback and malleable enough to adjust to concerns or negative trends. This ingredient within an effective change agent can be difficult to establish in a short period of time. The trust that fosters valuable feedback is a product of consistent behavior and policies that express value to the perspectives of employees. In situations where such a dynamic is not established beforehand or when the manager is unsure just how solid the relationship is between managing staff and lower-level employees, effective innovation is not unavailable. While it does not completely preclude the ability to undergo organizational change, it does require a greater level of diligence in the area of communication to lubricate the flow of unfettered and candid feedback.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

In conclusion, effective management through organizational change requires a well-rounded understanding and commitment to the areas likely to be impacted. This commitment calls for an appreciation of stressors and their effects on employees, as well as the foresight to devise systems to deal with conflicts swiftly and appropriately. Change is always risky but through proper consideration and attention to detail, organizational change can be enacted to promote growth, increase efficiency, and build a stronger and more durable organization.

Essay Writing Sample: McDonald’s

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  1. Examine the countries where your company does business according to where they rank on the Hofstede cultural dimensions. Think of some examples of how a U.S. manager would need to modify his or her behavior when communicating with associates from one or more of these foreign countries.

McDonald’s is the largest chain of fast food restaurants across the globe with 36, 538 outlets in 119 countries. This has ensured that the company has opened some branches in foreign countries and is has entered the African market with gusto through Kenya following Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and Subway as they aim to capture the East African Market. The management needs to ensure that their managers exhibit an understanding of the culture in their communications and behavior when dealing with associates. The need to understand the peculiarities of the culture are essential especially in the initial stages of setting up market. For example, when a manager from the US is communicating with business associates from Kenya, he must exhibit flexibility even when attending a formal event such as arriving early in time to learn other people’s names so as to address them by name as per the culture of Kenyan business environment.

  1. Does your company operate in any countries that are considered very politically or economically risky?

Yes, the company has operated in economically risky countries like Mexico. This has been as a result of low confidence of the consumer and the uniform slowdown of the economy. This has led to slow growth of the company, though it has considered maintaining the units in such countries.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

  1. Does your company primarily operate in civil law or common law countries? What are some of the implications of this?

McDonald’s primarily operates in countries that operate under the civil law including Australia, the US and New Zealand among others. The implications of this are that business laws and regulations are detailed and outlined as per each industry especially under business law. The result is that in case of infringements such as theft of trademarks and business secrets, there are specific processes to be followed. As a result, as Stephen (2014) outlines, McDonald’s can judge the level and form of competition that it may likely face in a new market to safeguard its interests (Stephen, 2014).

  1. Has your company purchased any insurance from the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)?

No, the company has not yet purchased any insurance from U.S overseas private investment corporation though some of the products supplied in their outlets are sourced from farms that have been insured by OPIC.

  1. What are some key intellectual property protections, if any, that your company possesses? When do these protections (e.g., patents) expire? How does your company intend to recoup lost revenues due to any patent or other intellectual property protection expirations?

McDonald’s possesses the intellectual property protections for its trade secrets and food recipes especially for its sandwich the “Egg McMuffin.” McDonald’s also has logos and patents that it protects under the federal unfair competition provisions of the Lanham Act. For example, its service mark rights and trademarks are protected in Section 43(a) (Bitton, 2012). For personal use, one is allowed to copy, download, view or print all the material displayed on the site but also ensure that the all the copyright or trademark contained are not tempered, modified or altered in any way. McDonald’s reserves and owns all title, rights, and interests in and to intellectual property rights in all content available on their site. The company renews its intellectual property right annually to avoid expiration. It has not lost any revenue through expiration of any patent or intellectual property protection.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

  1. Find the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) score for two countries where your selected company does business, one country with a relatively high score and one country with a relatively low score. Search for news stories about corporate financial scandals in these two countries. Prepare a summary of news stories about financial scandals in these countries. Briefly describe what you perceive are the risks of corruption, such as paying bribes, that your selected company might face in these countries.

According to Transparency International (2015), Japan has a Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) score of 75 while Lesotho has 44 as per the year 2015 (Transparency International, 2015). The latest biggest financial scandal in Japan is that of Olympus Corp that happened in the year 2011. This was a fraudulent takeover that involved hiding $1.7 billion losses that had happed for a span of 13 years. The former chairman of the company and two more executives pleaded guilty in 2012 for covering the losses. The company was fined $5.6 million, and the adviser to the company was jailed while the three former officials were granted suspended the sentence. Lesotho has been hit by numerous financial scandals, though most of them are not documented. One of the biggest scandals involved water project where a large sum of money was lost but was not reported to the shareholders for fear of losing confidence among the shareholders.

  1. Determine your company’s mode of entry into foreign markets. This should be based upon a serious analysis of your company’s risk-return tradeoff. In your opinion, has your company taken the right approach?

McDonald’s uses various modes of entry depending on the nation that it wants to set business (Lymbersky, 2011). First, the chain selects the country to enter and then determine the appropriate mode of entry. The company has business partners and associates in different countries. The company often prefers to work in partnership with existing players for new markets, build an alliance with players that exist on the market. After years of experience in that market, it then goes alone. The company has taken the best approach because it gives McDonald’s the ability to evaluate the market and economy of the country before deciding to go alone.

  1. Does your company have an exit strategy? Recall that exit strategy are to be determined before entry into the foreign market, rather than after entry.

McDonald’s strategy to exit in a market is through franchising. This was evident when the company was exiting from the Taiwan, Japan and Korean market in April 2016. and had to sell off its assets to other companies. This strategy entails the company selling its directly-managed stores and maintaining the jointly-owned stores. The sales have been sluggish in these Asian countries owing to the slow economies.

  1. Critically and objectively evaluate how ethical your company’s global operations are and determine if they are good corporate citizens (i.e., do they have a well-thought-out corporate social responsibility program for the long term?).

McDonald has been criticized over its unethical practices globally especially in matters regarding to its poor pay and mistreatment of employees. In New York, workers went on strike demanding better pay and the right to join unions was echoed in 33 countries across the world (Gibison, 2016). In Brazil, it has been accused of wage theft, mistreatment of pregnant employees and poverty-level pay. Although this strategy of paying its employees poorly has been fundamental in making the chain-store wealthy, it leaves the employees underpaid. As a result, they cannot be said to be good corporate citizens.

  1. What is the corporate mission statement of your target company, assuming it has one? How well do the company’s actions adhere to its stated mission?

McDonald’s mission statement is:

Our mission is to be our customers’ favorite place and way to eat & drink. We’re dedicated to being a great place for our people to work; to being a strong, positive presence in your community; and to delivering the quality, service, cleanliness and value our customers have come to expect from the Golden Arches – a symbol that’s trusted around the world.

To a large extent, the company has adhered to its mission statement except for its treatment of workers as outlined in question 9.

  1. On its strategy formulation, would you categorize your company as a shareholder model or a stakeholder orientation? Why?

McDonald’s is a shareholder model. The company ensures that the shareholders of the company are aware of its operations and have voting rights and the chain store works to increasing their dividend value

  1. is the company a stateless corporation? If not, is the company on its way to becoming a stateless corporation?

The company is a stateless company. It’s currently operating in over 33 states in different parts of the globe and keeps on expanding to every region in the world.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

  1. What type of organizational structure is the company currently using?

McDonald’s is currently using the hierarchical functional organizational structure.

  1. Do you think the company may benefit from a hybrid or matrix structure? Why or why not?

McDonald’s can benefit from a hybrid organizational structure. This is because the structure adopts both divisional and functional structures at the same level of management. This body can operate in both the public sector and the private sector fulfilling public duties as well as commercial market operations.



Bitton, M. (2012). “Rethinking the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement’s Criminal Copyright Enforcement Measures.” The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 102(1):67-117

Gibison, A. (n.d.). McDonald’s: A Good Image with Bad Ethics. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

Lymbersky, C. (2011). “Market Entry Strategies” In Management. Hamburg: Laboratory Press.

Stephen, T. (2014).  “Mixed Jurisdiction and the Scottish Legal Tradition: Reconsidering the Concept of Mixture.” .Journal of Civil Law Studies, 7(1), 51-91.

Transparency International (2015). “Corruption Perceptions Index”. Transparency International. Transparency International Indexation.


Essay Writing Service Sample:Christianity

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To understand the rise of Christianity in Rome, it is necessary to examine how the religion developed within the region and the subsequent events that took place that led to it becoming the state’s dominant religious practice. However, it is also necessary to separate fact from fiction since many of the events and depictions of Christianity during this era are filled with hyperbole and outright falsehoods due to the tendency for exaggeration when it comes to retelling historical events.

For example, the story of Constantine’s “vision” before a critical battle never actually occurred, as historical records show, and Christians were not fed to lions in the Coliseum as a form of grisly entertainment to the Roman masses. The truth is, admittedly, more bland in comparison to the outlandish stories surrounding Christianity’s rise. Were Christians persecuted in Rome in 300 AD before the birth of Constantine? Yes, but only to a certain extent given the presence of other religions within the region.

Rome During the Early Church

Rome was one of the most progressive city-states since it espoused a form of religious freedom which enabled people in the area the freedom to worship, to a certain extent (policies and levels of tolerance often changed based on who was in power). However, at the time, Christianity differed significantly from its other counterpart religions since it was still defining what it was. You need to remember that, from the standpoint of religious development, Christianity during 200 AD was still relatively young and lacked the many rituals, writings, scripts and traditions that it possesses today (Meynell, 2016). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

During 100 AD it did not consider itself separate from Judaism; rather, a different aspect of it born from the teachings of Jesus. It was found to be more of a movement rather than a religion. It was only by 300 AD that Christianity was able to develop many of the familiar religious texts, traditions, and ideas that are visible today which resulted in what many describe as an “orthodoxy” that gave rise to the concept of Christianity being separate from Judaism. In the decades leading up to 300 AD, Christianity was a minority religion that was practiced by barely 10 percent of the Roman population. As seen in various countries around the world in the present day, members of minorities tend to be discriminated against by the majority. This helps to explain why historical records at the time point towards the persecution of Christians in Rome; however, it is unlikely that events spiraled into state-sponsored killings of Christians in the Roman Coliseum. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Understanding the Persecution of Early Christians and the Rise of the Church

The persecution was based more on the lack of sufficient legality and recognition surrounding Christianity than an actual abhorrence of the religion. Simply put, Christianity as an underground movement worked against it since it was viewed as potentially politically destabilizing due to the lack of sufficient information surrounding it. Combined with the presence of different Christian sects, each with its own opinion, resulted in a state of disunity that prevented the early church from putting up a genuinely united front. Its rise within Rome is thus connected to its legalization under the law which enabled it to receive the same protections as other recognized religions.

This legalization was brought about through Constantine who, after his military victories in both the West and East and after defeating his rival Maxentius, became the de facto head of Rome. However, Constantine’s legalization of Christianity as a religion was not a decision brought about through a vision or divine intervention; rather, it was due to the influence of his mother who was secretly a Christian and had instilled many Christian values, ideas, and concepts into Constantine since an early age. Without his mother’s influence from an early age, it is unlikely that Constantine would have developed the same positive inclinations towards Christianity. As such, it is ironic that the present day Roman Catholic Church, which has a distinctly patriarchic orientation, owes much of its power, prestige, and basilicas to the matriarchal influence of a woman on her son.

Constantine’s rise is thus connected to the rise of Christianity since its legalization, and subsequent redefining under Imperial ideology through the Edict of Milan resulted in a state of mutual tolerance by 313 AD. A few years later, Constantine passed several new laws that focused on preventing the persecution of Christianity which enabled the religion to spread throughout the Roman empire due to the lack of potential prosecution and Constantine’s patronage of the faith. With Constantine commissioning the creation of numerous cathedrals around Rome and the subsequent cementing of Christian doctrine under the First Council of Nicea by 325 AD, this created the perfect situation for Christianity to not only gain prominence but to rise as the future dominant religion within the region (Jones, 2014).

Impact of Constantine on the Rise of the Church

What you need to understand is that Constantine’s legal and financial aid to the early Church was instrumental towards its rise since this enabled it to have advantages that other religions within the area lacked. Combined with a social campaign from 324 to 330 which focused on changing the public mindset away from paganism and the Imperial Cult towards Christianity, this enabled the nascent Church to exponentially increase its followers. This precedent set by Constantine paved the way for future Roman Emperors to adopt the same ideas surrounding Christianity resulting in a slow but gradual conversion of not only the Imperial Senate but of the Roman citizenry in general into Christians.

One aspect of the rise of Christianity that is particularly notable during this period was Christians being placed in leadership positions within the government. With Christians in positions of power and the respect the general Roman citizenry had towards Rome’s hierarchical system of government, this placed Christianity in a positive light and profoundly influence public perception towards being a Christian. Aside from this, Constantine was shown to implement hiring policies that focused on placing Christians in positions of power over those who were from other religions.

In fact, records from this period of time reveal that Constantine pressured the members of many prominent Roman families to convert to Christianity if they wanted positions of power within the government. Unfortunately for many of the non-Christian religions within the Roman Empire, the shift from a ruling body that was composed of the Imperial Cult and minor religions to one that eventually became predominantly Christian was the death knell for policies of religious tolerance within the country (Maier, 2015). While Constantine was biased towards Christianity, this policy seemed oriented towards a peaceful and potential intertwining of Christianity and paganism in the future. Upon his death and the subsequent introduction of Christian-oriented governing bodies and emperors, this possible peaceful co-existence made way for a reversal of fortunes wherein instead of Christians being the ones persecuted, it eventually became members of other religions who were the ones being victimized by members of the Church

Even after the death of Constantine, from 320 AD to 402 AD, the rise of Christianity in Rome resulted in the subsequent decline of other religions within the empire. From a state of religious tolerance, the Christian majority eventually implemented new policies which persecuted other religions resulted in Christianity becoming the official religion of the Roman Empire. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The Church and the Fall of the Roman Empire

It is interesting to note that, for some scholars of history, they point towards the Church as being one of the main reasons behind the fall of the Roman Empire. However, it should be noted that from 295 AD onwards, the Roman empire was actually in decline due to a combination of disease, famine, mismanagement of resources and attacks from Germanic states. Though there is some credence to the correlation between the fall of Rome and the rise of the Church. The growing influence of Christianity also lead to bishops also gaining substantial political and social power within Rome. When taking into consideration the already chaotic nature of Roman politics and bureaucracy and combine it with the personal and church-oriented interests of the bishops, this created, even more, instability within the Roman government.

Considering the fact that many scholars point towards instability within the government as one of the leading causes behind the fall of the Roman Empire, then it can be stated that the rise of Christianity was a factor, albeit a small one, behind the eventual fall of Rome with its introduction into Roman society simply being at the same time as Rome’s gradual decline. The lasting impact of Christianity’s rise in Rome can still be felt today since it is considered as the largest and most dominant religion.

Reference List

Jones, A. W. (2014). Scholarly Transgressions: (Re)writing the History of World Christianity.     Theology Today, 71(2), 221.

Maier, H. O. (2015). The Origin of Heresy: A History of Discourse in Second Temple Judaism    and Early Christianity. Church History, 84(1), 222.

Meynell, H. (2016). The First Thousand Years: A Global History of Christianity. Heythrop          Journal, 57(2), 405

Write My Essay Sample:  Movie Analysis

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When we were kings: Characterization

In this 1974 documentary on a heavyweight boxing championship bout in Zaire between George Foreman and Muhammad Ali, Ali comes out as a humorous, bravado, tactful and intelligent character. It helps that Muhammad Ali comes out as the underdog and therefore, he has the sympathy of the viewer right from the beginning. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]At one point, Ali claims “I’m handsome, I’m young, I’m strong, I’m fast and I can’t be beat” when talking to the press. It’s clear that a lot did not believe him in that press conference just like the odds were stacked against him 7-1. His opponent was stronger, younger and bigger. Ali pulled up an upset in the last rounds creating a myth that lasts forever in the mind of the viewer. The rest of the film depicting his private and public persona reinforces his already established personality of bravery and determination.

42: The Jackie Robinson Story: Setting

The story is set in a black vs. white social conflict setting. The story starts with Jackie Robinson a Black man in the baseball league. He is the first black person to break into the white dominated major league. It’s a very big challenge for both Robinson and Branch Rickey, who recruit Robinson to break the unspoken color line. Off and on the field, Robinson and his family endure some unrelenting hostility based on hostility. As the story progresses, he Rickie begins to find allies among the white. In the end, the viewer is able to realize that the focus of the movie is not so much about the baseball, but to see greatness in color in a struggle between races.

Hoosiers: Theme

This is a film about overcoming adversities. This film is based on a true story of an Indiana team from a small town that makes it to the finals in 1954. The movie is a chronicle of events and attempts by a coach with a tainted past and a basketball-loving drunk in leading their team to victory. The two struggle to insert discipline among a squad of local boys and ultimately turn them into unlikely title contenders. The coach, Norman goes through several challenges, including that of uninterested fathers, a teacher who won’t let the team’s best player go out for the team and some undisciplined athletes. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]    The struggles that the team goes through pull the team together and along the way, they pull surprises and ultimately achieve the impossible- a high school team victory that neither they, nor their doubters saw coming.

Field of Dreams: Plot

Ray Kinsella, an Iowa farmer hears a voice in his field, “if you built it, he will come.” Ray interprets the message as one instructing him to build a baseball field right on his corn farm. The ghosts of Joe Jackson as well as other men belonging to Chicago white sox, a group of players that were banned from baseball for throwing the 1919 World Series for exchange for gamblers money come in.  Joe was known to have taken money but it was never proved that he had thrown the game indeed. Ray works through puzzles to understand the full meaning of the voices. He is also under pressure from Anne’s brother who in looking out for his sister’s best interest is pushing Ray away from his plan that looks increasingly absurd.

Erratic Fire, Erratic Passion Poems: Point of View

The poem is written in the point of view of a player, possibly a black player in a basketball game. The narrator does not give his reason as to why it bothers him when playing against a white guy. He seems to have quite a prejudice against white guys because he outlines that he didn’t have a problem with black, yellow or red guys. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]He simply had a problem against white guys. The narrator is an unreliable one because he does not give evidence as to why he dislikes and despises white guys during the game and trash-talks his opponents as soon as they enter the pitch. The closest he comes to giving evidence is when he claims that being guarded by a white guy is “disrespectful to his game” (Parker & Malla, 2015).


Parker, J., & Malla, P. (2015). Erratic Fire, Erratic Passion. New York: Routledge.

Essay Writing Service Sample:The Color Red

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Recruitment of Participants

The research subjects for this study were recruited from the collection of friends that the researcher had at FIU. The researcher contacted several potential research subjects and asked if they could meet in the campus library. Each participant was met individually by the investigator, verbally asked if they would consent to be part of a short study and presented with one of the printed test sheets. A total of three research subjects were used to obtain the necessary data.

Implementation of the Study

The participants were given the study materials with either red, green or black instructions. As per the instructions provided by the teacher, the research subjects were not informed beforehand regarding the importance of the coloring and were not aware that the other participants in the study were given test sheets that had a different color. A mobile phone timer was used by the researcher to limit the problem-solving time to three minutes, and a buzzer was used to signal the research subject per session that the total time was over for solving the anagrams. They were then instructed to fill out part two of the study results and were given five minutes to do so.

End of the Data Collection Period

Once the research subjects had finished with all the necessary data input, they were thanked by the researcher and given the study content spiel that was provided by the instructor. The data collection period took one day for the researcher to complete due to the differing schedules of the research participants and the fact that the researcher had to wait till their classes were over.

Results of the Study


The results of the study showed the following scores per participant based on the color of the instructions on their questionnaire: Red (6) correct answers, Green (13) correct answers, Black (12) correct answers. Overall, the study results showed that the participant using the red instructions had a lower level of performance when compared to the other research subjects.

Examining Participant Perceptions on the Test

a.) Perceived challenge on the anagram task

The results of the analysis showed that the average conclusion among the participants was to consider the test as being somewhat challenging: Green (5), Black (5), while the research subject with the red instructions found it extremely difficult Red (7).

b.) Perception on the Performance of Others on the Task

In this case, the results of the analysis showed a similar result to the first question where the Black (4) and Green (5) had a similar impression regarding how others would perceive the test. The same situation was seen in the case of the Red (9) participant with the results showing that they assumed that others would find the task equally as difficult as they found it.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

c.) Frustration of the Participants

Oddly enough, all the participants answered similarly for the third question wherein they all stated that the anagram task was somewhat frustrating (they all had an answer of six). The congruence between the different participants to arrive at the same answer could be indicative that while the anagrams were difficult, they were not perceived as having the same level of frustration as other tasks that they deal with while in FIU.

d.) Perspective on Performance

The mean on this answer was five since the participants who had the green and black questionnaires perceived their performance as being average considering the amount of blank spaces they left. In the case of the participant with the red questionnaire, they selected the score of “very poorly” given the number of questions they left unanswered.

e.) Accuracy of Color Coding Scheme

All the participants were able to correctly remember the color coding scheme that was used on their questionnaires. Considering the amount of time that has passed, it is not surprising that they would not forget this type of detail.

f.) Perspective on Color Coding Scheme Influencing Performance

A similar case of congruence occurred for this question wherein all the research participants answered with the number 5. They all stated that the color did not impact how they performed during the exercise. Based on this, it can be assumed that the participants are not aware of the potential correlation between color scheme and performance and merely attributed the use of red, green or black as the desire of the researcher to outline the instructions.


Examining Perception and Performance

The results of the study revealed that the color of the instructions did have an impact on how the study participants tackled the anagrams with the research subject receiving the instructions in red showing a much lower level of performance compared to the other individuals involved. The resulting data from the perspective of the students on the anagram questionnaire revealed that research subject Red perceived the task as being harder, more frustrating and thought that they did poorly on it. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In comparison, research subjects Green and Black noted that while the anagram exercise was tough, it was not overly complicated and did not feel the same level of frustration with the task. What this outcome shows is that color can often influence perspective and could potentially cause performance drops based on how it would influence the behavior and attitudes people would have when approaching a challenge they must overcome.

In fact, the data from the performance clearly shows a considerable gap between subject Red and subjects Green and Black. The latter performed almost twice as well as the former and had similar results despite the two having much different color schemes on their instructions. However, the sheer difference between the two scores is something that needs further examination since attitude and perspective should not influence overall performance by this much. The next section will detail the assumptions of the researcher regarding the current large gap in performance.

Examining Contributing Factors

After going over what can be considered as “poor results” from the number of anagrams that the study participant provided with the red questionnaire was able to solve within the given timeframe, the researcher looked at the anagrams that were provided and noticed a discrepancy. In the answer key that was given to all members of the class, the anagram “THWTA” was listed as “WATCH”; however, the letter “c” was missing in all the provided documents.

This discrepancy could either be an error on the part of the professor or was an intentional aspect of the study since the instructions did state “you can do them in order, or you can skip around.” This implies that the missing letter could have been intentionally kept out to see which of the participants were more “mentally flexible” when it came to how they approached the given task. Analyzing the questionnaires revealed that the participants provided with the black and green instructions answered the questions randomly or, as the researcher believes, they filled out the blank spaces based on their observations regarding which anagrams were likely easier to complete and remembered what the instructions indicated.

The participant who was given the questionnaire with red instructions did not have the same random style as the other two research subjects. Each anagram was answered in descending order with only number three being skipped in the lineup. When comparing the performance outcomes from the different research participants involved, it can be assumed that the instructions in red were not as readily internalized as compared to those in green and black.           Considering the data that was presented earlier on in this study involving performance and how people perceived the color red, it can be assumed that while the research subject was reading the instructions on the paper, they did not internalize it given their perspective on the color. As a result, they failed to consider alternative strategies to answering the questions compared to the other participants in the study.

When combined with the current association in this study of red and poor performance, another potential piece of information that can be derived is that the use of red on written instructions can cause people to forget or not even internalize particular details. This can be due to what can only be described as a form of “mental aversion” to the color. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Another potential reason is that since red causes heightened physical performance, the research participant could have attempted to read the instructions as quickly as possible thereby causing them to miss a few details. This does tend to happen in some cases and assuming the association between red and increased avoidance behavior as stated in the introductory section of this section is accurate, this can explain why the instructions could have been missed due to the participant’s haste to avoid looking at the color red any longer.

Essay Writing Service Sample: Law Enforcement Agencies versus Constitutional Right

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Law Enforcement Agencies versus Constitutional Rights: Law Enforcement Interpretation of Encryption of Cell Phone Technology in Violation of the 4th And 5th Amendments

An assessment of the position of law enforcement agencies, the government, the society and the judiciary relating to the interpretation of the Fourth and Fifth Amendments reveals contentions in various situations. Cell phone encryption technology may emerge as an impediment and a violation to the fourth, while the interests of the investigators in compulsion of the provision of such information (or hacking of devices) carries varying translations of legal settings. These considerations, in comparison to the constitutional rights of an individual are essentially a position for the argument of the levels to which the constitution holds ground in legal and criminal prosecutions and investigations. This research process intends to engage these concepts in the development of an appreciation of concepts from criminology and legal studies. Within the development of concepts relating to the position of law enforcement, the discussion develops analytical standpoints for research purposes and attempts to test hypothetical stances within other scholarly discussions on similar and related topics. In addition, possible violation of the fourth and fifth Amendments is defined in the capacity of the individual and the state in response of each other in reaction to handling and prosecution of persons in possession of such encrypted information and devices.

Project Description

The significance of law enforcement agencies within the protection of national security and the interests of the nation plays on a level of importance on its capacity to survey, engage in surveillance and reconnoiter of threats on telecommunication. On the other hand, the entry of constitutional rights towards privacy and preservation of information security is arguably an important social utility. In this regard, this project concerns itself with the assessment of the interaction between these two functions within social space and political concepts on security versus constitutional rights. Through the consultation of the 4th and 5th Amendments, a research process possesses the evidence on which analysis of these interactions becomes either justifiable or excessive.

In the assessment of criminology, both as a function of social space and a threat to security, this analytical process aims at creation of an understanding of the legality of each of the positions of security agencies and private persons in the preservation of their respective interests.   This research question relates to the criminology and legal studies disciplines, demanding information from the theme of comparing of security and morality within a legal environment. Practices chosen by security agencies in surveillance and the attempts by parties under surveillance restrict the extent of the research project in achieving a balanced assessment of the legal aspects of the argument, while in comparison to the criminology of practices in encryption of data exchanged on mobile devices (Joh, 2013). The confines of practices allowable on legal basis in the practice of using virtual networks, tor services and end-to-end encryption define the criminology of publishable offences in similar attempts to privatize communication.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

On the other hand, attempts to access such communications through eavesdropping attempts, unauthorized entry and listening on real-time basis can be criminalized in certain situations by the legal provisions available. Such interactions between the two disciplines not only form the basis of discussion for the research process- they also offer directives on research questions and hypothetical stands. In the overall sense, the main question is based on the possibility that the current law enforcement and the interpretation of encryption of telecommunication technology violates the 4th and 5th Amendments. The topics of concern within the identified disciplines involve the inferences of the 4th Amendment right to unreasonable search and seizure followed by the 5th Amendment right against self-incrimination. In addition, there is a consideration of society’s interest in safety versus nature of the crimes committed in encryption.

Background Literature Review

Context for the assessment of the hypothetical expectations relate to published content on various practices in the telecommunication and security sector- with relations to legal provisions and confines. Such theoretical understandings then relate to their application in an actual setting within socio-political influences, threats to security and interests in privacy of citizens. Bernstein (2016) expresses the need for the creation of protocols to understand the significance of telecommunications as a limited private interaction in the face of national surveillance on a large scale. In similar context, an assessment of the interference between the right to privacy and the position of the Fourth Amendment against unreasonable search and seizure. Wagner & Finkelman (2014) attempt to argue the necessity of contravening of some of these laws in the face of security threats such as terrorism or criminal activities (trafficking, murder and significant federal offenses). However, the qualification of the seriousness of an offense and the process of justification of such attempts varies- and is subject to different interpretation. Such variations in the entire approach to understanding the limitation of offenses and their constitutional provisions limits the concepts within criminology theories within the possibility of abuse of legal approach to encryption. On the other hand, it is arguable that the position of private persons should be protected by the constitution regardless of the level of threat that security agencies suspect without proof (Bernstein, 2016). Each of these considerations play significantly towards the theoretical understanding of legal arguments towards the position to be adopted by the interpretation of the constitution.

Implications of the 4th Amendment Right to Unreasonable Search and Seizure

In the setting where a defendant possesses encrypted devices within a setting of suspicious or evidenced criminal activity, their rights are still preserved by the constitution. Such rights, therefore, should include those within the fourth Amendment towards unreasonable search and seizure. Chang (2015) attempts to weigh the tension between privacy and law enforcement by considering the information revolution- which has introduced dynamic limitations to accessing and privatizing communication. In his discussion, the possibility of national security becoming a tool and an excuse for breaking of constitutional provisions emerges- and initiates the argument on the pressure on each position towards the law enforcement agencies. Intelligence (either before, during or after an event significant to national security) is an essential tool for the functioning of security- which is not guaranteed within the Fourth Amendment (Chang, 2015). For the position of the agencies to be defined, there must be distinct evidence for violation of other constitutional provisions by a suspect- the lack of which initiates the limitation against search and seizure.

When a defendant has encrypted cell phone technology, the ‘hacking’ process can be justified or denied by a number of factors surrounding the situation. the legal concepts that the constitutional rights act in dynamic allowance of each other applies, and in each case, the implementation of interpretative ideologies are used to argue the position of the Fourth Amendment in response to the level or reasonableness that is required to institute search and seizure (Lofgren, 2014). The provision of a judicially sanctioned warrant is a common basis for the usage of probable cause to instigate the access of information from an individual’s cell phone. However, the usage of encryption limits the significance of such warrants, since they only permit access and observation (Ohm, 2012). For the agencies to facilitate their investigative processes, means that are more aggressive are necessary- especially with the increasing possibility of criminal activities using advanced encryption to ensure privacy.

Justification of interruptive or destructive interception of communication-, which not only contravenes the limits of the fourth amendment- it, also reduces the efficiency of communication on a significant scale. A comparison of the legal aspects within the applicability of this amendment within telecommunication reveals concepts similar to the argument by Murphy (2013), within which the discussion of arrest, seizure of evidence and searching for additional federal offenses at a crime scene is justifiable. Lofgren (2014) similarly proposes the consideration of the telecommunication interface (a phone call or an internet-messaging platform) as a potential, existing or live crime scene within which probable cause can be the basis for such interruptive search, seizure and arrest as within physical settings. It is possible for a security agency to either engage a digital-eavesdropping warrant to facilitate the observation of criminal activity in surveillance regardless of its consequence on privacy wherever probable cause is obvious (Joh, 2013). Reasonable doubt, however, cannot form the basis for the usage of such warrants, and the interpretation of the situation by a judicial officer forms the basis of approval or rejection of search and seizure within cell-phone definition of terms.

The bill of rights defines the rights of a suspect in similar capacity as other persons- and does not differentiate the position of an agency. This amendment states that people possess the right to be secure, protected by the law against unreasonable searches and seizures, – and does not offer additional situations for interpretations of scenarios excluding this right outside of oaths of warrant. In this respect, Myers (2015) attempts to compare the level of legality and criminality of the practices of private persons in enforcing their personal security against such searches within a digital environment- and on the qualification on the amendments concept, such persons act within their right (but only within the confines of the amendment). However, such interests in extreme security interests not only motivate the instigation of criminal activity because of self-incrimination, motivation and method of commenting offenses within an undetected environment (Myers, 2015). All of these arguments are on a theoretical environment, but still capture the possibility of an advanced discussion on a practical level- where the usage of excessive encryption efforts indicates to security agencies the possibility of criminal activity.

In the overall sense, attempts by private persons to use encryption to ensure privacy and security of communication is within their rights, but delimits their position in response to search and seizure intents by investigative agencies. According to Setty (2015), it is possible to establish functional surveillance environments within which criminology theories and legal requirements can be observed within the interests of societal concerns and security. Such environments, however, only work within ideal settings and the adherence to laws and social constraints are only possible within controlled environments. In this regard, the Bill of Rights in itself provides limits within which provisions such as the fourth amendment can be enjoyed without infringement on other rights. Wilson (2015) offers similar sentiments on constitutional limitations on the limitations of the practice of legal provisions of the constitution. Rights have to be observed on equal observation, and the constitution- on legal platforms cannot contradict itself in interpretation by the security and enforcement agencies. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Implications of the 5th Amendment Right against Self-Incrimination

The provisions of the Fifth Amendment facilitate the interests of self-preservation in legal processes through protecting the individual from compulsion towards becoming a witness against one’s self. On the digital setting, the presence of encryption for devices that makes it impossible for government to use seized information- investigative teams and prosecutors find it necessary to include subpoenas for the provision of information on mobile devices using such encryption. According to arguments by Ohm (2012), the provision of this amendment not only makes it unlawful to forcefully request for self-incriminating evidence, it also limits the position of a court in the prosecution of an individual. However, in the interest of state and security, Taylor (2015) presents opposing arguments in the context that the individual has to facilitate the search and seizure of material, both digital and physical following the Fourth Amendment based on an investigative effort with reasonable cause. In this regard, efforts in law enforcement in this nature can be argued either as justified or unlawful depending on the significance of an investigative process.

Gathering of information within investigations of crimes (before or after they are committed) necessitates the engagements of aspects that may be considered unethical or excessive. However, on the legal front, the definition of requirements and rights against self-incrimination are only subject to interpretative explanation- within which the digital concepts interact on a dynamic and developing scene. Sales (2014) attempts to argue against the presence of subpoenas within legal proceeding that may criminalize an individual through provision of self-incriminating evidence. In addition, one may consider this argument as being oriented towards a rationalization of legal defense for criminals with evidence that has been seized but is unusable due to its encryption. In similar context, Myers (2015) carries concepts towards the interest of criminology, and within the position of a prosecution towards accessing information protected through encryption. The right of access by law enforcement towards such encrypted information is only necessary attributable to reasonable cause- permitting their entry, observation and collection of evidence according to the fourth amendment. However, there exists the understanding that the position of such agencies still subscribes to privacy rights and these are not reversible by forcing an individual to incriminate himself.

Encrypted cell phone technology not only poses limitations to the extraction of information from digital storage, it also facilitates the development and storage of criminal content. Curtis, Gizzi and Kittleson (2014) argue that the implications of communication from such phones arises from the responses initially offered to subpoenas. The production of requested information is mandatory, and its usage on a testimonial level factors in other rights within the legal process of prosecution. This argument carries the possibility that implied communications (outside encryption) forms basis of testimonial requirements without contravening the Fifth Amendment. It also carries the ideologies that the criminal position of an individual compelled to produce information are adjustable by the law enforcement (through deals for immunity) for the facilitation of evidence in such difficult environments (Sales, 2014). Therefore, it is arguable that the position of a law enforcer is within the observation of the law and the protection of persons under prosecution (or as witnesses) to obtain information without infringing on rights. Such tactics result in the obtaining of evidence within legal and criminal capacities of the provisions of the amendment.

It is possible to compare the position of the legal context of digital content with the translations of the Supreme Court in the handling of the Fourth and Fifth Amendments in physical evidence. With the example of the provision of a key to a safe versus the provision of a combination for such a safe, Sales (2014) attempts to weigh the position of a witness on a testimonial setting. The provision of the physical key is not classifiable as testimonial evidence while the provision of a combination for a safe can- and in this way any physical evidence is obligatory and can be demanded through the Fourth Amendment- but any digital information that is self-incriminating is within the protection of the Fifth. The rationale for legal position on communication through encrypted phones, therefore, should be classified (and defined) by a legal position,- but within the entry of non-testimonial evidence (Curtis et al., 2014). As such, the argument transforms into the dichotomy of provision of the knowledge an individual facing prosecution and as defined by the Supreme Court’s values towards this amendment.

Society’s Interest in Safety Superseding Constitutional Rights

The position of societal interests in response to government interest on a legal basis commonly calls upon the constitutional guidelines to achieve a balance between the observations of either. From the Fifth Amendment’s core value, a discussion of the benefits from privacy and security are the common assessment points for the privileges enjoyed by the individual and those for the state agencies. Wilson (2015) presents the point of debate as being the level to which a court can compel the individual to break privacy interests in observance of legal necessitates and subpoenas. As a defendant, the individual exists within the society as a functional member and less as a criminal offender until proven so. Therefore, the provision of documents, conversations and material (both incriminating and non-implicating) is an invasion of privacy within the societal perception. However, the interest of the society towards security facilitates the presence of investigative protocols relating to reasonable cause-, which is subject to translation by legal and criminal theoretical perceptions. In this setting, the position of the society must arrive at an understanding of the level of state-individual balance.

Since there are legal provisions for subpoenas and warrants, the investigative interests of the state can become functional without the consideration of the points under discussion. Cole (2016), however, presents the practical situation of a jurisprudential lodestar that is the basis of recognition of the resolution of conflict on privacy and constitutional protection. The treatment of an individual as a witness in necessitates the provision of all available evidence towards acquittal of a suspect- and such evidence may involve data on encrypted mobile devices. In as much as constitutional protection covers the suspect, the societal interests may not- and in such scenarios, the criminology context of investigations necessitates a secondary discussion of the Fifth Amendment doctrine. Custodial interrogation of suspects of criminal cases (such as terror suspects) is a possible scenario- where the privileges of individuals compare to their legal position. As such, the presence of complementary evidence requiring information from encrypted devices is not self-incriminating until the content emerges. However, if a suspect invokes their right against self-incrimination- the evidence is immaterial (regardless of whether it contains incriminating content or not).

Arguments that public safety may at times outweigh the need for observation of the privilege from an amendment does not appeal to a legal setting, since it goes against the position of individual liberty. Wilson (2015) argues that the process of obtaining evidence and prosecuting criminals lies within the ability of a security agency to incorporate legal and principle-based provisions at its disposal. Societal principles towards the individual form the basis for social pressure and popular opinion relate towards the difficult of legal delimitation restricts the position of the government towards the observation of both its interests and societal interest. The pursuit of justice, as sponsored by the government’s agencies is within the obtaining of evidence- and with the prevalence of information in encrypted devices in modern day-; societal perceptions are constantly changing (Murphy, 2013). This concept relates to the integration of the fourth and fifth amendments- within the challenging of immunity of an individual against the exposure of information in their devices. In the overall assessment, it would be difficult to compare which amendment suits the pursuit of just dealings between the state and the individual- but the interpretative presence of a Supreme Court functions in the pursuit of a balance.  [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The Competing Interests of Security and Constitutional Rights

The nature of the crime is a significant contributor towards popular opinion and social perspectives, – which are significant influences on government operations on a political scene. However, according to Knight (2016) it is possible for the legal institution and function to separate from the law enforcement approach chosen by agencies in certain situations. The concept of criminology versus legal frameworks comes into play with the development of the competing interests between constitutional and security interests. These competing interests can become the basis of attempting to understand the levels at which competing interests can reach as impacts on the legal process and societal perceptions towards the constitution (Cole, 2016). In this respect, crimes with national security implications may vary on the perceptions towards the interpretation of laws and the presence of variations in social perceptions.

Competing interests of security and constitutional rights are either in the context that the social pressure or governmental influence possesses a bearing on legal proceedings. The ideal setting, consistent with concepts by Torres?Spelliscy (2016), involves the conduction of investigation through the application of the ideals of a government agency within the constitutional provision s such as the 4th amendment and the inclusion of a consistent reporting of the criminal and legal position adopted by the organization in each process. In this regard, it becomes possible to create security and constitutional protocols within the existing legal framework. However, this ideal setting is flawed by the prioritization of either interest in the capacity of either the fast tracking of investigations or societal pressure due to the usage of state agencies to request for data from devices considered private in previous interpretations to the technology.

The entry of encryption software and modifications to smart handheld devices has modified the process to incorporate a competition between interests. Sales (2014) researches the position of societal perceptions regarding potential security threats, with the possible balance between threats from significant security challenges (terror, drug trafficking) and interests in security. Mass surveillance, as a contributor to social interests in security matters may be a common aspect of argued conflict, but within its level of necessity in the fight against national security threats, it is possible to moderate the social perspectives towards such measures. It also becomes possible for research teams to engage and evaluate evidence outside its constitutional capacity- within which legal interests may be overlooked due to external influences of law enforcement processes.

In the overall understanding, therefore, the constitutionality of some practices within the social setting is subject to influence by popular opinion or political positions of persons executing these processes. As such, it becomes imperative that judicial processes form a basis on the comparison of true constitutional interpretations and extra judicial investigations. Such protocols may be unjustifiable- but are more integrated into the culture of persons carrying out the legal and constitutional burden for addressing of all these aspects and still achieve a balance on either field of interest in such situations.

Methods of Analysis

            The initial statement of the problem captured interest in exploration of the aspects surrounding constitutional and legal provisions in the fourth and fifth amendments in the capacity of the legal and criminal systems. In this regard, the establishment of theoretical concepts will involve the assessment of previous content on the subject within the research context- with the contribution of research by persons in the criminal and justice systems. As the initial attempt towards the appreciation of the concepts involved, it will rely on secondary sources of research data and contexts in analysis of social and government practices in practices involving these amendments. The comparison of various cases (their handling and the social environment experienced) will facilitate the development of connections between theoretical concepts adopted in the hypothetical projections. In addition, such comparisons not only advance the understanding of the contexts in which the constitutional provisions towards rights apply. The continued revision of the interpretations developed in each context will facilitate the understanding of the interests of the government versus those of the society. In the position of the individual, similar context, secondary research will still facilitate the understanding of either concept.

Following the development of the practical contests of each scenario, it becomes necessary to carry out critical analysis of the hypotheses passing this stage. As a contributor to the overall analysis of concepts, – this evaluation of initial hypothesis will intend to eliminate untrue assumptions and develop functional concepts for application on a theoretical scene similar to the previously analyzed cases. The evaluation, therefore, will involve a comparison and contrast of standpoints from literature appraisals and a compilation towards the relation of information bits from such literature for either qualitative assessments from previous research and adjustments to meet the requirements of this research topic. In this respect, the impression of accuracy and entirety of the research process will be created from the elimination of bias through a secondary analysis of ready data. Following this presentation of research concepts after a refinement, it will become possible for the researcher to revisit the research question and use the developed standpoints to address each of the concepts questioned- either in the constitutional or legal processes of criminal prosecution.

In as much as these methods of analysis are subject to change, the data collection approach adopted limits the possibility of bias, error or inaccuracies. In addition, the basis of qualitative data reduces the possibility of occurrence of such limitations to the research process. Consultation with the faculty mentor will facilitate the development of the research process, and the moderation of the focus of the research and data collection as a general effort. Within each phase of data collection and analysis, it is possible for the advancement of the initially intended research projects.


The 2015 San Bernardino shooting presents evidential arguments towards the position of law enforcement agencies in response to encryption of data on mobile devices. The necessity of accessing cell phones for evidence or critical information during an investigation became apparent during this investigation by the FBI. The context of the investigation not only captured the interest of an investigative authority to compel an individual to reveal encrypted information, it also captured the position of corporate and societal players in similar (Torres?Spelliscy, 2016). In as much as the entire experience involved the avoidance of the usage of Apple’s corporate position, it involved the argument of the position of each contributor into the situation- and with the eventual efforts into accessing the information on the phone. Since the eventuality was the bureau hacking into the phone (without external help), it circumvented the contribution of the individual which would have contravened the fifth amendment on self-incrimination, and was still in the right of the bureau in searching and seizing. In addition, comparably similar cases will be integrated in the research process as the basis for practical integration of theoretical position of either the researcher or the theoretical assessments by previous research stance. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The research process intends to integrate the potential of additional cases emerging with the advancement of encryption technology and digital protection of privacy. In comparison to the initial standpoint of the fourth amendment towards entry, search and seizure as based on a residence or a physical setting, the need to define digital jurisprudence plays into the research topic and the questions to integrate the research process. In the evaluation of legal studies as a basis, the most significant evidence is from the previous legal occurrences of the recent past involving digital information access and encryption of such information within the legal system. An assessment of the approaches and decisions adopted in the consideration of digital devices outside telephony will offer suitable basis for the consideration of the potential of increase of cases oriented towards mobile phone encryption and cases concerning security at various national interest levels (Curtis et al., 2014).  Such position from the government and the legal setting provide qualitative data towards evidential analysis of their perceptions in relation to the project question.

Investigations involving law enforcement with concerns in the process of accessing and retrieval of data as a form of evidence necessitate the research assessment based on records of similar nature within the system. Curtis et al. (2014) integrated a theoretical approach into discussion of the usage of cell phones as tracking devices, and such approach seems suited to this research process for the comparison of concepts from scholars. In addition, the usage of the cases indicated (San Bernardino) and the investigative efforts of the FBI over the last five years, it will be possible for the usage of records as a basis for the specification of evidence and the extended discussion of research processes.

June 27, 2014


In the overall consideration of the concepts from craniology and legal studies presents a thought-provoking discussion on the comparison of the interests of national security versus privacy. An assessment of literature on the constitutional and societal reveals varying positions of legal and criminal analysts who base their analysis on social and legal cases from previous discussions of the same. In summary of the content, it is possible for the legal system to position the interests of investigative agencies as in the case of San Bernardino in 2015 that integrated struggles between departments. The interaction between the FBI and Apple in the provision of data from the individual under investigation reveals additionally arguable concepts for analysis in the legal and criminal prosecution fronts. The project’s position, on a hypothetical basis, can either relate to agreeing to existing interpretations through research processes or the creation of newer legal perceptions and criminology understandings towards digital encryption of devices.

In the understanding of the current position, this proposal assumed the standpoint of theoretical truths within a practical environment-, which may require additional consideration for authentication and substantiation. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that as a research interest, the concepts and contexts within the positions of the constitution, the legal system and society are at a gridlock that requires analysis to fully appreciate and modify. Apart from discussion of the interests of either the government or the society (and the individual), it is imperative that the contribution of constitutional interpretations play a significant role in understanding of all aspects under analysis throughout.


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Chang, C. (2015). New technology, new information privacy: Social-value-oriented information privacy theory. National Taiwan University Law Review, 10(1), 127-175.

Cole, D. (2016). Countering transnational terrorism: Global policing, global threats and human rights. The SAGE Handbook of Global Policing, 429-442.

Curtis, R. C., Gizzi, M. C., & Kittleson, M. J. (2014). Using technology the founders never dreamed of: Cell phones as tracking devices and the Fourth Amendment. University of Denver Criminal Law Review, 4, 61-101.

Joh, E. E. (2013). Privacy protests: Surveillance evasion and Fourth Amendment suspicion. Arizona Law Review, 5(4), 997.

Knight, R. (2016). National security or consumer privacy? A question even Siri could not answer. The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal, 1(1).

Lofgren, Z. (2014). Do modern Americans have Fourth Amendment protection? Santa Clara Law Review, 54(4), 901-929.

Murphy, E. E. (2013). The politics of privacy in the criminal justice system: Information disclosure, the Fourth Amendment, and statutory law enforcement exemptions. Michigan Law Review, 111(4), 485-546.

Myers, E. S. (2015). Containing cell phones? Restoring the balance between privacy and government interests in fourth amendment cell phone searches and seizures. Suffolk University Law Review, 48, 203-227.

Ohm, P. (2012). The Fourth Amendment in a world without privacy. Mississippi Law Journal, 81(5), 1309-1356.

Sales, R. M. (2014). The “biometric revolution”: An erosion of the Fifth Amendment privilege to be free from self-incrimination. University of Miami Law Review, 69(1), 193-240.

Taylor, C. A. (2015). The fiction of privacy under the Fourth Amendment: Examining warrantless cell phone searches in the context of Riley v. California. Northern Kentucky Law Review, 42(2), 395-417.

Torres?Spelliscy, C. (2016). A locked iPhone; unlocked corporate constitutional rights. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 164, 287-292.

Wagner, A. R., & Finkelman, P. (2015). Security, privacy, and technology development: The impact on national security. Texas A&M Law Review, 2(4), 597-633.

Wilson, S. (2015). Compelling passwords from third parties: Why the Fourth and Fifth Amendments do not adequately protect individuals when third parties are forced to hand over passwords. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 30(1), 1-38.








Research proposal presentation and submission Initiation of research

Initial hypothesis formulation

Research process design Execution of data collection, compilation and analysis Analysis of content, discussion and comparison to hypothesis Revising/redrafting Conclusion and presentation of results
Start date              
Duration 1 week 1 ½ weeks 2 weeks 30 days 1 week 1 week 2 weeks
Comments Time required for revision and reconsideration of the proposal concepts Establishment of hypothetical standpoint Establishment of data and resource collection protocols Collection of relevant information Discussion and consideration of research content Correction and revision of presented content Finishing up and presentation of the realizations of the research